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Registros recuperados: 36
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Agricultural Policies and the GATT: Reconciling Protection, Support and Distortion AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry; Harvey, David R..
This paper analyzes the relationship between the theory of protection, farm income support and international trade distortion. To parallel those of protection, a measure of distortion is derived which compares trade volumes under support policies with those which would occur under multilateral free trade. Estimates are made of these measures for the European Community and the United States for a selection of commodities. The relationship between measures of protection and economic efficiency is also highlighted. The conclusion is that present measures of protection such as the Producer Subsidy Equivalent are confusing as measures of either trade distortion or income support. Some implications are drawn for the GAIT negotiations on agriculture and for the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51153
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AJAE Appendix: Cross-subsidization Due to Infra-Marginal Support in Agriculture: A General Theory and Empirical Evidence AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry; Just, David R.; Kropp, Jaclyn D..
The material contained herein is supplementary to the article named in the title and published in the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 90, Number 1, February 2008
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97150
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An Econometric Model of the European Economic Community's Wheat Sector AgEcon
Meilke, Karl D.; de Gorter, Harry.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51232
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ANALYZING ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY WITH POLLUTION ABATEMENT VERSUS OUTPUT ANALYZING ENVIRONMENTAL REDUCTION: AN APPLICATION TO U.S. AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Schamel, Guenter; de Gorter, Harry.
A model is developed that derives optimal pollution levels and determines the welfare economics of pollution reduction, differentiating between abatement and output reduction. It is suitable to analyze alternative policy instruments aimed to reduce external costs of agricultural production. The model is applied to the U.S. corn sector and we simulate the effects of stylized environmental policies for pesticide use on social welfare and environmental quality. The simulation results indicate that across policy scenarios, fairly modest reductions in output may induce significant gains in social welfare and environmental quality.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6853
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BIOFUELS AND LEAKAGES IN THE FUEL MARKET AgEcon
Drabik, Dusan; de Gorter, Harry.
Leakage in the fuel market differs, depending on whether ethanol production is determined by a tax credit or consumption mandate. Two components of market leakage are distinguished: domestic and international. Leakage with both a tax credit and a consumption mandate depends on market elasticities and consumption/production shares, with the former having a bigger impact. Leakage is also more sensitive to changes in market supply and demand elasticities in the country not introducing biofuels. Although positive with a tax credit, market leakage can be negative with a consumption mandate, meaning that one gallon of ethanol can replace more than a gallon of gasoline. We also show that being a small country biofuels producer does not necessarily mean that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91265
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Bringing Agriculture into the GATT: Designing Acceptable Agricultural Policies AgEcon
Barichello, Richard R.; Harvey, David R.; Barkley, Paul W.; Offutt, Susan E.; Blandford, David; Sutton, John; de Gorter, Harry; Webb, Alan J.; Gardner, Bruce L.; Webb, Shu-Eng.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1988 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49871
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CAN PRICE SUPPORTS NEGATE THE SOCIAL GAINS FROM PUBLIC RESEARCH EXPENDITURES IN AGRICULTURE? AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry; Swinnen, Johan F.M..
The burgeoning literature on how the benefits from research may be negative for a given price support arbitrarily ignores the costs of price supports for a given level of research. Furthermore, the very existence of price supports is inconsistent with the normative criterion that governments simply maximize social income. We show that there are always gains from research, even if governments maximize social income subject to a farm income goal. Our results are also consistent with the statements made by Schultz and Ruttan that ignoring price supports will result in all over (or under) valuation of research benefits. Finally, we indicate that the predictions of the "no gains from research" literature may not be substantiated by empirical evidence and that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6881
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Carbon Leakage with Forestation Policies AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Just, David R..
This paper analyzes carbon leakage due to reduced emissions from deforestation (RED). We find that leakage with RED is good because the policy induces afforestation that contributes to a further carbon sequestration. By ignoring the domestic component of carbon leakage, the literature can either overestimate or underestimate leakage, depending on the magnitudes of the numerator and the denominator of the leakage formulas. Unlike the literature, we include the land and agricultural markets in the analysis of carbon leakage with forestation policies. In this model, carbon leakage depends on: (1) supply and demand elasticities of timber production and consumption, respectively in the country introducing a RED policy (Home country) and in the rest of the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Carbon leakage; Forestry; Reduced emissions from deforestation; Afforestation; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q23; Q24; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103797
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CHALLENGES IN QUANTITATIVE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS AgEcon
Meilke, Karl D.; McClatchy, Don; de Gorter, Harry.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51215
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Consumer Financed Export Subsidies and the Agreement on Agriculture AgEcon
Kropp, Jaclyn D.; Just, David R.; de Gorter, Harry.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9867
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Cross-Subsidization and Exit Deterrence due to Infra-Marginal Support: Implications for Agricultural Policy Analysis AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry; Just, David R.; Kropp, Jaclyn D..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9973
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DISENTANGLING THE PRODUCTION AND EXPORT CONSEQUENCES OF DIRECT FARM INCOME PAYMENTS AgEcon
Chau, Nancy H.; de Gorter, Harry.
This paper formalizes the production and export consequences of direct farm payments. Taxpayer financed direct payments distort exit and production incentives, while consumer financed subsidies also imply that the risks of domestic and export production differ. Welfare decompostion and empirical calibration illustrate the potential for import barriers to cross-subsidize exports.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21854
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Dynamic regulation of nonpoint source pollution when the number of emitters is large AgEcon
Tsur, Yacov; de Gorter, Harry.
When a nonpoint source pollution process involves many polluters, each taking his own contribution to aggregate pollution to be negligible, ambient-based policies become ineffective due to lack of strategic interactions between dischargers. We offer a regulation mechanism for this case. The mechanism consists of inter-period and intra-period components. The first exploits ambient (aggregate) information to derive the optimal pollution and aggregate emission processes and the ensuing social price of emission. The intra-period mechanism takes as given the social price of emission and implements the optimal output-abatement-emission allocation across the heterogenous, privately informed firms in each time period. The mechanism gives rise to the full...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Nonpoint source pollution; Abatement; Stock externality; Dynamic regulation; Markov decision process; Asymmetric information; Crop Production/Industries; C61; D82; H23; L51; Q58.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122124
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ECONOMIC COSTS OF THE U.S. WHEAT EXPORT ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM: MANNA FROM HEAVEN OR FROM TAXPAYERS? AgEcon
Peterson, Jeffrey M.; Minten, Bart; de Gorter, Harry.
Traditional models of export bonus programs focus only on the effects of disposing public stocks on the world market. We show that the economic effects of export bonus programs are significantly different when one includes the costs of acquiring these stocks. Including stock acquisition costs has the domestic price always rising, rather than an ambiguous effect of the traditional model of an export bonus program. We also show that including stock acquisition costs results in an export bonus scheme to be equivalent to cash export subsidies. When an export bonus program is combined with an existing target price scheme, government cost may either rise or fall in either model, but for different reasons. In an empirical simulation of the U.S. Export...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Export Enhancement Program; Export subsidies; In-kind; International Relations/Trade; Q17.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14578
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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE, AND THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF AGRICULTURAL PROTECTION: AN ECONOMETRIC STUDY OF BELGIUM SINCE THE 19TH CENTURY AgEcon
Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Banerjee, Anurag N.; de Gorter, Harry.
This empirical study uses one hundred years of annual data on eleven agricultural commodities from Belgium to measure the impact of structural changes coinciding with economic development and changes in political institutions on agricultural protection. The analysis shows that changes in agricultural protection are caused by a combination of factors. Governments have increased protection and support to farmers when world market prices for their commodities fell, and vice versa, offsetting market effects on producer incomes. Other economic determinants were the share of the commodities in total consumer expenditures (negative effect) and in total output of the economy (positive effect). With Belgium a small economy, there was no impact of the trade...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31875
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Efficiency Of Alternative Policies For The EC's Common Agricultural Policy AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry; Meilke, Karl D..
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1988 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123559
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ELASTICITIES OF DEMAND FOR IMPORTED MEATS IN RUSSIA AgEcon
Soshnin, Alexei I.; Tomek, William G.; de Gorter, Harry.
Elasticities of demand for meat imports in Russia are estimated using an AIDS model. The model differentiates among sources of imports as well as kinds of meat, but since the number of observations on Russian imports is limited, an improved block-substitutability restriction is introduced to conserve degress of freedom. The estimates of expenditure elasticities are positive for beef, pork, and chicken imported from western countries, and for beef and chicken, are larger than one. The expenditure elasticities are negative for beef and pork imported from former Soviet trade block countries. (Chicken is not imported from these countries.) Consistent with logic, the (compensated) cross-price elasticities indicate that products imported from different...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14739
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Explaining Inefficient Policy Instruments AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry.
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Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48638
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EXPLAINING PRICE POLICY BIAS IN AGRICULTURE: A POLITICIAN-VOTER INTERACTION APPROACH AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry; Tsur, Yacov.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1989 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/13388
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ISSUES IN REFORMING TARIFF-RATE IMPORT QUOTAS IN THE AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE IN THE WTO AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry; Abbott, Philip C.; Barichello, Richard R.; Boughner, Devry S.; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Choi, Jung-Sup; Coleman, Jonathan R.; Herrmann, Roland; Kramb, Marc Christopher; Sheldon, Ian M.; Liapis, Peter S.; MacLaren, Donald; Moennich, Christina; Morse, B. Adair; Skully, David W.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Tangermann, Stefan.
Contents: The Economics of Tariff Rate Quotas and the Effects of Trade Liberalization; TRQs and GATT Rules; An Overview of Tariffs, Quotas and Imports Worldwide; TRQs in the European Union; U.S. TRQs for Sugar, Tobacco and Peanuts; Dairy TRQs in the United States; Tariff Rate Quota Implementation and Administration by Developing Countries; Management of Tariff Rate Quotas in Korea and Japan; Tariff Rate Quota Administration in Canadian Agriculture; The Case of Australia and New Zealand Facing TRQs; The 1999 WTO Panel Report on the EU's Common Market Organization for Bananas; Assessment
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14617
Registros recuperados: 36
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