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A Dynamic Bioeconomic Model of Ivory Trade: Details and Extended Results AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Trade in ivory is banned under CITES in an effort to protect the African elephant. The trade ban is supported by some range states, most notably Kenya, because they see the ban as an effective means for protecting a ‘flagship’ species, one that attracts tourists and foreign aid. It is opposed by some states, mainly in southern Africa, because their elephant populations are exceeding the capacity of local ecosystems with culling and other sources have resulted in the accumulation of large stocks of ivory. They argue that ivory trade will benefit elephant populations. The question of whether an ivory trade ban will protect elephant populations is addressed in this paper using a dynamic partial-equilibrium model that consists of four ivory exporting regions...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economics of elephant conservation; Economics of ivory trade; Trade bans; Cartels and quota; International Relations/Trade; F10; O55; Q26; Q27.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37030
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A Perspective on Carbon Sequestration as a Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94501
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A Spatial Bayesian Hedonic Pricing Model of Farmland Values AgEcon
Cotteleer, Geerte; Stobbe, Tracy; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
In 1973, British Columbia created the Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) to protect farmland from development. This study investigates whether the ALR has been effective near the city of Victoria. Therefore, we employ a GIS-based hedonic pricing model and quantify ALR specific measures. Bayesian Model Averaging in combination with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Model Composition are used to address specification uncertainty. Results show that zoning schemes are partly credible. Zoned farmland sells for lower prices than other farmland. However, farmland located closer to the city of Victoria is priced higher and hobby farmers pay higher prices than conventional farmers.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farmland prices; Bayesian Model Averaging; Hedonic pricing.; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44137
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AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO THE EVALUATION OF GOAL HIERARCHIES AMONG FARMERS AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Schoney, Richard A.; Hayward, Keith A..
Results of a study of goal orderings of Saskatchewan farmers who participate in the province's FARMLAB Program are presented. We use the method of fuzzy pair-wise comparisons which allows the respondent to indicate a degree of preference between two alternative goal statements, thereby providing more information than in the binary case. From survey data ratio-scale scores are constructed for eight goal statements, and these are regressed on a set of farm enterprise and household characteristics and a psychological locus-of-control (or I-E) score. The empirical results indicate that goodness-of-fit measures are better than those obtained by other researchers, perhaps because a psychological measure (I-E score) is included as an explanatory variable for...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Farm Management.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/32535
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An Economic Analysis of Mountain Pine Beetle Impact in a Global Context AgEcon
Abbott, Brant; Stennes, Brad; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
The economic effects of the mountain pine beetle outbreak in British Columbia are simulated using a multi-region spatial price equilibrium model coupled with a stochastic dynamic updating procedure. The simulation captures expected changes in the B.C. timber supply, growth of plantation forests in the southern hemisphere and an escalating Russian log export tax. The results indicate lumber and log prices will rise in B.C., offsetting some of the economic loss to timber producers. However, on net producers in the B.C. forest industry will experience a decrease in economic surplus.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mountain pine beetle; Spatial price equilibrium; Trade modeling; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; C67; F14; F17.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37051
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ANOTHER LOOK AT THE INCOME ELASTICITY OF NON-POINT SOURCE AIR POLLUTANTS: A SEMIPARAMETRIC APPROACH AgEcon
Roy, Nilanjana; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
In this paper, a semiparametric model is used to examine the relationship between pollution and income for three non-point source pollutants. Statistical tests reject the quadratic specification in favor of the semiparametric model in all cases. However, the results do not support the inverted-U hypothesis for the pollution-income relationship.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18167
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ANTHROPAGENIC AND NATURAL DETERMINANTS OF THE POPULATION OF A SENSITIVE SPECIES: SAGE GROUSE IN NEVADA AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Eagle, Alison J.; Eiswerth, Mark E..
This paper uses Nevada data to conduct regression analyses of the relationship between sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population sizes and potential causal factors. This is policy-relevant because of current petitions for listing this species under the Endangered Species Act. A key feature is that, although monitoring of sage grouse has occurred for many decades, data collection methods and level of monitoring effort have not been consistent. To account for this feature we use, as dependent variables, standardized measures such as population counts and harvest (hunting success) per unit of effort. Preliminary findings suggest that such measures have been particularly sensitive to whether or not humans used strychnine for predator control, with...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18163
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ANTHROPOGENIC AND NATURAL DETERMINANTS OF THE POPULATION OF A SENSITIVE SPECIES: SAGE GROUSE IN NEVADA AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Eagle, Alison J.; Eiswerth, Mark E.; Feng, Hui.
This paper uses Nevada data to conduct regression analyses of the relationship between sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population sizes and potential causal factors. This is policy-relevant because of current petitions for listing this species under the Endangered Species Act. A key feature is that, although monitoring of sage grouse has occurred for many decades, data collection methods and level of monitoring effort have not been consistent. To account for this feature we use, as dependent variables, standardized measures such as population counts and harvest (hunting success) per unit of effort. Preliminary findings suggest that such measures have been particularly sensitive to whether or not humans used strychnine for predator control, with...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20382
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Are Agricultural Values a Reliable Guide in Determining Landowners’ Decisions to Create Carbon Forest Sinks? AgEcon
Shaikh, Sabina L.; Sun, Lili; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
This research examines the effects of various factors on farmer participation in agricultural tree plantations for economic, environmental, social and carbon-uptake purposes, and potential costs of sequestering carbon through afforestation in western Canada. Using data from a survey of landowners, a discrete choice random utility model is used to determine the probability of landowners’ participation and corresponding mean willingness to accept (WTA) compensation for a tree-planting program. WTA includes positive and negative benefits to landowners from planting trees, benefits not captured by foregone returns from agricultural activities on marginal land. Estimates of WTA are less than foregone returns, but even so average costs of creating carbon credits...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Willingness to accept compensation for tree planting; Afforestation; Climate change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q15; Q23; Q54.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37017
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ARE LOG MARKETS COMPETITIVE? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CANADA-U.S. TRADE IN SOFTWOOD LUMBER AgEcon
Niquidet, Kurt; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Under the U.S. Department of Commerce’s ‘changed circumstances’ review, it is possible that the countervail duty on Canadian lumber can be lowered if administered stumpage prices are based on transaction evidence appraisal – on actual auction data and regression analysis. The Province of British Columbia is implementing such a marketbased approach to set stumpage fees, relying on timber auction data from the Small Business Forest Enterprise Program (SBFEP) and OLS regression. We employ SBFEP data to estimate a truncated regression model, comparing our estimates of stumpage fees with the OLS results. It turns out that the OLS approach is biased and likely results in overestimates of stumpage in some timber stands and underestimates in others. Further, we...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18164
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ARE LOG MARKETS COMPETITIVE? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CANADA-U.S. TRADE IN SOFTWOOD LUMBER AgEcon
Niquidet, Kurt; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Under the U.S. Department of Commerce's 'changed circumstances' review, it is possible that the countervail duty on Canadian lumber can be lowered if administered stumpage prices are based on a transaction evidence appraisal - on actual auction data and regression analysis. The Province of British Columbia is implementing such a market-based approach to set stumpage fees, relying on timber auction data from the Small Business Forest Enterprise Program and OLS regression. We employ Program data to estimate a truncated regression model, comparing our estimates of stumpage fees with the OLS results. It turns out that the OLS approach is biased and likely results in overestimates of stumpage in some timber stands and underestimates in others. Further, we...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19985
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Bayesian Model Averaging in the Context of Spatial Hedonic Pricing: An Application to Farmland Values AgEcon
Cotteleer, Geerte; Stobbe, Tracy; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Since 1973, British Columbia created an Agricultural Land Reserve to protect farmland from development. In this study, we employ GIS-based hedonic pricing models of farmland values to examine factors that affect farmland prices. We take spatial lag and error dependence into explicit account. However, the use of spatial econometric techniques in hedonic pricing models is problematic because there is uncertainty with respect to the choice of the explanatory variables and the spatial weighting matrix. Bayesian model averaging techniques in combination with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Model Composition are used to allow for both types of model uncertainty.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bayesian model averaging; Markov Chain Monte Carlo Model Composition; Spatial econometrics; Hedonic pricing; GIS; Urban-rural fringe; Farmland fragmentation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; R11; R15; C50; R14.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37046
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Bioeconomic modeling of wetlands and waterfowl in Western Canada: Accounting for amenity values AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Withey, Patrick; Wong, Linda.
This study extends an original bioeconomic model of optimal duck harvest and wetland retention by bringing in amenity values related to the nonmarket (in situ) benefits of waterfowl plsi the ecosystem values of wetlands themselves. The model maximizes benefits to hunters as well as the amenity values of ducks and ecosystem benefits of wetlands, subject to the population dynamics. Results indicate that wetlands and duck harvests need to be increased relative to historical levels. Further, the socially optimal ratio of duck harvest to wetlands is larger than what has been observed historically. Including amenity values leads to a significant increase in the quantity of wetlands and duck harvests relative to models that focus only on hunting values.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bioeconomic modelling; Wetland protection; Wildlife management; Nonmarket values; Prairie pothole region; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q57; C61; Q25.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61308
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Bioeconomic modeling of wetlands and waterfowl in Western Canada: Accounting for amenity values AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Withey, Patrick; Wong, Linda.
This study extends an original bioeconomic model of optimal duck harvest and wetland retention by bringing in amenity values related to the nonmarket (in situ) benefits of waterfowl plsi the ecosystem values of wetlands themselves. The model maximizes benefits to hunters as well as the amenity values of ducks and ecosystem benefits of wetlands, subject to the population dynamics. Results indicate that wetlands and duck harvests need to be increased relative to historical levels. Further, the socially optimal ratio of duck harvest to wetlands is larger than what has been observed historically. Including amenity values leads to a significant increase in the quantity of wetlands and duck harvests relative to models that focus only on hunting values.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bioeconomic modelling; Wetland protection; Wildlife management; Nonmarket values; Prairie pothole region; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q57; C61; Q25.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94936
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Bio-energy from Mountain Pine Beetle Timber and Forest Residuals: The Economics Story AgEcon
Niquidet, Kurt; Stennes, Brad; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
In light of the large volumes of pine killed in the Interior forests in British Columbia by the mountain pine beetle, many are keen to employ forest biomass as an energy source. To assess the feasibility of a wood biomass-fired power plant in the BC Interior it is necessary to know both how much physical biomass might be available over the life of a plant, but also its location because transportation costs are likely to be a major operating cost for any facility. To address these issues, we construct a mathematical programming model of fiber flows in the Quesnel Timber Supply Area of BC over a 25-year time horizon. The focus of the model is on minimizing the cost of supplying feedstock throughout space and time. Results indicate that over the life of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Forest economics; Biomass and bio-energy; Forest pests; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; Q23; Q42.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45476
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BIOFUELS, AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE AgEcon
Hubert, Marie-Helene; Chakravorty, Ujjayant; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
In the context of ever-increasing petroleum prices combined with concerns about climate change, timing of adoption and rate of diffusion of land-based fuels and backstop technologies for transportation use are examined in this paper. A global model of land allocation joined with a Hotelling model has been developed. Using this framework, effects of climate and energy policies on world agricultural and energy markets have been explored. Further, their regional impacts are also analyzed. Whereas mandatory blending bio-fuels have substantial effects on world food prices and do not succeed in curbing down carbon emissions fluxes, carbon targets are expected to speed up date of adoption of backstop technologies. Then, sensitivity scenarios with regards to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ricardian rents; Land use; Biofuels; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44259
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Biological Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Trading Re-visited AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Under Kyoto, biological activities that sequester carbon can be used to create CO2 offset credits that could obviate the need for lifestyle-changing reductions in fossil fuel use. Credits are earned by storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and wood products, although CO2 emissions are also mitigated by delaying deforestation, which accounts for one-quarter of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, non-permanent carbon offsets from biological activities are difficult to compare with each other and with emissions reduction because they differ in how long they prevent CO2 from entering the atmosphere. This is the duration problem; it results in uncertainty and makes it difficult to determine the legitimacy of biological activities in mitigating climate...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon offset credits from biological activities; Climate change; Duration of carbon sinks; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37083
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Biological Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Trading Re-Visited AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Under Kyoto, biological activities that sequester carbon can be used to create CO2 offset credits that could obviate the need for lifestyle-changing reductions in fossil fuel use. Credits are earned by storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and wood products, although CO2 emissions are also mitigated by delaying deforestation, which accounts for one-quarter of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, nonpermanent carbon offsets from biological activities are difficult to compare with each other and with emissions reduction because they differ in how long they prevent CO2 from entering the atmosphere. This is the duration problem; it results in uncertainty and makes it difficult to determine the legitimacy of biological activities in mitigating climate...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Carbon offset credits; Climate change; Duration of carbon sinks; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44262
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Biological Carbon Sinks: Transaction Costs and Governance AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Activities that remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in forest and agricultural ecosystems can generate CO2-offset credits that can thus substitute for CO2 emissions reduction. Are biological CO2-uptake activities competitive with CO2 offsets from reduced fossil fuel use? In this paper, it is argued that transaction costs impose a formidable obstacle to direct substitution of carbon uptake offsets for emissions reduction in trading schemes, and that separate caps should be set for emissions reduction and sink-related activities. While a tax/subsidy scheme is preferred to emissions trading for incorporating biologically-generated CO2 offsets, contracts that focus on the activity and not the amount of carbon sequestered are most likely to lead to the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon sequestration; Transaction costs; Climate change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q54; Q23; Q42; H23; D23.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45505
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Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry: Economic Perspectives AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Economists are rarely brought into the interdisciplinary research until the biophysical scientists have developed their models, made their measurements or completed their research task. The research economist is then brought in to do what amounts to a consulting task – provide some numbers that indicate impacts on the economy and employment. In this paper, I begin by illustrating cases from forestry where this leads to erroneous and costly policy outcomes. However, the main objective of this paper is to examine the role of genetic engineering in forestry and agriculture. In forestry, planting of genetically-modified (GM) tree species is nearly non-existent, with the exception of hybrid poplar that is used to produce pulp or fuel. However, as explored here,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Precautionary principle; Economics of genetically-modified organisms; Agriculture and forestry; Mountain pine beetle; Agricultural and Food Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; O32; Q11; Q18; Q23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107480
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