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13C Photoassimilate partitioning in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) during early spring Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Ayala,Marlene; Lang,Gregory A.
Stored reserves are critical for the early spring growth of reproductive and vegetative sinks in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). To study the distribution of carbon storage reserves on new, highly productive hybrid rootstocks in sweet cherry, an experiment was established using 5-yr-old cv. 'Regina' on the semi-vigorous rootstock 'Gisela®6' ('GI®6'). Using whole-canopy enclosure chambers, five trees were pulse-labeled three times with high levels of 13CO2 during the fall. At leaf drop, leaves, buds, wood, bark and roots were sampled for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The storage organs with the highest percentages of excess 13C atoms were the roots and the older wood in the trunks, branches and buds. During the spring, newly...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Fruit set; 'Gisela®' rootstock; Sink; Spring remobilization stage I; Storage reserves; Transition.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202015000200006
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A 4-component sex pheromone of the Chilean fruit leaf roller Proeulia auraria (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Reyes-Garcia,Luis; Cuevas,Yuri; Ballesteros,Carolina; Curkovic,Tomislav; Löfstedt,Christer; Bergmann,Jan.
L. Reyes-Garcia, Y. Cuevas, C. Ballesteros, T. Curkovic, C. Löfstedt, and J. Bergmann. 2014. A 4-component sex pheromone of the Chilean fruit leaf roller Proeulia auraria (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2):187-196. The Chilean fruit leaf roller Proeulia auraria is a pest of economically important fruit species. Two compounds attractive to males have been identified as (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc) and (E)-11-tetradecenol (E11-14:OH) and are currently being used in Chile to monitor this species. Preliminary experiments carried out by our group suggested that the 2-compound mixture might not be optimal for the attraction of males, which prompted us to reinvestigate the sex pheromone of P. auraria in the present study. The pheromone...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Eulia; Euliini; Native species; Sex attractant; Tortricinae.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202014000200005
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A characterization of Chilean farmers based on their market-production orientation Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Echeverría,Rodrigo; Moreira,Víctor; Barrena,José; Gopinath,Munisamy.
Chile's open trade policy, implemented during the last few decades, has greatly transformed Chilean farmers and their production systems. As a result, farmers can be grouped into three categories based on their market-production orientation: domestic, transitional or export producers. The objective of this paper is to analyze the factors underlying the decision to produce for a particular market and compare the three groups of farmers based on data from the 2007 agricultural census. A generalized ordered logit model was used to analyze different methods of production, and non-parametric methods were used to compare the groups. Results show that some farmers change categories in sequence; farmers that produce for the domestic market can later produce for...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Export production; Generalized ordered logit model; Market.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202012000200002
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A comparative cost analysis for using compost derived from anaerobic digestion as a peat substitute in a commercial plant nursery Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Restrepo,Adriana P; García García,José; Moral,Raúl; Vidal,Fernando; Pérez-Murcia,María D; Bustamante,María Á; Paredes,Concepción.
A.P. Restrepo, J. Garcia-Garcia, R. Moral, F. Vidal, M.D. Pérez-Murcia, M.A. Bustamante, and C. Paredes. 2013. A comparative cost analysis for using compost derived from anaerobic digestion as a peat substitute in a commercial plant nursery. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(2): 253-264. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic feasibility of using compost made from anaerobically digested cattle slurries in a commercial nursery. Using a comparative cost analysis, commercial peat substrate growing media has been partially substituted with increasing proportions of compost (25, 50 and 75% v/v of compost). This experiment was intended to establish the conditions under which the use of these composts is feasible and competitive relative to commercial peat, at both...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Anaerobic digestion; Costs; Economics; Growing media; Peat; Seedling production.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202013000200002
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A comparison of farmland value determinants in Chile between 1978-1998 and 1999-2008 Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Donoso,Guillermo; Cancino,José; Olguín,Ricardo; Schonhaut,Daniela.
Research on the determinants that influence the price of farmland has found renewed interest in the past decade because agricultural land values are an important source of information for tracing the distribution of benefits generated by agricultural growth. This study's objective is to identify the determinants of the value of agricultural land in Chile for the periods 1978-1998 and 1999-2008 to analyze the evolution of the factors that determined the price of agricultural land between these two periods. The explanatory power of the estimated hedonic land price model is significantly greater for the period 1978-1998 (R²= 67%). The lower explanatory power of the model for the period 1999-2008 (R²= 29%) indicates that factors not accounted for in the model...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Agricultural land value; Determinants of agricultural land value; Hedonic agricultural land value model.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202013000100007
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A potential nutritional modifier for predicting primary productivity of Pinus radiata in New Zealand using a simplified radiation-use efficiency model Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Bown,Horacio E; Mason,Euan G; Watt,Michael S; Clinton,Peter W.
H.E. Bown, E.G. Mason, M.S. Watt, and P.W. Clinton. 2013. A potential nutritional modifier for predicting primary productivity of Pinus radiata in New Zealand using a simplified radiation-use efficiency model. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(2): 361-374. The 3-PG (Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth) radiation-use efficiency model has been widely used and tested for predicting the primary productivity of forests all over the world. This radiation-use efficiency model accounts for plant nutrition through a user-defined dimensionless fertility parameter (fN) that determines the effects a unit of radiation. Currently, this fertility parameter has to be entered by the user based on intuition or experience. The goal of this study was to propose a fertility...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Nutritional modifier; Pinus radiata; Primary productivity; Radiation-use efficiency; Soil C/N; Soil N.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202013000200011
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A scenario for the conversion of Common Agricultural Policy payments in Spain after the 2011 legislative proposals Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Andrés,Silvia; García,José M; Compés,Raúl.
S. Andrés, J.M. García, and R. Compés. 2013. A scenario for the conversion of Common Agricultural Policy payments in Spain after the 2011 legislative proposals. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(2):291-306. This paper evaluates the impact of a new model of agricultural policy outlined in legislative proposals issued by the European Commission in October 2011 and estimates its effects on agricultural aid in Spanish Autonomous Communities compared with 2009. Therefore, the OECD agricultural policy-index system was used. To the extent that transversal criteria are applied, which support the transfer of aid between territories, the results suggest that changing the payment assignation model would involve a redistribution of aid towards areas that currently least benefit from...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; CAP post-2013; Direct payments; OECD; Redistribution.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202013000200005
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A simple method for estimating suitable territory for bioenergy species in Chile Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Morales-Salinas,Luis; Acevedo,Edmundo; Castellaro,Giorgio; Román-Osorio,Luis; Morales-Inostroza,Jael; Alonso,Máximo F.
In the past 20 years, different areas of research concerning native and exotic species, herbaceous crops and forest plantations have been oriented toward satisfying domestic, industrial and transportation energy requirements. Because bioenergy species constitute an important resource, it would be strategic for a country to have a method for identifying areas suitable for their cultivation to properly incorporate the establishment of energy crops into land use planning. In this study, we sought to define the suitable territories for 16 bioenergy species and their energy potential based on their soil and climate requirements in Central and Southern Chile. We used an adapted version of the FAO EcoCrop database implemented through DIVA-GIS software to predict...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Bioenergy species; EcoCrop; Ecological niche model; Land suitability.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202015000200009
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A statistical approach for assessing the heterogeneity of Hass avocados subjected to different postharvest abiotic stresses Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Fuentealba,Claudia; Pedreschi,Romina; Hernández,Ignacia; Saavedra,Jorge.
C. Fuentealba, R. Pedreschi, I. Hernández, and J. Saavedra. 2016. A statistical approach for assessing the heterogeneity of Hass avocados subjected to different postharvest abiotic stresses. Cien. Inv. Agr. 43(3):356-365. Hass avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is marketed worldwide. Due to its complex physiology, a wide variability in postharvest ripening can be observed, i.e., heterogeneity in the number of days to reach edible ripeness. There is a need for a simple and objective method for evaluating the efficacy of postharvest treatments in the reduction of this postharvest ripening heterogeneity given the high demand of import countries for consistent quality and product homogeneity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the appropriateness of...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Avocados; Heterogeneity; Multiple comparison; Ripening; Standard deviation.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202016000300002
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Abundance and prevalence of Aphidius avenae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) in Chile Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Peñalver-Cruz,Ainara; Ortiz-Martínez,Sebastián; Villegas,Cinthya; Tomanovic,Zeljko; Zepeda-Paulo,Francisca; Zikic,Vladimir; Lavandero,Blas.
Abstract During the samplings described here, Aphidius avenae (=picipes) (Haliday, 1834) was collected. This species has been reported in Chile but has never been studied in terms of its relative abundance and prevalence in central and southern Chile by using classical or molecular methods. The composition of the parasitoid assemblages on several cereal aphid hosts was examined for three seasons in agricultural landscapes. In this note, we describe the prevalence of this parasitoid species in cereal aphids and other aphid hosts and discuss the abundance of this parasitoid compared to other aphid parasitoids and the probable origins of this important aphid parasitoid species in Chile. The results indicate that A. avenae has a low prevalence compared to...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Aphids; Braconidae; Hosts; Parasitoids; Tomato; Wheat.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202017000200207
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Accumulation of macronutrients in cv. 'Astrus' cabbage as influenced by nitrogen dose and plant population Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Filho,Arthur B. Cecílio; Cavarianni,Rodrigo L; Nowaki,Rodrigo H. D.
The influence of plant population (31,250 and 46,875 plants ha-1) and nitrogen doses (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1) on the accumulation of macronutrients by cabbage plants was studied in Jaboticabal, Brazil, from February 18 to June 2, 2004. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 2 × 4 factorial scheme, with three replications. Differences in the amount of macronutrients accumulated by cabbage as function of N dose and plant population, were observed. The largest amounts of macronutrients were detected at the end of the plant cycle when the plant population was the lowest. The amounts of N, P, K, and S were not significantly different when the N dose was increased from 100 to 300 kg ha-1. The accumulated amounts of Ca and Mg were not...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Brassica olerácea var. capitata; Spacing; Uptake nutrients.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202016000200013
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Aceptación diferenciada de alimentos transgénicos de origen vegetal y animal en la Región de La Araucanía, Chile Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Schnettler,Berta; Sepúlveda,Oriana; Ruiz,Danilo.
Sobre la base del debate generado por los alimentos genéticamente modificados, particularmente respecto de los alimentos transgénicos (AT), en los países desarrollados, se determinó la importancia de esta variable en la compra de leche líquida y salsa de tomate en consumidores de Temuco (Región de La Araucanía, Chile) y la existencia de diferentes segmentos de mercado, mediante una encuesta a 400 personas. Utilizando análisis conjunto se determinó que la existencia de modificación genética (MG) fue más importante que la marca y el precio en ambos alimentos. Mediante análisis de conglomerados se distinguieron cinco Grupos, dos de ellos con el 46,8 y 18,8% del total de encuestados. Estos dos Grupos mas numerosos dieron importancia a la existencia de MG, pero...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Alimentos genéticamente modificados; Alimentos transgénicos; Análisis de conjunto; Análisis de conglomerados; Ingeniería genética; Mercadeo.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202008000200006
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Adoption of cleaner production practices by dairy farmers in southern Chile Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Nahuelhual,Laura; Engler,María A; Carrillo,Bernardo; Moreira,Víctor; Castro,Ingrid.
Rising concerns about the environmental costs of dairy production have resulted in an increasing use of farm practices that diminish negative production externalities. Yet, little empirical evidence exists regarding the factors influencing the adoption of pollution-reducing strategies by dairy farmers. In this study, we estímate a logit probability model to explain first-stage adoption of capital-intensive cleaner production (CP) practices, using a sample of 100 médium and large-size dairy farms located in southern Chile. Voluntary approaches to pollution control in agriculture are relatively recent in Chile and diffusion has been slow and uneven among farmers. Only 43% of the farmers surveyed were using some CP practices at the time of the interview. The...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Chilean dairy sector; Dairy-derived pollution; Dairy farming; Environmental management; Technology innovation.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202009000100009
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Aggressive Citrus tristeza virus isolates in Chile are MCA13-positive and VT type, while mild isolates are MCA13-negative and T30 type Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Besoain,Ximena; Bertolini,Edson; Camps,Rocío; Ramella,Fiona; Gorris,María Teresa; Torres,Margarita; Cambra,Mariano.
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was reported in the 1960's to affect Meyer lemon trees in Chile, but no field symptoms were observed. This study performed a complete biological, serological and molecular characterization of one hundred CTV isolates obtained from different hosts and geographical origins. Decline symptoms (DI) were not found on trees grafted onto sour orange. In Pica Oasis in northern Chile, stem pitting (SP) was found to affect grapefruit and Mexican lime trees. Most isolates present in the central area were considered mild (MCA-13-negative), while in the northern area aggressive isolates were observed and detected. Some of these isolates were capable of causing SP on grapefruit under field and greenhouse conditions and on sweet orange under...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Biological indexing; CTV; Molecular characterization; Stem pitting; Seedling yellows.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202015000200011
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Aging gene pathway of microRNAs 156/157 and 172 is altered in juvenile and adult plants from in vitro propagated Prunus sp. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Bastías,Adriana; Almada,Rubén; Rojas,Pamela; Donoso,José Manuel; Hinrichsen,Patricio; Sagredo,Boris.
A. Bastías, R. Almada, P. Rojas, J.M. Donoso, P. Hinrichsen, and B. Sagredo. 2016. Aging gene pathway of microRNAs 156/157 and 172 is altered in juvenile and adult plants from in vitro propagated Prunus sp. Cien. Inv. Agr. 43(3):429-441. In vitro culture is a very popular technique to mass propagate valuable plant genotypes, including Prunus sp. cultivars. Plants that undergo tissue culture processes often change their morphology and behavior due to the "rejuvenation" caused by the plant growth regulators included in the medium. To evaluate the effects of rejuvenation by tissue culture in Prunus sp., the expression patterns of the aging gene pathway described in plant models, which include the highly conserved microRNA (miRNA or miR) 156/157 and 172...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Development; In vitro culture; Hase change; Rejuvenation.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202016000300009
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Agricultural employment in Spain and new Keynesian economics Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Andrés González-Moralejo,Silvia; García Cortés,Mildrey.
Our research examines the agricultural labor market from the perspective of new Keynesian economics. Our aim is to verify that total gross output, total factor productivity, and real wages act as determinants of employment levels in Spanish agriculture. Three structural econometric models were estimated using census data for the period 1998-2013. This was a period of profound economic and social change, and the following two distinct sub-periods were compared: 1998-2007 (a period of economic boom) and 2008-2013 (a period of recession). The empirical evidence is consistent with neo-Keynesian theoretical posits, albeit with certain qualifiers derived from the specifically rural nature of the evidence. The results show a negative relationship between...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Agrarian labor market; Neo-Keynesian model; Wages.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202016000200002
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Agronomic characteristics and chemical composition of Gliricidia sepium grown under different residual heights in different seasons Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Silva,Shirlenne F; Carneiro,Maria S. de S.; Edvan,Ricardo L; Pereira,Elzânia S; Neto,Luiz B. de Morais; Pinto,Andréa P; Camilo,Danilo de A.
This research was conducted to evaluate the agronomic characteristics and chemical composition of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud grown under different residual heights in different seasons. The experimental design used was a complete randomized block in a split-plot. The plots consisted of three residual heights (70, 90 and 110 cm), and the subplots were four seasons (fall, winter, spring and summer) with four replicates. There was no (P&gt;0.05) interaction between season and residual heights for agronomic characteristics. However, these features were influenced by the cutting season, with no significant effect (P&gt;0.05) on residual height. Significant effects (P<0.05) were observed for dry matter, mineral matter, acid detergent fiber and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Cutting management; Harvest time; Legumes; Nutritional value; Semiarid.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202017000100004
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Alternative plants hosts of legume aphids and predators in the province of León, Spain Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Bertolaccini,Isabel; Núñez-Pérez,Etelvina; Tizado,Emilio Jorge.
The study was done during the spring, summer and fall of 1998 and 1999. Samples were taken at random from legume crops and spontaneous plants adjacent to them in the province of León (Spain). Observations were made on the following crops: Medicago sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum, Trifolium repens, Vicia fava, Trifolium pratense, Vicia ervilia, Lathyrus cicera, Lathyrus sativus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius and Lens esculenta. Twenty three families of spontaneous plants were observed. The aphid species and their population densities on the spontaneous plants and crop plants were recorded, as was the presence of members of the families Coccinellidae, Syrphidae and Chrysopidae. The plant families...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Biodiversity; Chrysopidae; Coccinellidae; Fabaceae; Spontaneous plants; Syrphidae.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202011000200009
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An analysis of factors affecting the adoption of economic and productive data recording methods of Chilean farmers Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Engler,Alejandra; Toledo,Roger.
Integration of the Chilean domestic economy into international markets has created the need to incorporate more technology, information, and management tools and to generate better entrepreneurial skills at the farm level. These changes require the development of strategic capabilities and farmer changes in attitude. The goal for farmers is to be more prepared for the decision-making process and to have adequate evaluation and control systems to face the complexity of the farm business. The literature suggests that using management tools positively correlates with profits and concludes that management skills are positively related to farmers' well-being. Survey information on 211 farmers from central and southern Chile was used to estímate a probit model...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Record-keeping; Management skills; Probability models.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202010000200010
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An analysis of the physical and germination parameters of the sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa) Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Benedetti,Susana; González,Marta; García,Edison; Quiroz,Iván.
This study analyzed the physical characteristics, number of seeds per kilogram, seed weight, germination characteristics, germination percentage, germination energy, germination period and the germination vigor of sweet chestnut seeds from two forest plantations in the Los Ríos region of Chile. No significant differences were found in any of the characteristics related to the collection zone. Following the international classification systems for seeds of this species, the values of the physical characteristics allow us to classify these seeds as a small caliber or "chestnut". The values of the germination characteristics (>80%) demonstrate a good germination for chestnut seeds of forest origin.
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Energy period; Germination energy; Germination percentage; Germination vigor; Number of seeds per kilogram; Seed weight.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202012000100015
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