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Air Pollution Control Policy Options for Metro Manila AgEcon
Krupnick, Alan J.; Morgenstern, Richard D.; Fischer, Carolyn; Rolfe, Kevin; Logarta, Jose; Rufo, Bing.
The Asian Development Bank has sponsored research on market-based instruments for managing pollution in Metro Manila, Philippines, where air quality is seriously degraded. This report offers three policy options for reducing particulate emissions and their precursors. For stationary sources, we recommend an emissions fee that creates efficient financial incentives to reduce emissions while raising revenues for monitoring and enforcement activities. For mobile sources, we propose a pilot diesel retrofit program using a low-cost technology that is effective at existing 2,000 ppm sulfur content. Second, we recommend a charge on the sulfur content of diesel fuel to encourage meeting and surpassing the 500 ppm standard to allow for more advanced particulate...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Emissions tax; Philippines; Particulates; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q01.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10612
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Airborne fungi in the region of Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil BJM
Schoenlein-Crusius,Iracema H.; Trufem,Sandra F.B.; Grandi,Rosely A.P.; Milanez,Adauto I.; Pires-Zottarelli,Carmen L.A..
From March/1993 to March/1995, airborne fungi were isolated from the "Vale do Rio Moji" (highly affected by the air pollution caused by fertilizer industries, steel works, cement factories and chemical products industries, among others) and from the "Vale do Rio Pilões" (less affected by the air pollution), both in the municipality of Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil, by exposing Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium, placed one meter from the ground, during 5 min. After 5 days of incubation at 20ºC, the colonies of the fungi were purified and identified, resulting in the identification of 39 taxa, three unidentified strains of Fusarium and non-sporulating cultures. A total of 28 taxa, one unidentified strain of Fusarium and non-sporulating fungi...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Fungal diversity; Airborne fungi; Atlantic rainforest; Air pollution.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822001000100014
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Allocation of CO2 Emissions Allowances in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Program AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Kahn, Danny.
Cap-and-trade programs for air emissions have become the widely accepted, preferred approach to cost-effective pollution reduction. One of the important design questions in a trading program is how to initially distribute the emissions allowances. Under the Acid Rain program created by Title IV of the Clean Air Act, most emissions allowances were distributed to current emitters on the basis of a historic measure of electricity generation in an approach known as grandfathering. Recent proposals have suggested two alternative approaches: allocation according to a formula that is updated over time according to some performance metric in a recent year (the share of electricity generation or something else) and auctioning allowances to the highest bidders....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Mercury; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10650
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Ancillary Benefits of Reduced Air Pollution in the United States from Moderate Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies in the Electricity Sector AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Paul, Anthony; Toman, Michael; Bloyd, Cary.
This paper considers how moderate actions to slow atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel use also could reduce conventional air pollutants in the United States. The benefits that result would be "ancillary" to greenhouse gas abatement. Moreover, the benefits would tend to accrue locally and in the near term, while benefits from reduced climate change mostly accrue globally and over a time frame of several decades or longer. The previous literature suggests that changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx) would be the most important consequence of moderate carbon policies. We calculate these changes in a detailed electricity model linked to an integrated assessment framework to value changes in human health. A tax of $25 per metric ton of carbon...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Greenhouse gas; Ancillary benefits; Air pollution; Co-control benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Particulates; Health; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; I18; Q48.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10664
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CO2 Allowance Allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Effect on Electricity Investors AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Kahn, Danny; Palmer, Karen L..
The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is an effort by nine Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states to develop a regional, mandatory, market-based cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electricity sector. The initiative is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the RGGI region and beyond. The implications of these changes for the value of electricity-generating assets and the market value of the firms that own them depends on the initial allocation of carbon dioxide allowances, the composition of generating assets owned by the firm, and the locations of those assets. Changes in asset values inside the RGGI region may be positive or negative, whereas changes outside of the RGGI region are almost...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation-performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Asset value; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10495
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CO2 and N2O emissions from an Andisol in Chile under a no-till system using non-fixed closed chambers Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Muñoz,Cristina; Paulino,Leandro; Vera,Jenniffer; Zagal,Erick.
Chile has different types of soil and climate conditions that favor a wide range of agricultural activities that can generate potential atmospheric contamination like greenhouse gases (GHG). Nevertheless, the contribution of agricultural soils to atmospheric emissions has yet to be measured in Chile. The aim of this study was to assess seasonal variability of CO2 and N2O effluxes in situ from a volcanic ash-derived soil under different agronomic management practices. Gas samples were obtained from headspaces of non-fixed closed chambers in an annual crop rotation under a no-till system in an Andisol in southern Chile (36° S). Two N-sources (NH4+ and NO3-) and ammonium fertilization plus two lime doses (0.5 and 1 Mg ha-1) were considered for soil treatments...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Greenhouse gases; Agriculture; Nitrogen; Global change; Air pollution.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000200013
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Cost Savings, Market Performance, and Economic Benefits of the U.S. Acid Rain Program AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas.
This paper reports on four areas of research concerning Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that regulates emissions of SO2 from electricity generation. The first is the costs of the program over the long-run as estimated from the current perspective taking into account recent changes in fuel markets and technology. We compare projected costs with potential cost savings that can be attributable to formal trading of emission allowances. The second area is an evaluation of how well allowance trading has worked to date. The third area is the relationship between compliance costs and economic costs from a general equilibrium perspective. The fourth area is a comparison of benefits and costs for the program.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Acid rain; Benefit-cost analysis; Air pollution; Permit trading; Clean Air Act; Environmental Economics and Policy; H43; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10885
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Democratic Institutions and Environmental Quality: Effects and Transmission Channels AgEcon
Romuald, Kinda Somlanare.
This paper aims at analysing the effect of democratic institutions on environmental quality (carbon dioxide per capita, sulfure dioxide per capita) and at identifying potential channel transmissions. We use panel data from 1960 to 2008 in 122 developing and developed countries and modern econometric methods. The results are as follows: Firstly, we show that democratic institutions have opposite effects on environment quality: a positive direct effect on environment quality and a negative indirect effect through investments and income inequality. Indeed, democratic institutions attract investments that hurt environment quality. Moreover, as democratic institutions reduce income inequality, they also damage environment. Secondly, we find that the direct...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Democratic institutions; Air pollution; Panel data; Income inequality; Investments; Environmental Economics and Policy; O43; Q53; C23; D31; E22.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120396
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Determination of methanesulfonic acid and non-sea-salt sulfate in single marine aerosol particles OMA
Kolaitis, L.N.; Bruynseels, F.; Van Grieken, R.; Andreae, M.O..
In open ocean waters the predominant volatile sulfur compound is dimethyl sulfide (DMS), representing almost 90% of the marine sulfur emissions. Methanesulfonic acid (MSA), one of the oxidation products of DMS, is consequently an important constituent of marine aerosols. Laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA) has been used for single-particle analysis of particles collected in the marine boundary layer. MSA, like the non-sea-salt sulfate, is mainly associated with the smallest aerosol particles, whose LAMMA spectra match the reference fingerprint spectra of MSA salts, sodium methanesulfonate and ammonium methanesulfonate. The presence of nitrate and heavy metal ions in the LAMMA spectra can reveal, to a certain extent, the degree of air pollution at the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aerosols; Air pollution; Boundary layers; Heavy metals; Marine environment; Nitrates; Particle size; Sulphates.
Ano: 1989 URL: http://www.vliz.be/nl/open-marien-archief?module=ref&refid=3177
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Distributing pollution rights in cap-and-trade programs: are outcomes independent of allocation? AgEcon
Fowlie, Meredith; Perloff, Jeffrey M..
According to the Coase theorem, if property rights to pollute are clearly established and emissions permit markets nearly eliminate transaction costs, the permit market equilibrium will be independent of how the permits are initially distributed among …firms. Testing the independence of …firms' permit allocations and emissions is difficult because of endogeneity and omitted variable bias. We exploit the random assignment of …firms to different permit allocation cycles in Southern California's RECLAIM Program to test for a causal relationship between facility-level emissions and initial permit allocations. Our primary …finding is that a null hypothesis of zero effect cannot be rejected.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Emissions trading; Transaction costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; D21; D23; H11; Q50; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47002
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Economics of Pollution Trading for SO2 and NOx AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Evans, David A.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Toth, Russell.
For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The SO2 allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments represents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. Subsequent urban and regional applications of NOx emission allowance trading took shape in the 1990s in the United States, culminating in a second large experiment in emission trading in the eastern United States that began in 2003. This paper provides an overview of the economic rationale for emission trading and a description of the major U.S. programs for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). We evaluate these programs along measures of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Emission trading; Power plants; Air pollution; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; Q25; Q28; D78.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10488
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Efficient Emission Fees in the U.S. Electricity Sector AgEcon
Banzhaf, H. Spencer; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L..
This paper provides new estimates of efficient emission fees for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions in the U.S. electricity sector. The estimates are obtained by coupling a detailed simulation model of the U.S. electricity markets with an integrated assessment model that links changes in emissions with atmospheric transport, environmental endpoints, and valuation of impacts. Efficient fees are found by comparing incremental benefits with emission fee levels. National quantity caps that are equivalent to these fees also are computed, and found to approximate caps under consideration in the current multi-pollutant debate in the U.S. Congress and the recent proposals from the Bush administration for the electricity industry. We also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Emission fees; Air pollution; Cost-benefit analysis; Electricity; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOx; Sulfur dioxide; SO2; Health benefits; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4; D61.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10505
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Electricity Restructuring and Regional Air Pollution AgEcon
Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas.
This paper investigates the regional air pollution effects that could result from new opportunities for inter-regional power transmission in the wake of more competitive electricity markets. The regional focus is important because of great regional variation in the vintage, efficiency and plant utilization rates of existing generating capacity, as well as differences in emission rates, cost of generation and electricity price. Increased competition in generation could open the door to changes in the regional profile of generation and emissions. We characterize the key determinant of changes in electricity generation and transmission as the relative cost of electricity among neighboring regions. In general, low cost regions are expected to export power...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Electricity restructuring; Transmission; Environmental Economics and Policy; L94; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10766
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ESTIMATION OF EXTERNAL COSTS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION USING EXTERNE MODEL AgEcon
Molnar, Sandor; Debrecin, N.; Kovacevic, T.; Molnar, Melinda.
The external costs of electricity generation can be characterised by the resulting social and environmental impacts. The most significant impacts are the air pollutions impact on health, built in environment, crops, forests, agricultural areas and on global warming. The primary impact considered is the air pollution’s effect on human health. The monetised value of the health impact, the external costs are calculated for two regional coal power plants, the effects are examined on the EU level with the ExternE methodology.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: External costs; Human health; Monetized environmental impacts; Energy production; Coal power plants; Air pollution; Environmental Economics and Policy; Health Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47553
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Investment in Electricity Transmission and Ancillary Environmental Benefits AgEcon
Bloyd, Cary; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Burtraw, Dallas.
Planning of the electricity transmission system generally focuses on the pros and cons of providing generation close to the source of the power demand versus remote generation linked via the transmission system. Recent electricity supply problems in the western United States have renewed interest in the role of transmission in assuring the reliability of electricity supply. Recently, the Western Governors' Association led the development of a planning exercise that examined the tradeoffs over the next 10 years between locating new natural gas powered generation close to the load centers versus new coal, wind, hydro, and geothermal generation in remote areas. Although the analysis concentrated on the direct system costs, the choice of new generation will...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity; Transmission; Air pollution; Ancillary benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L94; Q25; Q41.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10519
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Leaf contents of nitrogen and phenolic compounds and their bearing with the herbivore damage to Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. (Melastomataceae), under the influence of air pollutants from industries of Cubatão, São Paulo Rev. Bras. Bot.
FURLAN,CLÁUDIA MARIA; SALATINO,ANTONIO; DOMINGOS,MARISA.
The Atlantic Forest on the slopes of Serra do Mar around Cubatão (São Paulo, Brazil) has been affected by massive emissions of pollutants from the local growing industrial complex. The effects of air pollution on the amounts of leaf nitrogen, total soluble phenols and total tannins of Tibouchina pulchra Cogn., a common species in the area of Cubatão, were investigated, as well as the possible influence of the altered parameters on the leaf area damaged by herbivores. Fully expanded leaves were collected at two sites: the valley of Pilões river (VP), characterized by a vegetation virtually not affected by air pollution and taken as a reference; and valley of Mogi river (VM), close to the core region of the industrial complex, and severely affected by air...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Herbivory; Tibouchina pulchra Cogn.; Cubatão; Nitrogen; Phenolics.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84041999000500014
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Maquiladoras, Air Pollution, and Human Health in Ciudad Juarez and El Paso AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Batz, Michael B.; Evans, David A..
Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, is home to the U.S.-Mexico border's largest maquiladora labor force, and also its worst air pollution. We marshal two types of evidence to examine the link between maquiladoras and air pollution in Ciudad Juarez, and in its sister city, El Paso, Texas. First, we use a publicly available sector-level emissions inventory for Ciudad Juarez to determine the importance of all industrial facilities (including maquiladoras) as a source of air pollution. Second, we use original plant-level data from two sample maquiladoras to better understand the impacts of maquiladora air pollution on human health. We use a series of computational models to estimate health damages attributable to air pollution from these plants, we compare these damages...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Maquiladora; Air pollution; Human health; Environmental justice; U.S.-Mexico border; Ciudad Juarez; El Paso; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q01; Q25; O13.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10807
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Output-Based Refunding of Emission Payments: Theory, Distribution of Costs, and International Experience AgEcon
Sterner, Thomas; Hoglund, Lena.
In this paper, we discuss the effect of refunding environmental charges. Taxes often are resisted by polluters because they imply both abatement and tax costs. We show that when charges are refunded, the incentives for abatement are essentially the same as for a tax, but the output reduction that often accompanies a tax scheme is forgone. We describe and examine the refund emissions payment (REP) scheme as a policy instrument for emissions abatement and compare it with taxes and permits with regard to allocative properties, distribution of costs, property rights, and, consequently, the politics of implementation. As an empirical example, the Swedish charge on nitrogen oxides is analyzed.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Refunded charge; Incentived-based environmental policy; Air pollution; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; Q25; H23.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10670
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Plântulas de soja 'Tracajá' expostas ao ozônio sob condições controladas Repositório Alice
BULBOVAS, P.; SOUZA, S.R. de; MORAES, R.M. de; LUIZÃO, F.; ARTAXO, P..
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento inicial, acúmulo de biomassa, trocas gasosas e defesas antioxidativas de soja 'Tracajá', cultivada na Região Amazônica, exposta ao ozônio sob condições controladas. Sementes germinadas em vasos foram levadas para duas câmaras, uma com ar filtrado (AF) e outra com ar filtrado mais 30 ppb de ozônio (AF + O3). Aos 10 e 20 dias após a semeadura, as trocas gasosas, crescimento em altura e acúmulo de biomassa foram medidos; aos 20 dias após a semeadura, as defesas antioxidativas (ácido ascórbico e superóxido dismutase) foram analisadas. Aos 10 dias após a semeadura, a fotossíntese líquida, condutância estomática, transpiração, altura, área foliar e biomassa foram 16, 27, 11, 22, 29 e 18% menores,...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Glycine max; Poluição atmosférica; Antioxidantes; Trocas gasosas; Crescimento; Air pollution; Antioxidants; Gas exchange; Growth.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/126183
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Pollution Control in the Informal Sector: The Ciudad Juarez Brickmakers' Project AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Bannister, Geoffrey J..
Low-technology unlicensed micro-enterprises known as "informal" firms are a significant source of pollution in developing countries that are virtually impossible to regulate in the conventional manner. This paper describes an example of an innovative and promising approach to the problem: the Ciudad Juarez Brickmakers' Project, a private-sector-led initiative aimed at abating highly polluting emissions from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico's approximately 300 informal brick kilns. We draw four lessons from the Project's history. First, private-sector-led initiatives can work -- indeed they may be more effective than public-sector-initiatives -- but they require strong public sector support. Second, necessary conditions for effective environmental management in the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Informal sector; Air pollution; Mexico; Brickmaking; Community pressure; Environmental Economics and Policy; O17; O22; O33; O54; Q25; L61.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10478
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