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A case study of ship track formation in a polluted marine boundary layer OMA
Noone, K.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Taylor, J.P.; Ferek, R.J.; Garrett, T.; Hobbs, P.V.; Durkee, P.A.; Nielsen, K.; Öström, E.; O'Dowd, C.; Smith, M.H.; Russell, L.M.; Flagan, R.C.; Seinfeld, J.H.; De Bock, L.; Van Grieken, R.; Hudson, J.G.; Brooks, I.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Pockalny, R.A..
A case study of the effects of ship emissions on the microphysical, radiative, and chemical properties of polluted marine boundary layer clouds is presented. Two ship tracks are discussed in detail. <i>In situ</i> measurements of cloud drop size distributions, liquid water content, and cloud radiative properties, as well as aerosol size distributions (outside-cloud, interstitial, and cloud droplet residual particles) and aerosol chemistry, are presented. These are related to remotely sensed measurements of cloud radiative properties. The authors examine the processes behind ship track formation in a polluted marine boundary layer as an example of the effects of anthropogenic particulate pollution on the albedo of marine stratiform clouds.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aerosols; Air pollution; Albedo; Atmosphere; Atmosphere; Atmospheric boundary layer; Boundary layers; Cloud cover; Clouds; Man-induced effects; Marine environment; Marine pollution; Particulates; Remote sensing; Ships.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.vliz.be/nl/open-marien-archief?module=ref&refid=8839
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A case study of ships forming and not forming tracks in moderately polluted clouds OMA
Noone, K.J.; Öström, E.; Ferek, R.J.; Garrett, T.; Hobbs, P.V.; Johnson, D.W.; Taylor, J.P.; Russell, L.M.; Flagan, R.C.; Seinfeld, J.H.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Smith, M.H.; Durkee, P.A.; Nielsen, K.; Hudson, J.G.; Pockalny, R.A.; De Bock, L.; Van Grieken, R.E.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Brooks, I..
The effects of anthropogenic particulate emissions from ships on the radiative, microphysical, and chemical properties of m(oderately polluted marine stratiform clouds are examined. A case study of two ships in the same air mass is presented where one of the vessels caused a discernible ship track while the other did not. <i>In situ</i> measurements of cloud droplet size distributions, liquid water content, and cloud radiative properties, as well as aerosol size distributions (outside cloud, interstitial, and cloud droplet residual particles) and aerosol chemistry, are presented. These are related to measurements of cloud radiative properties. The differences between the aerosol in the two ship plumes are discussed; these indicate that...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aerosols; Air pollution; Albedo; Anthropogenic factors; Atmospheric boundary layer; Atmospheric particulates; Chemical plumes; Cloud physics; Clouds; Droplets; Fuels; Ocean-atmosphere system; Pollution effects; Radiative transfer; Ships; Size distribution.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.vliz.be/nl/open-marien-archief?module=ref&refid=8840
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Air pollution and cardiovascular hospital admissions in a medium-sized city in São Paulo State, Brazil BJMBR
Nascimento,L.F.C..
The objective of the present study was to estimate the contribution of environmental pollutants to hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. A time series ecological study was conducted on subjects aged over 60 years and living in São José dos Campos, Brazil, with a population near 700,000 inhabitants. Hospital admission data of public health patients (SUS) were obtained from DATASUS for the period between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006, according to the ICD-10 diagnoses I20 to I22 and I24. Particulate matter with less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were the pollutants examined, and the control variables were mean temperature and relative humidity. Data on pollutants were obtained from the São Paulo State Sanitary...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Particulate matter; Cardiovascular diseases; Time series studies.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000700017
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Air pollution and neonatal deaths in São Paulo, Brazil BJMBR
Lin,C.A.; Pereira,L.A.A.; Nishioka,D.C.; Conceição,G.M.S.; Braga,A.L.F.; Saldiva,P.H.N..
Air pollution has been associated with health effects on different age groups. The present study was designed to assess the impact of daily changes in air pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particle matter (PM10)) on total number of daily neonatal deaths (those that occur between the first and the 28th days of life) in São Paulo, from January 1998 to December 2000, since adverse outcomes such as neonatal deaths associated with air pollution in Brazil have not been evaluated before. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used and nonparametric smooth functions (loess) were adopted to control long-term trend, temperature, humidity, and short-term trends. A linear term was used for holidays. The association between air pollutants and neonatal...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Neonatal mortality; Infant mortality; Air pollution.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2004000500019
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Air Pollution Control Policy Options for Metro Manila AgEcon
Krupnick, Alan J.; Morgenstern, Richard D.; Fischer, Carolyn; Rolfe, Kevin; Logarta, Jose; Rufo, Bing.
The Asian Development Bank has sponsored research on market-based instruments for managing pollution in Metro Manila, Philippines, where air quality is seriously degraded. This report offers three policy options for reducing particulate emissions and their precursors. For stationary sources, we recommend an emissions fee that creates efficient financial incentives to reduce emissions while raising revenues for monitoring and enforcement activities. For mobile sources, we propose a pilot diesel retrofit program using a low-cost technology that is effective at existing 2,000 ppm sulfur content. Second, we recommend a charge on the sulfur content of diesel fuel to encourage meeting and surpassing the 500 ppm standard to allow for more advanced particulate...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Emissions tax; Philippines; Particulates; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q01.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10612
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Air quality assessment in different urban areas from Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, using lichen transplants Anais da ABC (AABC)
KOCH,NATÁLIA MOSSMANN; LUCHETA,FABIANE; KÄFFER,MÁRCIA ISABEL; MARTINS,SUZANA MARIA DE AZEVEDO; VARGAS,VERA MARIA FERRÃO.
Abstract Based on the need to monitor air pollution and on the importance of doing it with biological organisms, the present work had as main objective to assess air quality in urban areas through lichen transplants. Besides, we also tested whether there were differences among the studied sites, aiming to point out the main pollution characteristics of the areas. The monitoring was carried out in seven cities, which varied from mainly rural to mainly industrial, in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The foliose lichen Parmotrema tinctorum was used as the biomonitor species. Physiological tests and contents of sulphur and heavy metals were measured in the lichen thalli. Other pollutants assessed through air samplers were available for some cities, and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Biomonitoring; Greenhouse gases; Heavy metals; Lichenized fungi; Particulate matter.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000502233
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Airborne fungi in the region of Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil BJM
Schoenlein-Crusius,Iracema H.; Trufem,Sandra F.B.; Grandi,Rosely A.P.; Milanez,Adauto I.; Pires-Zottarelli,Carmen L.A..
From March/1993 to March/1995, airborne fungi were isolated from the "Vale do Rio Moji" (highly affected by the air pollution caused by fertilizer industries, steel works, cement factories and chemical products industries, among others) and from the "Vale do Rio Pilões" (less affected by the air pollution), both in the municipality of Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil, by exposing Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium, placed one meter from the ground, during 5 min. After 5 days of incubation at 20ºC, the colonies of the fungi were purified and identified, resulting in the identification of 39 taxa, three unidentified strains of Fusarium and non-sporulating cultures. A total of 28 taxa, one unidentified strain of Fusarium and non-sporulating fungi...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Fungal diversity; Airborne fungi; Atlantic rainforest; Air pollution.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822001000100014
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Allocation of CO2 Emissions Allowances in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Program AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Kahn, Danny.
Cap-and-trade programs for air emissions have become the widely accepted, preferred approach to cost-effective pollution reduction. One of the important design questions in a trading program is how to initially distribute the emissions allowances. Under the Acid Rain program created by Title IV of the Clean Air Act, most emissions allowances were distributed to current emitters on the basis of a historic measure of electricity generation in an approach known as grandfathering. Recent proposals have suggested two alternative approaches: allocation according to a formula that is updated over time according to some performance metric in a recent year (the share of electricity generation or something else) and auctioning allowances to the highest bidders....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Mercury; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10650
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Ancillary Benefits of Reduced Air Pollution in the United States from Moderate Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies in the Electricity Sector AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Paul, Anthony; Toman, Michael; Bloyd, Cary.
This paper considers how moderate actions to slow atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel use also could reduce conventional air pollutants in the United States. The benefits that result would be "ancillary" to greenhouse gas abatement. Moreover, the benefits would tend to accrue locally and in the near term, while benefits from reduced climate change mostly accrue globally and over a time frame of several decades or longer. The previous literature suggests that changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx) would be the most important consequence of moderate carbon policies. We calculate these changes in a detailed electricity model linked to an integrated assessment framework to value changes in human health. A tax of $25 per metric ton of carbon...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Greenhouse gas; Ancillary benefits; Air pollution; Co-control benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Particulates; Health; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; I18; Q48.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10664
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Association between NOx exposure and deaths caused by respiratory diseases in a medium-sized Brazilian city BJMBR
César,A. C. G.; Carvalho Jr.,J. A.; Nascimento,L. F. C..
Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted by burning fossil fuels has been associated with respiratory diseases. We aimed to estimate the effects of NOx exposure on mortality owing to respiratory diseases in residents of Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil, of all ages and both sexes. This time-series ecological study from August 1, 2011 to July 31, 2012 used information on deaths caused by respiratory diseases obtained from the Health Department of Taubaté. Estimated daily levels of pollutants (NOx, particulate matter, ozone, carbon monoxide) were obtained from the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos Coupled Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. These environmental variables were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Nitrogen oxides; Respiratory diseases; Death.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2015001201130
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Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil BJMBR
Amancio,C.T.; Nascimento,L.F.C..
There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São José dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Sulfur dioxide; Cardiovascular diseases; Mortality; Air pollutants; Stroke.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2012001100013
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CO2 Allowance Allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Effect on Electricity Investors AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Kahn, Danny; Palmer, Karen L..
The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is an effort by nine Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states to develop a regional, mandatory, market-based cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electricity sector. The initiative is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the RGGI region and beyond. The implications of these changes for the value of electricity-generating assets and the market value of the firms that own them depends on the initial allocation of carbon dioxide allowances, the composition of generating assets owned by the firm, and the locations of those assets. Changes in asset values inside the RGGI region may be positive or negative, whereas changes outside of the RGGI region are almost...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation-performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Asset value; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10495
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CO2 and N2O emissions from an Andisol in Chile under a no-till system using non-fixed closed chambers Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Muñoz,Cristina; Paulino,Leandro; Vera,Jenniffer; Zagal,Erick.
Chile has different types of soil and climate conditions that favor a wide range of agricultural activities that can generate potential atmospheric contamination like greenhouse gases (GHG). Nevertheless, the contribution of agricultural soils to atmospheric emissions has yet to be measured in Chile. The aim of this study was to assess seasonal variability of CO2 and N2O effluxes in situ from a volcanic ash-derived soil under different agronomic management practices. Gas samples were obtained from headspaces of non-fixed closed chambers in an annual crop rotation under a no-till system in an Andisol in southern Chile (36° S). Two N-sources (NH4+ and NO3-) and ammonium fertilization plus two lime doses (0.5 and 1 Mg ha-1) were considered for soil treatments...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Greenhouse gases; Agriculture; Nitrogen; Global change; Air pollution.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392011000200013
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Concentrations and Settling Rates of Particulate Matter in Laying Hen Barns in the Hot Climatic Region of Cameroon CIGR Journal
Ngwabie, Ngwa Martin.
Particulate matter (PM) serves as a carrier of adhesive gaseous compounds, and may result to an underestimation of gas emissions from livestock barns when only filtered air samples are analysed. PM concentrations have hardly been studied in the unique livestock production system of Sub-Saharan Africa. This study was aimed at generating baseline data for PM (total suspended particulates) concentrations and settling rates in laying hen barns with cemented floors and wood shavings added as an initial bedding material. Measurements were conducted in two naturally ventilated laying hen barns in Cameroon; a barn with 4 months old hens that had just stated laying eggs and a barn with 18 months old egg laying hens. PM concentration was determined gravimetrically...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Climate change; Dust; Laying hens; Particulate matter; Total suspended particulates; Cameroon..
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5566
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Cost Savings, Market Performance, and Economic Benefits of the U.S. Acid Rain Program AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas.
This paper reports on four areas of research concerning Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that regulates emissions of SO2 from electricity generation. The first is the costs of the program over the long-run as estimated from the current perspective taking into account recent changes in fuel markets and technology. We compare projected costs with potential cost savings that can be attributable to formal trading of emission allowances. The second area is an evaluation of how well allowance trading has worked to date. The third area is the relationship between compliance costs and economic costs from a general equilibrium perspective. The fourth area is a comparison of benefits and costs for the program.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Acid rain; Benefit-cost analysis; Air pollution; Permit trading; Clean Air Act; Environmental Economics and Policy; H43; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10885
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Democratic Institutions and Environmental Quality: Effects and Transmission Channels AgEcon
Romuald, Kinda Somlanare.
This paper aims at analysing the effect of democratic institutions on environmental quality (carbon dioxide per capita, sulfure dioxide per capita) and at identifying potential channel transmissions. We use panel data from 1960 to 2008 in 122 developing and developed countries and modern econometric methods. The results are as follows: Firstly, we show that democratic institutions have opposite effects on environment quality: a positive direct effect on environment quality and a negative indirect effect through investments and income inequality. Indeed, democratic institutions attract investments that hurt environment quality. Moreover, as democratic institutions reduce income inequality, they also damage environment. Secondly, we find that the direct...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Democratic institutions; Air pollution; Panel data; Income inequality; Investments; Environmental Economics and Policy; O43; Q53; C23; D31; E22.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120396
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Determination of methanesulfonic acid and non-sea-salt sulfate in single marine aerosol particles OMA
Kolaitis, L.N.; Bruynseels, F.; Van Grieken, R.; Andreae, M.O..
In open ocean waters the predominant volatile sulfur compound is dimethyl sulfide (DMS), representing almost 90% of the marine sulfur emissions. Methanesulfonic acid (MSA), one of the oxidation products of DMS, is consequently an important constituent of marine aerosols. Laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA) has been used for single-particle analysis of particles collected in the marine boundary layer. MSA, like the non-sea-salt sulfate, is mainly associated with the smallest aerosol particles, whose LAMMA spectra match the reference fingerprint spectra of MSA salts, sodium methanesulfonate and ammonium methanesulfonate. The presence of nitrate and heavy metal ions in the LAMMA spectra can reveal, to a certain extent, the degree of air pollution at the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aerosols; Air pollution; Boundary layers; Heavy metals; Marine environment; Nitrates; Particle size; Sulphates.
Ano: 1989 URL: http://www.vliz.be/nl/open-marien-archief?module=ref&refid=3177
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Distributing pollution rights in cap-and-trade programs: are outcomes independent of allocation? AgEcon
Fowlie, Meredith; Perloff, Jeffrey M..
According to the Coase theorem, if property rights to pollute are clearly established and emissions permit markets nearly eliminate transaction costs, the permit market equilibrium will be independent of how the permits are initially distributed among …firms. Testing the independence of …firms' permit allocations and emissions is difficult because of endogeneity and omitted variable bias. We exploit the random assignment of …firms to different permit allocation cycles in Southern California's RECLAIM Program to test for a causal relationship between facility-level emissions and initial permit allocations. Our primary …finding is that a null hypothesis of zero effect cannot be rejected.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Emissions trading; Transaction costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; D21; D23; H11; Q50; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47002
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Economics of Pollution Trading for SO2 and NOx AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Evans, David A.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Toth, Russell.
For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The SO2 allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments represents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. Subsequent urban and regional applications of NOx emission allowance trading took shape in the 1990s in the United States, culminating in a second large experiment in emission trading in the eastern United States that began in 2003. This paper provides an overview of the economic rationale for emission trading and a description of the major U.S. programs for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). We evaluate these programs along measures of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Emission trading; Power plants; Air pollution; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; Q25; Q28; D78.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10488
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Effect of air pollution on diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in São Paulo, Brazil BJMBR
Pereira Filho,M.A.; Pereira,L.A.A.; Arbex,F.F.; Arbex,M.; Conceição,G.M.; Santos,U.P.; Lopes,A.C.; Saldiva,P.H.N.; Braga,A.L.F.; Cendon,S..
Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality and these patients, even without previous myocardial infarction, run the risk of fatal coronary heart disease similar to non-diabetic patients surviving myocardial infarction. There is evidence showing that particulate matter air pollution is associated with increases in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on the association of air pollution with cardiovascular emergency room visits in a tertiary referral hospital in the city of São Paulo. Using a time-series approach, and adopting generalized linear Poisson regression models, we assessed the effect of daily variations in PM10, CO, NO2, SO2, and O3 on the daily...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cardiovascular diseases; Diabetes; Air pollution; Emergency room visits; Time-series study.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2008000600015
Registros recuperados: 59
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