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A comparison of the immunological effects of propofol and isoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia in healthy dogs OAK
TOMIHARI, Mizuki; NISHIHARA, Akira; SHIMADA, Terumasa; YANAGAWA, Masashi; MIYOSHI, Masafumi; MIYAHARA, Kazurou; OISHI, Akihiro; 富張, 瑞樹; 宮原, 和郎; 大西, 明弘.
Most anesthetics have an immuno-suppressive effect on cellular and neurohumoral immunity, and research shows that total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol has a greater immuno-protective effect than inhalational anesthesia in human medicine. However, in veterinary clinics, these effects remain ambiguous. To clarify the details, we focused on propofol and isoflurane, investigating clinical blood hematology and immunological profiles drawn from healthy dogs under and after two anesthesia techniques. Twelve healthy adult beagles were included in this study, randomly assigned to the propofol anesthesia group (group P: n=6) or the isoflurane anesthesia group (group I: n=6). In both groups, the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood decreased after 2...
Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Canine; Immuno-suppression; Isoflurane; Propofol.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/4209
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Analysis of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure during lung retrieval for transplantation: an experimental study BJMBR
Gonçalves-Ferri,W.A.; Jauregui,A.; Martins-Celini,F.P.; Sansano,I.; Fabro,A.T.; Sacramento,E.M.F.; Aragon,D.C.; Ochoa,J.M..
Atelectasis and inadequate oxygenation in lung donors is a common problem during the retrieval of these organs. Nevertheless, the use of high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is not habitual during procedures of lung retrieval. Twenty-one Sprague-Dawley male consanguineous rats were used in the study. The animals were divided into 3 groups according to the level of PEEP used: low (2 cmH2O), moderate (5 cmH2O), and high (10 cmH2O). Animals were ventilated with a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg. Before lung removal, the lungs were inspected for the presence of atelectasis. When atelectasis was detected, alveolar recruitment maneuvers were performed. Blood gasometric analysis was performed immediately. Finally, the lungs were retrieved, weighed, and submitted...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Lung transplantation; Mechanical ventilation; Pulmonary recruitment; PEEP.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2019000700607
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Anesthetic activity of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum in Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) and its effects on stress parameters Neotropical Ichthyology
Silva,Lenise de Lima; Garlet,Quelen Iane; Koakoski,Gessi; Abreu,Murilo Sander de; Mallmann,Carlos Augusto; Baldisserotto,Bernardo; Barcellos,Leonardo José Gil; Heinzmann,Berta Maria.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic activity of the essential oil (EO) of Ocimum americanum L. in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen ). In the first experiment, the depressor effects and chemical composition of the leaf EO (LEO) and inflorescence EO (IEO) were compared. Juveniles (n = 10) were placed in aquaria containing different concentrations of EO (25 - 500 mg L-1) to determine the point at which anesthesia was induced and the length of the recovery period. In the following experiment, the effects of 300 and 500 mg L-1 LEO exposure on stress parameters (plasma cortisol, glucose and sodium levels) after air exposure for 1 min were assayed. Fish (n = 10 per sampling time) were sampled immediately or transferred to anesthetic-free...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Basil; Cortisol; Glucose; Sodium.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252015000400715
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Anesthetic induction and recovery time of Centropomus parallelus exposed to the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla Ciência Rural
Parodi,Thaylise Vey; Santos,Celina Alcoforado dos; Veronez,Alexandra; Gomes,Levy de Carvalho; Heinzmann,Berta Maria; Baldisserotto,Bernardo.
ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the effectiveness of the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (EOA) as an anesthetic and stress reducing agent in the transport of fat snook ( Centropomus parallelus ). Juveniles were exposed to different concentrations of EOA (seawater-adapted: 25-300μL L-1; freshwater-adapted: 200μL L-1) to identify the anesthetic induction and recovery times. In an additional experiment, seawater-adapted fat snook were transported in plastic bags with 10 or 20μL L-1 EOA for 6 or 24h. The increased concentration of EOA proportionally decreased the time required for anesthesia induction. Mortality was 30 and 70% in fat snook transported with 10 and 20µL L-1, respectively, 24h after transport. The addition of 20µL L-1 EOA significantly reduced...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Blood parameters; Fat snook; Natural product; Transport.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782016001202142
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Anesthetic induction of juveniles of Rhamdia quelen and Ctenopharyngodon idella with Ocimum micranthum essential oil Ciência Rural
Zeppenfeld,Carla Cristina; Brasil,Marisa Teresinha de Bastos; Cavalcante,Gisela; Silva,Lenise Vargas Flôres da; Mourão,Rosa Helena; Cunha,Mauro Alves da; Baldisserotto,Bernardo.
ABSTRACT: Anesthetics are effective to reduce or minimize stress in handling operations related to fish cultures. Aiming to avoid residual effects of synthetic drugs, several natural agents, such as essential oils (EOs), have been tested. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of the EO of Ocimum micranthum for induction of anesthesia in juveniles of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Results demonstrated that the most suitable concentration to sedate silver catfish and carp is 25μL/L, while to anesthetize 200μL/L is more suitable for silver catfish and 100μL/L for grass carp, because these concentrations induce deep anesthesia in less than three min and recovery in less than five min....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Silver catfish; Grass carp; Sedation.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782019000100653
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Anesthetic properties of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil for juvenile matrinxã Animal Sciences
Ribeiro, Allyson Soares; Batista, Erix dos Santos; Dairiki, Jony Koiji; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Inoue, Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki.
 The matrinxã fish is suitable for Amazonian aquaculture, exhibiting positive characteristics such as good growth and feed conversion ratio. However, it is a very active fish and must be anesthetized for handling. The present study evaluated the use of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil (EO) as anesthetic for juvenile matrinxãs. A first experiment assessed the induction time to anesthesia of 7 concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mg L-1 of O. gratissimum (EO). A second experiment investigated the physiological response to the anesthetic through analysis of tissue and blood parameters collected 0h (T0) and 24h after (T24) the experimental protocols that were applied to 4 groups: control, handling without O. gratissimum (EO) and handling with two EO...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: 5.05.03.00-6 fish; Handling; Brycon amazonicus; Anesthesia.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/28787
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Anesthetic recovery assisted by rope at three points in horses Ciência Rural
Silva,Diego Rafael Palma da; Silva,Gabriele Biavaschi; Corte,Flávio Desessards De La; Brass,Karin Erica; Pozzobon,Ricardo; Dau,Stefano Leite; Gasperi,Diego de; Freitas,Gabrielle Coelho.
ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the quality of anesthesyc recovery of horses using a three-point assisted method. Sixty-eight horses (37 females and 31 males) of different breeds, age and weight submitted to general anesthesia for abdominal - ABD (n=15), arthroscopy - ART (n=17), other orthopedic - ORT (n=18) and miscellaneous - MIX (n=18) surgical procedures. Isoflurane resulted in shorter recovery time (67.4±25.7min) compared to halothane (88.0±37.8min). The mean duration (±SD) of anesthesia for ABD, ORT, ART and MIXgroups was 166.7 (±14), 54.9 (±5.9), 86.5 (±7.3) and 76.4 (±32.5) minutes (min) respectively. Quality of recovery wasn’t influenced by duration of anesthesia or by use of analgesic, sedative and/or anesthetic drugs or not (p>0.05). Mean...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Assistance; Horses; Recovery; Surgery.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782018001100601
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Benzocaine and clove oil as anesthetics for pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis) fingerlings Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
Morato-Fernandes,J.; Tavares,R.A.; Rocha,C. B.; Pouey,J.L.O.F.; Piedras,S.R.N..
Pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis) is a native species from Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay and Argentina where it is of great economic importance for artisanal fishing. One difficulty in laboratory research with pejerrey is related to its sensitivity, as it presents higher basal cortisol levels than other freshwater species. For this reason, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of benzocaine and clove oil as anesthetics for pejerrey fingerlings. Two experiments were done where fingerlings (57±7.8mm and 1.1±0.44g) were exposed to benzocaine with concentrations between 40mgL-1 and 120mgL-1 and to clove oil with concentrations between 12mgL-1 and 75mgL-1. Survival, anesthesia induction time and recovery time for each pharmaceutics were evaluated....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Survival; Induction; Recovery; Aquaculture.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352013000500024
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Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus) Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Avic.
Ciboto,R; Cortopassi,SRG; Lopes,MAE; Carvalho,RC; Baitelo,CG.
Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m.) and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.). The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg), Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg), Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg). All...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Chemical restraint; Muscular relaxation; Ostrich.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-635X2006000200008
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Effect of (+)-dehydrofukinone on GABAA receptors and stress response in fish model BJMBR
Garlet,Q.I.; Pires,L.C.; Silva,D.T.; Spall,S.; Gressler,L.T.; Bürger,M.E.; Baldisserotto,B.; Heinzmann,B.M..
(+)-Dehydrofukinone (DHF) is a major component of the essential oil of Nectandra grandiflora (Lauraceae), and exerts a depressant effect on the central nervous system of fish. However, the neuronal mechanism underlying DHF action remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the action of DHF on GABAA receptors using a silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) model. Additionally, we investigated the effect of DHF exposure on stress-induced cortisol modulation. Chemical identification was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and purity was evaluated using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. To an aquarium, we applied between 2.5 and 50 mg/L DHF diluted in ethanol, in combination with 42.7 mg/L diazepam. DHF within the range of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Sedation; Anesthesia; Rhamdia quelen; Nectandra grandiflora; Cortisol.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2016000100607
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Effect of tranquilization and anesthesia on high-resolution electrocardiographic indices of dogs in the chronic chagasic myocardiopathy Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
Ferreira,W.L.; Paula,D.P.; Nunes,N.; Camacho,A.A..
The effect of tranquilization and anesthesia on high-resolution electrocardiography (HRECG) indices of dogs in the undetermined chronic phase of Chagas' disease was studied. Eight adult female mongrel dogs were submitted to six protocols: group 1: animals not submitted to tranquilization or anesthesia; group 2: tranquilization with acepromazine; group 3: tranquilization with a combination of acepromazine and buprenorphine; group 4: general inhalatory anesthesia with isoflurane; group 5: general inhalatory anesthesia with sevoflurane; group 6: anesthesia with propofol. The animals were submitted to all protocols at an interval of 15 days between assessments. HRECG was performed in the time domain. Regarding the electrocardiographic parameters analyzed, no...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Dog; Chagas' disease; High-resolution electrocardiography; Anesthesia.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352006000600015
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Effects of the high-flow modified to-and-fro anesthestic system on blood gas and respiratory rate in halothane anesthetized horses Ciência Rural
Natalini,Cláudio Corrêa; Polydoro,Alexandre da Silva.
Ten healthy adult horses male or female, mean body weight of 424±44.1kg, were anesthetized with romifidine, tiletamine/zolazepam and halothane for 60 minutes using a modified to-and-fro rebreathing anesthetic system, added of 1 liter mechanical dead space. The gas flow rate was 10 liters oxygen/minute during all inhalation anesthetic time. Variables analysed were arterial blood pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) and oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), and respiratory rate (RR). The horses were allowed to breath spontaneously, and were positioned in right lateral recumbency the arterial O2 values were significantly higher during halothane anesthesia when compared to the baseline values, and significantly lower after induction with tiletamine/zolazepam...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Equine; Horses; Anesthesia; Anaesthesia; Halothane.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84781997000400013
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Efficacy of eugenol and the methanolic extract of Condalia buxifolia during the transport of the silver catfish Rhamdia quelen Neotropical Ichthyology
Becker,Alexssandro Geferson; Cunha,Mauro Alves da; Garcia,Luciano de Oliveira; Zeppenfeld,Carla Cristina; Parodi,Thaylise Vey; Maldaner,Graciela; Morel,Ademir Farias; Baldisserotto,Bernardo.
This study evaluated extracts of Condalia buxifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. The effectiveness of eugenol and of the methanolic extract (ME) of C. buxifolia during the transport of this species was also assessed. Fish of two different weights (1.50±0.02 g and 165.70±22.50 g) were transferred to aquaria containing water with the C. buxifolia ME or with fractions obtained from the ME, such as the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butane and aqueous fractions, at concentrations from 0-300 °L L-1. The C. buxifolia ME in the 0.5-120 °L L-1range caused only light sedation, and the fractions did not have an effect on the fish. In the second experiment, another group of fish was transported for 12 h in 15 plastic bags. The...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Fish transport; Heptapteridae; Ion fluxes; Sedative.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252013000300675
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Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Anais da ABC (AABC)
Ribeiro,Paula A.P.; Miranda-Filho,Kleber C.; Melo,Daniela C. de; Luz,Ronald K..
In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Cichlid; Handling; Welfare.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652015000100529
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Electrocardiographic study on geriatric dogs undergoing general anesthesia with isoflurane Ciência Rural
Conti-Patara,Andreza; Fantoni,Denise Tabacchi; Cortopassi,Silvia Renata Gaido.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the degree of influence of anesthetic agents commonly used during anesthesia on the heart conduction systems of geriatric dogs, with or without the presence of electrocardiographic changes in the pre-anesthetic electrocardiogram and also to determine the possible causes of ST-segment and T-wave changes during anesthesia, by monitoring ventilation and oxygenation. 36 geriatric dogs were evaluated. In addition to electrocardiographic evaluation, the pre-anesthetic study included serum levels of urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin and electrolytes. The pre-anesthetic medication consisted of acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1) in association with meperidine (3.0mg kg-1) by IM injection. Anesthesia was induced with propofol...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Dog; Electrocardiography; Geriatrics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782009000200021
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Essential oils from Citrus x aurantium and Citrus x latifolia (Rutaceae) have anesthetic activity and are effective in reducing ion loss in silver catfish ( Rhamdia quelen ) Neotropical Ichthyology
Lopes,Jane Mello; Souza,Carine de Freitas; Schindler,Bianca; Pinheiro,Carlos Garrido; Salbego,Joseânia; Siqueira,Jefferson Costa de; Heinzmann,Berta Maria; Baldisserotto,Bernardo.
ABSTRACT This study investigated the anesthetic effect of the essential oils (EOs) from the peel of Citrus x aurantium (EOCA) and Citrus x latifolia (EOCL) on silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. Fish were exposed to different concentrations of EOCA and EOCL to determine time of anesthesia induction and recovery. Induction of anesthesia was observed in all fish exposed to 400, 600 or 800 μL L−1 EOCA and 300, 400 or 500 μL L−1 EOCL. Another group of fish were exposed for 8 h to 50, 100, or 200 μL L−1 of either EOs. Overall, fish exposed to ethanol and both EOs presented higher ventilatory frequencies (VF) than the control group throughout the 8 h of exposure. Net ion (Na+, K+ and Cl−) effluxes and ammonia excretion were significantly lower in fish exposed to 50,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Anesthesia; Ion fluxes; Lemon oil; Orange oil; Ventilatory frequency.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252018000200204
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Eugenol as an anesthetic for juvenile common snook PAB
Bernardes Júnior,Jurandir Joaquim; Nakagome,Fernando Kojima; Mello,Giovanni Lemos de; Garcia,Silvano; Amaral Júnior,Hilton.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of eugenol as an anesthetic for juvenile common snook, and to determine the minimum effective concentration for use in handling procedures. In the first trial, juvenile common snook were subjected to immersion baths at 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mg L-1 eugenol concentrations, after which induction and recovery times were evaluated. In the second experiment, the lethal exposure time (LT50) at 75 mg L-1 was estimated. Minimum effective eugenol concentration was 50 mg L-1, andthe stage of deep anesthesia and recovery were, respectively, reached at 126.3 and 208.8 s. At 75 mg L-1, LT50 was 1,314 s, and induction time and recovery were also satisfactory; however, fish cannot tolerate over 229 s exposure.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/report Palavras-chave: Centropomus undecimalis; Anesthesia; Fish farming; Fish handling.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2013000800052
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Eugenol como anestésico para a tilápia-do-nilo. Repositório Alice
VIDAL, L.V.O.; ALBINATI, R.C.B.; ALBINATI, A.C.L.; LIRA, A.D. de; ALMEIDA, T.R. de; SANTOS, G.B..
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o eugenol como anestésico para a tilápia-do-nilo. Para a concentração ideal, foram avaliados seis tratamentos (50, 75, 100, 150, 200 e 250 mg L-1), com dez peixes por tratamento, anestesiados individualmente, acompanhados durante a indução e recuperação. A toxicidade foi estimada pela submissão de 210 peixes a 7 concentrações de eugenol (50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg L-1), durante 600 s e, para a margem de segurança, 120 peixes foram submetidos a 75 mg L-1 durante cinco intervalos de tempo (600, 1.200, 1.800 e 2.400 s). As concentrações eficientes foram 50 e 75 mg L-1. Os valores de toxicidade letal (CL), aos 600 s, foram: CL01, 81,97 mg L-1; CL50, 184,26 mg L-1; e CL99, 286,55 mg L-1; e os tempos de concentrações...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Oreochromis niloticus; Anestesia; Custo; Segurança; Anesthesia; Cost; Safety.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/122153
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EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN DIFFERENT ANESTHETIC PROTOCOLS IN CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHOERUS HYDROCHAERIS). Repositório Alice
SILVA, F. I. C. da; MATTOS, P. S. R. de; MOREIRA, J. R. de A.; MELO, L. A. M. P. de; CARVALHO. M. V. de; ARANTES, L. G.; QUADROS, A. P. N. de; ARRUDA, Y. da C..
2016
Tipo: Outras publicações científicas (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Capybara; Anesthesia.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1058189
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Hemodynamic and antiarrhythmic effects of lidocaine or amiodarone in dogs anesthetized with halothane Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
Moro,J.V.; Nunes,N.; Barbosa,V.F.; Thiesen,R.; Lopes,P.C.F.; Belmonte,E.A.; Borges,P.A.; Batista,P.A.C.S.; Costa,P.F..
The effects of continuous rate infusion of lidocaine or amiodarone on hemodynamic and arrhythmias induced by epinephrine in dogs anesthetized with halothane were evaluated. Thirty dogs were distributed into three groups: amiodarone group (AG), lidocaine group (LG), or control group (CG). Anesthesia was induced with etomidate and maintained with halothane. Thirty minutes later a bolus and continuous rate infusion (CRI) of amiodarone in AG, lidocaine in LG and NaCl at 0.9% in CG was administered. After 10 minutes, arrhythmias were induced by epinephrine CRI at 0.0001mg/kg/minute, which was increased in 0.0001mg/kg/minute every ten minutes, until 0.0003mg/kg/minute. The measurements were performed 30 minutes after the induction of anesthesia (T0), 10 minutes...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Canine; Antiarrhythmogenicity; Anesthesia.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352013000400011
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