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A herpes-like virus infects a non-ostreid bivalve species: virus replication in Ruditapes philippinarum larvae ArchiMer
Renault, Tristan; Lipart, Cecile; Arzul, Isabelle.
Sporadic high mortalities were reported in June 1997 among hatchery-reared larval Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in a French commercial hatchery. Cellular abnormalities were observed in semi-thin sections in affected animals. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of herpes-like virus particles in larvae. This is the first description of a herpes-like virus infection in larval R. philippinarum, a non-ostreid bivalve species. Virus particles were similar to other herpes-like viruses described from different oyster species with respect to ultrastructure and morphogenesis. Electron microscopic examination also demonstrated cells with condensed chromatin and extensive perinuclear fragmentation of chromatin. Like viruses infecting oysters,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Apoptosis; Virus replication; Mortality; Ruditapes philippinarum; Manila clam; Herpes like virus.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2001/publication-816.pdf
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ACTIVIDAD ANTIPROLIFERATIVA DE ACEITES ESENCIALES DE PLANTAS CULTIVADAS EN COLOMBIA Acta biol.Colomb.
VELANDIA,Sindi Alejandra; QUINTERO,Elizabeth; STASHENKO,Elena E; OCAZIONEZ,Raquel E.
RESUMEN Colombia posee gran diversidad de plantas medicinales, pero pocas han sido objeto de investigación. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antiproliferativa de aceites esenciales obtenidos por hidrodestilación asistida por microondas. Se analizaron 15 muestras de 11 especies en ensayos del MTT en células cancerosas MCF-7, HeLa y HepG-2 y se incluyeron células normales humanas (HEK293) y de animales (Vero y B16F10) para evaluar selectividad. La composición química de muestras activas se determinó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Aceites esenciales de cuatro especies mostraron actividad antiproliferativa (CI50: 50 μg/mL) en células HeLa y/o MCF-7, en el siguiente rango (índice de selectividad en...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Aceite esencial; Apoptosis; Cáncer; Fitoterapia; MTT.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0120-548X2018000200189
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AGEING INDUCES APOPTOSIS AND INCREASES HSP70 STRESS PROTEIN IN THE EPIDIDYMIS OF Octodon degus International Journal of Morphology
Bustos-Obregón,Eduardo; Esponda,Pedro.
Apoptosis has been largely analyzed in the testis. Nevertheless, the epididymis has been scarcely studied. We analyzed the number of apoptotic cells in the different regions (caput, corpus and cauda) of the epididymis of the South American rodent Octodon degus both young and senile. Apoptosis was identified using the TUNEL method which detects in situ DNA fragmentation. Apoptosis was detected in the principal cells of the epididymal epithelium. The caput epididymis was the region more affected. The caput of young animals showed that 0.32/1000 cells were apoptotic in contrast to 5.1/1000 of senile animals. Also in the cauda epididymis apoptosis is increased with age, appearing 0.14/1000 and 3.9/1000 in young and senile animals, respectively. On the other...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Androgens; Apoptosis; Epididymis; Ageing; Heat Shock Proteins.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022004000100005
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Agmatine pretreatment protects retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cell line) from oxidative stress in vitro Biocell
Yoko,Iizuka; Hong,Samin; Yun Kim,Chan; Kab Kim,Seung; Je Seong,Gong.
Agmatine, 2-(4-aminobutyl)guanidine, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against various neuronal damages. In this study it was investigated whether agmatine pretreatment rescues the retinal ganglion cells from oxidative injury in vitro. After differentiation of transformed rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cell line) with staurosporine, agmatine (0.0 to 100.0 μM) pretreatment was performed for 2 hours. Subsequently, they were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.0 to 2.5 mM) as an oxidative stress. Cell viability was monitored for up to 48 hours with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and apoptosis was examined by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end-labeling (TUNEL)...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Neuronal damage; Apoptosis; Neuroprotection.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-95452008000300005
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Angiogenesis and Tumor Progression Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Selective Inhibitor Celecoxib Associated with Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) in Tumor Cell Line Resistant to Chemotherapy International Journal of Morphology
Roa,Ignacio; Cantín,Mario; Vilos,Cristian; Rosas,Carlos; Lemus,David.
Although, antineoplastic therapies have now been developed reduction of tumor progression,itis necessarytofind new therapeutic alternatives to suppress angiogenesis.Thus celecoxib (Cx) has been used for its antiangiogenic action in combination with certain polymeric compounds such as poly (lactic co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) acid, which help to improve the bioavailability and avoid effects of long drug administrations. For this purpose we used a murine tumor modelinduced by mammary adenocarcinoma cells resistant to chemotherapy (TA3-MTXR). CX/PLGA inhibits the microvascular density, VEGF expression and cell proliferationinaddition to increased apoptosis (P <0.0001). Cx reduces tumor progression in a concentration of 1000 ppm associated with PLGA, reducing...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Angiogenesis; Cancer; Celecoxib; PLGA; Apoptosis; VEGF; CellProliferation.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022017000200055
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Anticancer and apoptosis-inducing activities of microbial metabolites Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Phonnok,Sirinet; Uthaisang-Tanechpongtamb,Wanlaya; Wongsatayanon,Benjamas Thanomsub.
The problems of systemic toxicity and drug resistance in cancer chemotherapy urge the continuing discovery of new anticancer agents. We explored the specific anticancer activity from microbial metabolites to find new lead compound. 394 microbial extracts were evaluated on anti-proliferative activity against 4 cancer cell lines using MTT assay. Of these, 20 samples showed varying degree of cytotoxicity but specifically to the cancer cell lines since the growth of normal cells was not significantly inhibited by 1 mg/ml of each cell extracts. The 4 most potent extracts exhibited strongest growth inhibition to each cancer cell type were selected for further studied. Cell morphological changes such as cell shrinkage, lose of surface contact and blebbing were...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Anticancer; Apoptosis; Bioactive compound; Caspase; Microbial product.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582010000500001
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Anticancer properties and enhancement of therapeutic potential of cisplatin by leaf extract of Zanthoxylum armatum DC Biol. Res.
Singh,Thangjam Davis; Meitei,Heikrujam Thoihen; Sharma,Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar; Robinson,Asem; Singh,Lisam Shanjukumar; Singh,Thiyam Ramsing.
BACKGROUND: Clinical use of chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin is limited by its toxicity and drug resistance. Therefore, efforts continue for the discovery of novel combination therapies with cisplatin, to increase efficacy and reduce its toxicity. Here, we screened 16 medicinal plant extracts from Northeast part of India and found that leaf extract of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (ZALE) induced cytotoxicity as well as an effect on the increasing of the efficiency of chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin, mitomycin C and camptothecin). This work shows detail molecular mechanism of anti-cancer activity of ZALE and its potential for combined treatment regimens to enhance the apoptotic response of chemotherapeutic drugs. RESULTS: ZALE induced cytotoxicity, nuclear...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Zanthoxylum armatum; Apoptosis; ERK activation; Cisplatin sensitization; DNA damage.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602015000100046
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Antiproliferative Activity of Cyanophora paradoxa Pigments in Melanoma, Breast and Lung Cancer Cells ArchiMer
Baudelet, Paul-hubert; Gagez, Anne-laure; Berard, Jean-baptiste; Juin, Camille; Bridiau, Nicolas; Kaas, Raymond; Thiery, Valerie; Cadoret, Jean-paul; Picot, Laurent.
The glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa (Cp) was chemically investigated to identify pigments efficiently inhibiting malignant melanoma, mammary carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma cells growth. Cp water and ethanol extracts significantly inhibited the growth of the three cancer cell lines in vitro, at 100 mu g.mL(-1). Flash chromatography of the Cp ethanol extract, devoid of c-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, enabled the collection of eight fractions, four of which strongly inhibited cancer cells growth at 100 mu g.mL(-1). Particularly, two fractions inhibited more than 90% of the melanoma cells growth, one inducing apoptosis in the three cancer cells lines. The detailed analysis of Cp pigment composition resulted in the discrimination of 17 molecules, ten of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pigments; Microalgae; Cyanophora paradoxa; Melanoma; Cancer; Apoptosis; Zeaxanthin; Cryptoxanthin.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00177/28818/27289.pdf
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Antiproliferative Activity of Violaxanthin Isolated from Bioguided Fractionation of Dunaliella tertiolecta Extracts ArchiMer
Pasquet, Virginie; Morisset, Perrine; Ihammouine, Said; Chepied, Amandine; Aumailley, Lucie; Berard, Jean-baptiste; Serive, Benoit; Kaas, Raymond; Lanneluc, Isabelle; Thiery, Valerie; Lafferriere, Mathieu; Piot, Jean-marie; Patrice, Thierry; Cadoret, Jean-paul; Picot, Laurent.
Dunaliella tertiolecta (DT) was chemically investigated to isolate molecules inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in vitro. The potency to inhibit cell growth was used for the bio-guided fractionation and isolation of active compounds using chromatographic techniques. The DT dichloromethane extract exhibited a strong anti-proliferative activity on MCF-7 and LNCaP cells, and was further fractionated and sub-fractionated by RP-HPLC. High resolution mass spectrometry and spectrophotometric analysis unequivocally identified violaxanthin as the most antiproliferative molecule present in DT DCM extract. Violaxanthin purified from DT induced MCF-7 dose- dependent growth inhibition in continuous and discontinuous treatments, at...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pigments; Microalgae; Dunaliella; Violaxanthin; Carotenoid; Cancer; Apoptosis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00040/15142/12575.pdf
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Apoptogenic effect of the lipophilic o-naphthoquinone CG 10-248 on rat hepatocytes: light and electron microscopy studies Biocell
Lopez,Lidia M.; Dubin,Marta; Carrizo,Patricia H.; Burgos,Mario H.; Pellegrino de Iraldi,Amanda; Stoppani,Andrés O. M..
CG 10-248 (3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-9-chloro-2H-naphtho&#091;1,2b&#093;pyran- 5,6-dione; CG-NQ), a b-lapachone analogue, modified the ultrastructure of rat hepatocytes, as demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. After 4 h incubation with 100 µM CG-NQ, the following effects were observed: (a) nuclear chromatin condensation; (b) chromatin fragmentation; (c) displacement of mitochondria, concentrated around the nucleus; (d) disruption or expansion of mitochondrial outer or inner membranes, respectively; (e) displacement and alteration of endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth); (f) decrease of microvilli; (g) blebbing of plasma membrane and production of apoptotic bodies formed by folding of plasma membrane fragments around mitochondria or...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Apoptosis; O-naphthoquinones; Hepatocytes; Chromatin Alteration; Mitochondrial Swelling Membrane; Blebs.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-95452003000200007
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Apoptose et infections à virus de type herpès chez les bivalves marins : détection de séquences codant pour des protéines inhibitrices de l'apoptose ArchiMer
Didier, Yohann.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: PCR; Apoptosis; Marine bivalve; Herpes like virus.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2000/rapport-1768.pdf
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Apoptosis as pathogenic mechanism of infection with vesicular stomatitis virus: Evidence in primary bovine fibroblast cultures Biocell
López-Herrera,A.; Ruiz-Sáenz,J.; Góez,Y.P.; Zapata,W.; Velilla,P.A.; Arango,A.E.; Urcuqui-Inchima,S..
To determine whether fibroblasts from Blanco Orejinegro cattle, exhibit any level of resistance to infection against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotypes Indiana (VSV-I) or New Jersey (VSVNJ), 30 fibroblast cultures were phenotyped to evaluate their resistance/susceptibility. Thirty three % of Blanco Orejinegro fibroblast cultures were classified as very resistant, 50% as resistant, and 17% as susceptible to VSV-I infection, whereas 20% were classified as very resistant, 50% as resistant and 30% as susceptible to VSV-NJ infection. Therefore, there appears to be a large variation in phenotypic polymorphism among the fibroblasts to infection by VSV. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this diversity, we searched for a possible relationship...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Vesicular stomatitis virus; Apoptosis; Resistance; Bovine fibroblasts (Source: NLM).
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-95452009000200007
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Apoptosis Durante el Desarrollo Embrionario de la Retina de Tortuga (Trachemys scripta elegans) International Journal of Morphology
Segovia,Y.
La apoptosis o muerte celular programada es un proceso que ocurre durante el desarrollo del sistema nervioso. El objetivo de este estudio fue observar los patrones de apoptosis que se producen durante el desarrollo embrionario de la retina, desde el estadio S16 al momento del nacimiento, mediante miscoscopía óptica y electrónica. Se utilizaron retinas de embriones de tortuga. Nuestros datos muestran que los primeros signos de apoptosis comienzan en el estadio S16, en la capa nuclear interna y alcanzan su máxima densidad tanto en la capa nuclear interna como en la capa de células ganglionares en S20, para extinguirse, prácticamente, en el momento del nacimiento. Por otra parte, la apoptosis sigue un gradiente centro-periferia.
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Trachemys scripta elegans; Apoptosis; Retina; Tortuga.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022015000100020
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Apoptosis in Bone Defect of Diabetic Rats Treated with Low Intensity Laser: Radiological and Immunohistochemical Approach International Journal of Morphology
da Silva,Jairo Pinheiro; de Carvalho,Camila Albuquerque Mello; Romualdo,Andressa Rodrigues; Schiavoni,Vagner Sarraipo; Barbosa,Marcello Henrique Nogueira; de Moraes,Marcella Suélen Torrecilla; Tirapelli,Daniela Petri Cunha; Fazan,Valéria de Paula Sassoli; Thomazini,José Antônio; Tirapelli,Luis Fernando.
The aim of this study is evaluate the efficacy of 904 nm laser diode in bone regeneration in the bone defect in diabetic rats. Six groups of 10 male Wistar rats and 2 mm bone defects drilled on the left and right tibia were used. The diabetic animals were treated with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, i.v.). We compared the diode laser doses of treatment of bone defects 50 w ­ 4 J/cm and 100 w ­ 4J/. The right tibia was used for immunohistochemical analysis with the apoptosis markers XIAP and Caspase-3 and the left tibia was submitted to computer tomography (CT). Caspase-3 marker showed greater amount of apoptosis in all the untreated groups compared to both laser treatments. There was no statistical significance for XIAP marker. CT scan showed improvement of bone...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Bone defect; Diabetes mellitus; Laser therapy; Regeneration; Apoptosis.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022017000100029
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Apoptosis in Denervated Skeletal Muscle International Journal of Morphology
Davatz,Giovanna Castilho; Andreo,Jesus Carlos; Rodrigues,Antonio de Castro; Rosa Júnior,Geraldo Marco; Moraes,Luiz Henrique Rapucci.
The apoptosis phenomenon happens in normal tissues and in many pathological conditions as described by several researchers. Most studied in the 70s, this phenomenon remained almost forgotten in the 90s, when, with the advent of more advanced techniques, returned to laboratories. Thus, electronic microscopy, Comet Assays and histochemistry techniques, among others, were utilized in an effort to elucidate in a thorough way, the mechanisms that lead the cell to "suicide". No one can deny the importance of the knowledge of such phenomenon, so as to control its induction or blocking in the treatment of pathologies such as cancer. In this work, the apoptosis study was aimed at denervated muscles in different periods. Furthermore, two types of skeletal striated...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Skeletal muscle; Denervation; Apoptosis; Rat.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95022007000300009
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Apoptosis in HEp-2 cells infected with Ureaplasma diversum Biol. Res.
Amorim,Aline Teixeira; Marques,Lucas Miranda; Santos,Angelita Maria Oliveira Gusmão; Martins,Hellen Braga; Barbosa,Maysa Santos; Rezende,Izadora Souza; Andrade,Ewerton Ferraz; Campos,Guilherme Barreto; Lobão,Tássia Neves; Cortez,Beatriz Araujo; Monezi,Telma Alvez; Machado-Santelli,Glaucia Maria; Timenetsky,Jorge.
BACKGROUND: Bacterial pathogens have many strategies for infecting and persisting in host cells. Adhesion, invasion and intracellular life are important features in the biology of mollicutes. The intracellular location ofUreaplasma diversum may trigger disturbances in the host cell. This includes activation or inhibition of pro and anti-apoptotic factors, which facilitate the development of host damage. The aim of the present study was to associate U. diversum infection in HEp-2 cells and apoptosis induction. Cells were infected for 72hs with four U. diversum clinical isolates and an ATCC strain. The U. diversuminvasion was analyzed by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and gentamicin invasion assay. The apoptosis was evaluated using pro-apoptotic and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Ureaplasma diversum; Invasion; Apoptosis; HEp-2 cells.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602014000100038
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Apoptosis inducida por un análogo de GnRH en una línea celular de granulosa de ovario bovino (BGC-1) InVet
Cruzans,P.R.; Carou,M.C.; Lorenzo,M.S.; Lombardo,D.M.
Se han identificado receptores de la hormona liberadora de gonadotrofina (GnRHR) en células de granulosa ovárica (CG) y en células luteales (CL). Asimismo, se ha observado que la activación de los GnRHR en CG regula la función gonadal. Estudios realizados utilizando agonistas de GnRH (GnRHa) en ovarios de ratas, in vivo e in vitro, demostraron un incremento de la atresia folicular. Nuestro objetivo fue estudiar la regulación de la apoptosis en una línea establecida de células de granulosa de ovario bovino (BGC-1) utilizando el acetato de leuprolide (LA) como GnRHa y el ANTIDE como antagonista competitivo. Nuestros resultados demuestran un aumento significativo de la proporción de células apoptóticas inducidas durante 24 y 48 h con 100 nM LA, confirmado...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Apoptosis; BGC-1; Acetato de leuprolide; GnRH.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1668-34982012000100011
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Apoptosis related genes expressed in cultured Fallopian tube epithelial cells infected in vitro with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Biol. Res.
REYES,PAZ A; VARGAS,MACARENA F; GARCÍA,KATHERINE P; RUBILAR,PAULINA S; NAVARRETE,PATRICIA A; FUENTES,PAMELA M; RÍOS,MIGUEL A; ORIHUELA,PEDRO A; VARGAS,RENATO H; RUBIO,VÍCTOR H; HECKELS,JOHN; CHRISTODOULIDES,MYRON; CÁRDENAS,HUGO; VELASQUEZ,LUIS A.
Background: Infection of the Fallopian tubes (FT) by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo) can lead to acute salpingitis, an inflammatory condition resulting in damage primarily to the ciliated cells, with loss of ciliary activity and sloughing of the cells from the epithelium. Recently, we have shown that Ngo infection induced apoptosis in FT epithelium cells by a TNF-alpha dependent mechanism that could contribute to the cell and tissue damage observed in gonococcal salpingitis. Aim: To investigate the apoptosis-related genes expressed during apoptosis induction in cultured FT epithelial cells infected in vitro by Ngo. Materials and Methods: In the current study, we used cDNA macroarrays and real time PCR to identify and determine the expression levels of...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Apoptosis; Fallopian tube; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Salpingitis; TNF-alpha.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602007000400006
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Biochemical and morphological analysis of cell death induced by Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) venom on cultured cells J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Omran,M. A. A.; Fabb,S. A.; Dickson,G..
We investigated the in vitro process of cell death caused by Egyptian cobra venom on primary human embryonic kidney (293T) and mouse myoblast (C2C12) cell lines. The aim of these studies was to provide further information about triggering cell death, and suggest methods for eliminating unwanted cells, such as tumour cells. Both cell lines were treated with 10, 20, and 50 m g/ml of Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) venom in serum free media (SFM) and incubated for 8 hours. Total activities of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) released in the culture during venom incubation were used as an indicator of the venom in vitro cytotoxicity. Cell injury was morphologically recognized and apoptosis determined by a Fluorescing Apoptosis Detection...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cobra venom; Cytotoxicity; Apoptosis.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992004000300004
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Cadmium-induced apoptosis of Siberian tiger fibroblasts via disrupted intracellular homeostasis Biol. Res.
Wang,Hui; Liu,Zheng; Zhang,Wenxiu; Yuan,Ziao; Yuan,Hongyi; Liu,Xueting; Yang,Chunwen; Guan,Weijun.
BACKGROUND: Heavy metals can cause great harm to Siberian tigers in the natural environment. Cadmium (Cd2+) is an environmental contaminant that affects multiple cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It has been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types and tissues. RESULTS: We investigated the apoptotic effects of Cd2+ on Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. Our research revealed the typical signs of apoptosis after Cd²+ exposure. Apoptosis was dose- (0-4.8 &#956;&#924;) and duration-dependent (12-48 h), and proliferation was strongly inhibited. Cd²+ increased the activity of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and disrupted calcium homeostasis by causing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. It...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Siberian tiger; Cadmium; Apoptosis; Fibroblast; Calcium.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602016000100042
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