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Registros recuperados: 13
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Evaluating Responses in Complex Adaptive Systems: Insights on Water Management from the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) Ecology and Society
Bohensky, Erin; University of Pretoria; ebohensky@zoology.up.ac.za; Lynam, Timothy; University of Zimbabwe; tlynam@science.uz.ac.zw.
Ecosystem services are embedded in complex adaptive systems. These systems are riddled with nonlinearities, uncertainties, and surprises, and are made increasingly complex by the many human responses to problems or changes arising within them. In this paper we attempt to determine whether there are certain factors that characterize effective responses in complex systems. We construct a framework for response evaluation with three interconnected scopes or spatial and temporal domains: the scope of an impact, the scope of the awareness of the impact, and the scope of the power or influence to respond. Drawing from the experience of the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA), we explore the applicability of this framework to the example of...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Responses; Complex adaptive systems; Ecosystem services; Southern Africa; Water management; Impact; Awareness; Power.
Ano: 2005
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From Community-Based Resource Management to Complex Systems: The Scale Issue and Marine Commons Ecology and Society
Berkes, Fikret; University of Manitoba; berkes@cc.umanitoba.ca.
Most research in the area of common and common-pool resources in the past two or three decades sought the simplicity of community-based resource management cases to develop theory. This was done mainly because of the relative ease of observing processes of self-governance in simple cases, but it raises questions related to scale. To what extent can the findings of small-scale, community-based commons be scaled up to generalize about regional and global commons? Even though some of the principles from community-based studies are likely to be relevant across scale, new and different principles may also come into play at different levels. The study of cross-level institutions such as institutions of co-management, provides ways to approach scale-related...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed article Palavras-chave: Common property theory; Community-based resource management; Complex adaptive systems; Marine commons; Scale..
Ano: 2006
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Governance for Resilience: CALFED as a Complex Adaptive Network for Resource Management Ecology and Society
Booher, David E.; Center for Collaborative Policy, California State University Sacramento; dbooher@berkeley.edu; Innes, Judith E.; Department of City and Regional Planning, University of California Berkeley; jinnes@berkeley.edu.
A study of California’s water planning and management process, known as CALFED, offers insights into governance strategies that can deal with adaptive management of environmental resources in ways that conventional bureaucratic procedures cannot. CALFED created an informal policy-making system, engaging multiple agencies and stakeholders. The research is built on data from 5 years of field work that included interviews with participants, review of documents, and observation of meetings. We argue that CALFED can be seen as a self-organizing complex adaptive network (CAN) in which interactions were generally guided by collaborative heuristics. The case demonstrates several innovative governance practices, including new practices and norms for...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Collaborative governance; Complex adaptive systems; Consensus building; Policy network; Resilient resource management; Water policy.
Ano: 2010
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Immune Systems and Ecosystems Ecology and Society
Levin, Simon A; Princeton University; slevin@eno.princeton.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Complex adaptive systems; Ecosystem management; Immune systems; Normative behavior.
Ano: 2001
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Innovation and Metastability: a Systems Model Ecology and Society
Winder, Nick; Newcastle University; Nick.Winder@ncl.ac.uk.
The culture trap is the tendency to put cultural markers and habits above the demands of reason or compassion. It can reduce receptivity to new ideas and trigger Phoenix Cycles of catastrophe and renaissance. System research is then complicated by the historiographic problem of continuity and change, because there are no objective criteria for deciding whether "the system" survived or was destroyed by the catastrophe. This paper explores the differences between uncertainty emergence and self-organizing emergence using the concept of a "possibility space" to clarify the relationship between anti-causal events and causal states, i.e., the meso-history of conjuncture. Conjunctures are interpreted ex post in the context of deep time. The paper distinguishes...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptive potential; Cultural ecodynamics; Complex adaptive systems; Innovation; Metastability; Resilience..
Ano: 2007
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Insight on Invasions and Resilience Derived from Spatiotemporal Discontinuities of Biomass at Local and Regional Scales Ecology and Society
Angeler, David G; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment; david.angeler@slu.se; Allen, Craig R; U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit; School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln; allencr@unl.edu; Johnson, Richard K; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment; richard.johnson@slu.se.
Understanding the social and ecological consequences of species invasions is complicated by nonlinearities in processes, and differences in process and structure as scale is changed. Here we use discontinuity analyses to investigate nonlinear patterns in the distribution of biomass of an invasive nuisance species that could indicate scale-specific organization. We analyze biomass patterns in the flagellate Gonyostomum semen (Raphidophyta) in 75 boreal lakes during an 11-year period (1997-2007). With simulations using a unimodal null model and cluster analysis, we identified regional groupings of lakes based on their biomass patterns. We evaluated the variability of membership of individual lakes in regional biomass groups. Temporal trends in local and...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Algal blooms; Alternative states; Biological invasions; Boreal lakes; Complex adaptive systems; Discontinuities; Landscape ecology; Panarchy; Resilience.
Ano: 2012
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Interrogating resilience: toward a typology to improve its operationalization Ecology and Society
Davidson, Julie L.; Discipline of Geography and Spatial Sciences, School of Land and Food, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia; Julie.Davidson@utas.edu.au; Jacobson, Chris; Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia; cjacobso@usc.edu.au; Lyth, Anna; Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia; Discipline of Geography and Spatial Sciences, School of Land and Food, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia; Anna.Lyth@utas.edu.au; Dedekorkut-Howes, Aysin; Griffith School of Environment & Urban Research Program, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; a.dedekorkut@griffith.edu.au; Baldwin, Claudia L.; Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia; CBaldwin@usc.edu.au; Ellison, Joanna C.; Discipline of Geography and Spatial Sciences, School of Land and Food, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia; Joanna.Ellison@utas.edu.au; Holbrook, Neil J.; Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; neil.holbrook@utas.edu.au; Howes, Michael J.; Griffith School of Environment & Urban Research Program, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; m.howes@griffith.edu.au; Serrao-Neumann, Silvia; Griffith School of Environment & Urban Research Program, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; CRC for Water Sensitive Cities, Monash University, Victoria, Australia; s.serrao-neumann@griffith.edu.au; Singh-Peterson, Lila; Australian Centre for Pacific Island Research, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia; lsinghpe@usc.edu.au; Smith, Timothy F.; Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia; tim.smith@usc.edu.au.
In the context of accelerated global change, the concept of resilience, with its roots in ecological theory and complex adaptive systems, has emerged as the favored framework for understanding and responding to the dynamics of change. Its transfer from ecological to social contexts, however, has led to the concept being interpreted in multiple ways across numerous disciplines causing significant challenges for its practical application. The aim of this paper is to improve conceptual clarity within resilience thinking so that resilience can be interpreted and articulated in ways that enhance its utility and explanatory power, not only theoretically but also operationally. We argue that the current confusion and ambiguity within resilience thinking is...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Climate change; Complex adaptive systems; Conceptual clarity; Policy making; Resilience; Typology.
Ano: 2016
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Matching Social and Ecological Systems in Complex Ocean Fisheries Ecology and Society
Wilson, James A.; University of Maine; Jwilson@maine.edu.
This paper considers ocean fisheries as complex adaptive systems and addresses the question of how human institutions might be best matched to their structure and function. Ocean ecosystems operate at multiple scales, but the management of fisheries tends to be aimed at a single species considered at a single broad scale. The paper argues that this mismatch of ecological and management scale makes it difficult to address the fine-scale aspects of ocean ecosystems, and leads to fishing rights and strategies that tend to erode the underlying structure of populations and the system itself. A successful transition to ecosystem-based management will require institutions better able to economize on the acquisition of feedback about the impact of human...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Resource governance; Fisheries; Complex adaptive systems; Scale; Fishing effort; Decentralization; Governance institutions; Incentives; Multiscale governance; Fishing rights; Ecosystem management; Ecosystem-based management; Polycentric networks.
Ano: 2006
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Network structure and institutional complexity in an ecology of water management games Ecology and Society
Lubell, Mark ; Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California Davis, Center for Environmental Policy and Behavior ; mnlubell@ucdavis.edu; Robins, Garry; University of Melbourne;; Wang, Peng; University of Melbourne;.
Social-ecological systems are governed by a complex of ecology of games featuring multiple actors, policy institutions, and issues, and not just single institutions operating in isolation. We update Long's (1958) ecology of games to analyze the coordinating roles of actors and institutions in the context of the ecology of water management games in San Francisco Bay, California. The ecology of games is operationalized as a bipartite network with actors participating in institutions, and exponential random graph models are used to test hypotheses about the structural features of the network. We found that policy coordination is facilitated mostly by federal and state agencies and collaborative institutions that span geographic boundaries. Network...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Complex adaptive systems; Cooperation; Ecology of games; Institutions; Resilience.
Ano: 2014
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Resilience and adaptability of rice terrace social-ecological systems: a case study of a local community’s perception in Banaue, Philippines Ecology and Society
Castonguay, Adam C; University of Kiel, Institute for Natural Resource Conservation, Department of Ecosystem Management; Monash University, Department of Civil Engineering; adam.charette.castonguay@monash.edu; Burkhard, Benjamin; University of Kiel, Institute for Natural Resource Conservation, Department of Ecosystem Management; Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF); bburkhard@ecology.uni-kiel.de; Horgan, Finbarr G; Crop and Environmental Science Division, International Rice Research Institute; f.horgan@irri.org; Settele, Josef; UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research; iDiv, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig; josef.settele@ufz.de.
The social-ecological systems of rice terraces across Southeast Asia are the result of centuries of long-term interactions between human communities and their surrounding ecosystems. Processes and structures in these systems have evolved to provide a diversity of ecosystem services and benefits to human societies. However, as Southeast Asian countries experience rapid economic growth and related land-use changes, the remaining extensive rice cultivation systems are increasingly under pressure. We investigated the long-term development of ecosystem services and the adaptive capacity of the social-ecological system of rice terrace landscapes using a case study of Banaue (Ifugao Province, Northern-Luzon, Philippines). A set of indicators was used to describe...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive capacity; Agroecosystems; Complex adaptive systems; Ecosystem services; Human well-being; Ifugao Rice Terraces.
Ano: 2016
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RESILIENCE OF SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS IN EUROPEAN RURAL AREAS: THEORY AND PROSPECTS AgEcon
Schouten, Marleen A.H.; van der Heide, Martijn M.; Heijman, Wim J.M..
In today’s world, rural areas are confronted with a spectrum of changes. These changes have multiple characters, varying from changes in ecosystem conditions to socioeconomic impacts, such as food- and financial crises. They present serious problems to rural management and largely affect future perspectives of rural areas. Rural resilience refers to the capacity of a rural region to adapt to changing external circumstances in such a way that a satisfactory standard of living is maintained, while coping with its inherent ecological, economic and social vulnerability. Rural resilience describes how rural areas are affected by external shocks and how it influences system dynamics. This paper further eradicates on this concept, by exploring in detail what the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resilience; Social-ecological systems; Rural development; Complex adaptive systems; System dynamics; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57343
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Revolt and Remember: How the Shimshal Nature Trust Develops and Sustains Social-Ecological Resilience in Northern Pakistan Ecology and Society
Abidi-Habib, Mehjabeen; Government College University Lahore; mamie@wol.net.pk; Lawrence, Anna; Oxford University; anna.lawrence@eci.ox.ac.uk.
The Shimshal Nature Trust is an indigenous institution rooted in a thriving and dynamic culture that links the local ecology and society. It has deployed identity, traditional knowledge, science, and institutional innovation to adapt to outside challenges without destroying local commons management. This paper reviews scholarly debate on natural resource management and uses resilience theory to examine this complex adaptive system. Two disturbances to Shimshal resilience prompted by a national park and a new road are traced. Shimshali responses include social processes of learning, knowledge systems, and renewal. Ways in which adaptive renewal cycles involve Revolt, a short, fast reaction, and Remember, a larger, slower cascade, are put in perspective....
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed article Palavras-chave: Pakistan; Indigenous institution; Local commons management; Ecological resilience; Complex adaptive systems; Social learning; Renewal; National park; New road; Community participation.
Ano: 2007
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Transformation from “Carbon Valley” to a “Post-Carbon Society” in a Climate Change Hot Spot: the Coalfields of the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia Ecology and Society
Evans, Geoffrey R.; University of Newcastle (Australia), Ecosystem Health Research Group; Geoffrey.r.evans@bigpond.com.
This paper examines the possibilities for transformation of a climate-change hot spot—the coal-producing Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia—using complex adaptive systems (CAS) theory. It uses CAS theory to understand the role of coal in the region’s history and efforts to strengthen the ecological, economic, and social resilience of the region’s coal industry in the face of demands for a shift from fossil fuel dependency to clean, renewable energy and genuine resilience and sustainability. It uses CAS theory to understand ways in which the resilience of two alternative futures, labeled “Carbon Valley” and “Post-Carbon Society” (Heinberg 2004), might evolve. The...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Climate change; Coal; Complex adaptive systems; Hunter Valley Australia; Panarchy; Resilience; Sustainability; Transition.
Ano: 2008
Registros recuperados: 13
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