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Registros recuperados: 22
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Agents, Individuals, and Networks: Modeling Methods to Inform Natural Resource Management in Regional Landscapes Ecology and Society
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Agent-based modeling; Complex systems; Individual-based modeling; Integrated natural resource management; Landscape modeling; Regional landscapes; Social-ecological networks.
Ano: 2012
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Assessing the Sustainability of Small Farmer Natural Resource Management Systems. A Critical Analysis of the MESMIS Program (1995-2010) Ecology and Society
Sustainability assessment oriented to improve current systems and practices is urgently needed, particularly in the context of small farmer natural resource management systems (NRMS). Unfortunately, social-ecological systems (SES) theory, sustainability evaluation frameworks, and assessment methods are still foreign not only to farmers but to many researchers, students, NGOs, policy makers/operators, and other interested groups. In this paper we examine the main achievements and challenges of the MESMIS Program (Spanish acronym for Indicator-based Sustainability Assessment Framework), a 15-year ongoing effort with impact in 60 case studies and 20 undergraduate and graduate programs mainly in Ibero-America that is attempting to cope with the stated...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Complex systems; Latin America; Natural resource management; Small farmers; Social-ecological systems; Sustainability assessments.
Ano: 2012
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Complex Land Systems: the Need for Long Time Perspectives to Assess their Future Ecology and Society
Dearing, John A.; University of Southampton; j.dearing@soton.ac.uk; Braimoh, Ademola K.; Global Land Project, Sapporo Nodal Office, Hokkaido University; World Bank; abraimoh@glp.hokudai.ac.jp; Reenberg, Anette; Global Land Project, International Project Office, University of Copenhagen; Ar@geogr.ku.dk; Turner, Billie L.; Arizona State University; Billie.L.Turner@asu.edu; van der Leeuw, Sander; Arizona State University; vanderle@asu.edu.
The growing awareness about the need to anticipate the future of land systems focuses on how well we understand the interactions between society and environmental processes within a complexity framework. A major barrier to understanding is insufficient attention given to long (multidecadal) temporal perspectives on complex system behavior that can provide insights through both analog and evolutionary approaches. Analogs are useful in generating typologies of generic system behavior, whereas evolutionary assessments provide insight into site-specific system properties. Four dimensions of these properties: (1) trends and trajectories, (2) frequencies, thresholds and alternate steady states, (3) slow and fast processes, and (4) legacies and contingencies, are...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Complex systems; Global Land Project; Land systems; Multidecadal timescales; Resilience; Socioecological systems; Sustainability science.
Ano: 2010
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Complexity, Modeling, and Natural Resource Management Ecology and Society
Cilliers, Paul; University of Stellenbosch; fpc@sun.ac.za; Biggs, Harry C.; South African National Parks; biggs@sanparks.org; Blignaut, Sonja; The Narrative Lab; sonja@narrativelab.co.za; Choles, Aiden G.; The Narrative Lab; aiden@narrativelab.co.za; Hofmeyr, Jan-Hendrik S.; University of Stellenbosch; jhsh@sun.ac.za; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; University of Kwazulu Natal; jewittg@ukzn.ac.za; Roux, Dirk J.; South African National Parks; Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University; Monash South Africa; dirkr@sanparks.org.
This paper contends that natural resource management (NRM) issues are, by their very nature, complex and that both scientists and managers in this broad field will benefit from a theoretical understanding of complex systems. It starts off by presenting the core features of a view of complexity that not only deals with the limits to our understanding, but also points toward a responsible and motivating position. Everything we do involves explicit or implicit modeling, and as we can never have comprehensive access to any complex system, we need to be aware both of what we leave out as we model and of the implications of the choice of our modeling framework. One vantage point is never sufficient, as complexity necessarily implies that multiple (independent)...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Complex systems; Diversity; Management; Mental models; Resilience; Social complexity; Social– Ecological systems.
Ano: 2013
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Coupled human and natural systems approach to wildlife research and conservation Ecology and Society
Carter, Neil H; National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center; ncarter@sesync.org; Hull, Vanessa; Michigan State University; hullvane@msu.edu; McConnell, William J.; Michigan State University; mcconn64@msu.edu; Axinn, William; University of Michigan; baxinn@umich.edu; Ghimire, Dirgha; University of Michigan; nepdjg@umich.edu; Liu, Jianguo; Michigan State University; liuji@msu.edu.
Conserving wildlife while simultaneously meeting the resource needs of a growing human population is a major sustainability challenge. As such, using combined social and environmental perspectives to understand how people and wildlife are interlinked, together with the mechanisms that may weaken or strengthen those linkages, is of utmost importance. However, such integrated information is lacking. To help fill this information gap, we describe an integrated coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) approach for analyzing the patterns, causes, and consequences of changes in wildlife population and habitat, human population and land use, and their interactions. Using this approach, we synthesize research in two sites, Wolong Nature Reserve in China and...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Complex systems; Conservation; Endangered species; Interdisciplinary science; Wildlife science.
Ano: 2014
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Ecosystems and Immune Systems: Hierarchical Response Provides Resilience against Invasions Ecology and Society
Allen, Craig; University of Nebraska; allencr@unl.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Biological invasions; Complex systems; Cross-scale; Ecosystem management; Immune systems; Institutions; Resilience; Scale.
Ano: 2001
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Effects of Heterogeneity in Residential Preferences on an Agent-Based Model of Urban Sprawl Ecology and Society
Brown, Daniel G.; University of Michigan; danbrown@umich.edu; Robinson, Derek T.; University of Michigan; dtrobins@umich.edu.
The ability of agent-based models (ABMs) to represent heterogeneity in the characteristics and behaviors of actors enables analyses about the implications of this heterogeneity for system behavior. The importance of heterogeneity in the specification of ABMs, however, creates new demands for empirical support. An earlier analysis of a survey of residential preferences within southeastern Michigan revealed seven groups of residents with similar preferences on similar characteristics of location. In this paper, we present an ABM that represents the process of residential development within an urban system and run it for a hypothetical pattern of environmental variation. Residential locations are selected by residential agents, who evaluate locations on the...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Complex systems; Social surveys; Spatial modeling; Urban sprawl..
Ano: 2006
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Evaluation of the bioeconomic sustainability of multi-species multi-fleet fisheries under a wide range of policy options using ISIS-Fish ArchiMer
Pelletier, Dominique; Mahevas, Stephanie; Drouineau, Hilaire; Vermard, Youen; Thebaud, Olivier; Guyader, Olivier; Poussind, Benjamin.
In order to provide reliable scientific advice and support for fisheries management, it is necessary to evaluate the biological and economic sustainability of complex fisheries, such as multi-species multi-fleet fisheries. Existing policy-screening modelling tools are not fully suitable in this purpose due to either an over-simplified description of population dynamics, or due to the lack of consideration of economic aspects. In this paper, we present a package that enables quantitative bioeconomic assessment of management scenarios. Population dynamics is described through spatially- and seasonally-explicit models. Exploitation dynamics is characterized by several fishing activities with specific spatial and seasonal features, and practiced by several...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Policy screening; Natural resource management; Fisheries dynamics; Bioeconomic model; Population dynamics; Complex systems; Simulation tool.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-6782.pdf
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Foghorns to the Future: Using Knowledge and Transdisciplinarity to Navigate Complex Systems Ecology and Society
Cundill, Georgina N. R.; Rhodes University; gcundill@rides.cl; Fabricius, Christo; Rhodes University; c.fabricius@ru.ac.za; Marti, Neus; Autonomous University; neus@amauta.rcp.net.pe.
Complex systems are shaped by cross-scale interactions, nonlinear feedbacks, and uncertainty, among other factors. Transdisciplinary approaches that combine participatory and conventional methods and democratize knowledge to enable diverse inputs, including those from local, informal experts, are essential tools in understanding such systems. The metaphor of a “bridge” to overcome the divide between different disciplines and knowledge systems is often used to advocate for more inclusive approaches. However, there is a shortage of information and consensus on the process, methodologies, and techniques that are appropriate to achieve this. This paper compares two case studies from Peru and South Africa in which community-level assessments...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Ecological assessment; Community-based assessment; Complexity; Scale; Epistemology; Methodology; Millennium Ecosystem Assessment; Complex systems; Uncertainty; Peru; South Africa; Case studies; Transdisciplinary research.
Ano: 2005
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From Complex Regions to Complex Worlds Ecology and Society
Holling, C. S.; University of Florida; holling@zoo.ufl.edu.
Panarchy focuses on ecological and social systems that change abruptly. Panarchy is the process by which they grow, adapt, transform, and, in the end, collapse. These stages occur at different scales. The back loop of such changes is a critical time and presents critical opportunities for experiment and learning. It is when uncertainties arise and when resilience is tested and established. We now see changes on a global scale that suggest that we are in such a back loop. This article assesses the possibility of using the ideas that are central to panarchy, developed on a regional scale, to help explain the changes that are being brought about on a global scale by the Internet and by climate, economic, and geopolitical changes.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive cycles; Change; Complex systems; Panarchy; Transformation.
Ano: 2004
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ISIS-Fish, a generic and spatially explicit simulation tool for evaluating the impact of management measures on fisheries dynamics ArchiMer
Mahevas, Stephanie; Pelletier, Dominique.
Assessing the impact of management scenarii on multi-species multi-fleet fisheries requires spatially and seasonally explicit simulation tools. No such tools are currently available in fisheries science. This paper presents a software that evaluates the impact of management measures on the dynamics of a complex fishery. The simulation model is generic in order to be used for different types of fisheries. Existing knowledge about each fishery is stored in a database included in the software, and may be easily modified. This includes the parameters describing each population and each fishing activity. Furthermore, the software allows for flexibility in several model assumptions. Both management measures and behaviour of fishermen in reaction to these...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Management measures; Fisheries dynamics; Complex systems; Spatial; Integration of knowledge; Simulation tool.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/publication-1133.pdf
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La problemática de la reproducción social de las unidades domésticas en el municipio de Nealtican, Puebla. Colegio de Postgraduados
Díaz Núñez, Fernando Octavio del Carmen.
Esta investigación es un estudio de caso que trata de la problemática de la reproducción social de las Unidades Domésticas que habitan en el municipio de Nealtican, perteneciente al estado de Puebla y que se encuentra ubicado en el eje neovolcánico del país a 22 kilómetros hacia el este de la ciudad de Puebla, México. Para el abordaje de la problemática se utiliza la perspectiva epistemo-metodológica de los Sistemas Complejos la cual nos permiten estudiar aquellos fenómenos, procesos y mecanismos que durante las últimas cuatro décadas se entienden que están en la base de los problemas y las soluciones que construyen tanto los sujetos como las Unidades Domésticas Rurales y las Unidades Domésticas Urbanas. Los problemas y las soluciones locales a la...
Palavras-chave: Multiactividad laboral; Pluriactividad; Procesos y mecanismos de reproducción social; Ruralidad; Sistemas complejos; Unidades domésticas rurales y urbanas; Complex systems; Multi-activity employment; Pluriactivity; Processes and mechanisms of social reproduction; Rurality; Rural and urban hosehold units; Doctorado; EDAR; Estrategias para el Desarrollo Agrícola Regional.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/724
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Learning about brain physiology and complexity from the study of the epilepsies BJMBR
Garcia-Cairasco,N..
The brain is a complex system, which produces emergent properties such as those associated with activity-dependent plasticity in processes of learning and memory. Therefore, understanding the integrated structures and functions of the brain is well beyond the scope of either superficial or extremely reductionistic approaches. Although a combination of zoom-in and zoom-out strategies is desirable when the brain is studied, constructing the appropriate interfaces to connect all levels of analysis is one of the most difficult challenges of contemporary neuroscience. Is it possible to build appropriate models of brain function and dysfunctions with computational tools? Among the best-known brain dysfunctions, epilepsies are neurological syndromes that reach a...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Complex systems; Emergence; Epileptology; Neural networks; E-Neuroscience; Neuroinformatics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009000100012
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Linking classroom learning and research to advance ideas about social-ecological resilience Ecology and Society
Ban, Natalie C.; School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria; nban@uvic.ca; Boyd, Emily; School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University.; emily.boyd@reading.ac.uk; Cox, Michael; Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College; michael.e.cox@dartmouth.edu; Meek, Chanda L.; Department of Political Science, University of Alaska Fairbanks; clmeek@alaska.edu; Schoon, Michael; School of Sustainability, Arizona State University; michael.schoon@asu.edu; Villamayor-Tomas, Sergio; Division of Resource Economics, Humboldt University; villamayortomas@gmail.com.
There is an increasing demand in higher education institutions for training in complex environmental problems. Such training requires a careful mix of conventional methods and innovative solutions, a task not always easy to accomplish. In this paper we review literature on this theme, highlight relevant advances in the pedagogical literature, and report on some examples resulting from our recent efforts to teach complex environmental issues. The examples range from full credit courses in sustainable development and research methods to project-based and in-class activity units. A consensus from the literature is that lectures are not sufficient to fully engage students in these issues. A conclusion from the review of examples is that problem-based and...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Complex systems; Interdisciplinarity; Pedagogy; Problem-based learning; Project-based learning; Social-ecological resilience; Social-ecological systems; Teaching.
Ano: 2015
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Navigating the Back Loop: Fostering Social Innovation and Transformation in Ecosystem Management Ecology and Society
Biggs, Reinette; University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden; oonsie.biggs@stockholmresilience.su.se; Westley, Frances R.; University of Waterloo, Canada; fwestley@uwaterloo.ca; Carpenter, Stephen R.; University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA; srcarpen@wisc.edu.
Addressing the environmental challenges of the 21st century requires substantial changes to the way modern society views and manages ecosystems. In particular, many authors contend that fundamental transformation of the largely sectoral, expert-centered ecosystem-management institutions of modern, Western societies is needed. There is increasing agreement that more adaptive, integrated, collaborative ecosystem-management approaches, interlinked at multiple scales, would improve society’s ability to sustainably manage complex social–ecological systems. Therefore, understanding processes of transformation, and factors that may enable transformation in ecosystem management, has become an active research area. We explore...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptive cycle; Bridging organization; Co-management; Complex systems; Ecosystem management; Social entrepeneur; Social innovation; Transformation.
Ano: 2010
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Nonextensive statistical mechanics: a brief review of its present status Anais da ABC (AABC)
TSALLIS,CONSTANTINO.
We briefly review the present status of nonextensive statistical mechanics. We focus on (i) the central equations of the formalism, (ii) the most recent applications in physics and other sciences, (iii) the a priori determination (from microscopic dynamics) of the entropic index q for two important classes of physical systems, namely low-dimensional maps (both dissipative and conservative) and long-range interacting many-body hamiltonian classical systems.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Nonextensive statistical mechanics; Entropy; Complex systems.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652002000300003
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Panarchy: Discontinuities Reveal Similarities in the Dynamic System Structure of Ecological and Social Systems Ecology and Society
Garmestani, Ahjond S; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; garmestani.ahjond@epa.gov; Allen, Craig R; University of Nebraska; allencr@unl.edu; Gunderson, Lance; Emory University; lgunder@emory.edu.
In this paper, we review the empirical evidence of discontinuous distributions in complex systems within the context of panarchy theory and discuss the significance of discontinuities for understanding emergent properties such as resilience. Over specific spatial-temporal scale ranges, complex systems can configure in a variety of regimes, each defined by a characteristic set of self-organized structures and processes. A system may remain within a regime or dramatically shift to another regime. Understanding the drivers of regime shifts has provided critical insight into system structure and resilience. Although analyses of regime shifts have tended to focus on the system level, new evidence suggests that the same system behaviors operate within scales. In...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Panarchy; Discontinuities; Complex systems; Regime shifts; Resilience.
Ano: 2009
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Restrictions of empirical policy analyses: the example of the evaluation of rural development policies AgEcon
Margarian, Anne.
The present paper asks under what circumstances a standardisation of evaluations would be feasible in order to enable a comprehensible aggregation of results for the European administration. We argue that in the complex environment of rural development the adequate definition of system boundaries is a precondition for the successful application of empirical methods and the identification of causal effects. If macro effects and self-enforcing effects are important, the objects of inquiry have to be defined on a higher observational level. In this case, the statistical identification may not be possible because there might be hardly any comparable (“counterfactual”) observations. We conclude that evaluators need definite theoretical guidance in order to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Evaluation; Complex systems; Causal inference; Counterfactual approach; Community/Rural/Urban Development; O22; Q18; R58; C51.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95320
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Sustentabilidad para el desarrollo rural en el Municipio de Compostela, Nayarit, México: un enfoque de sistemas complejos. Colegio de Postgraduados
González Acuña, Irma Julieta.
Esta investigación con enfoque de sistemas complejos, tuvo como objetivo identificar pautas de inestabilidad en los agroecosistemas y el nivel de sustentabilidad para el desarrollo rural. Se entrevistaron agricultores (n = 163) y representantes del Consejo Municipal de Desarrollo Sustentable local (n = 14). Se hicieron mapas digitales con datos de análisis de suelo (n = 4017) e indicadores diversos obtenidos con metodologías mixtas. El nivel de vida racional (0.61 ± 0.11) se asoció (P ≤0.05) con rendimiento, eficiencia energética y deterioro del suelo por deforestación. Se identificaron sociedades moderadamente estables (0.83 ± 0.4) relacionadas con cohesión social (P ≤0.05). La diversidad en los agroecosistemas (0.54 ± 0.16) se asoció a superficie (r =...
Palavras-chave: Sistemas complejos; Sustentabilidad; Metabolismo socioeconómico y ecológico; Huella ecológica; Autoorganización; Complex systems; Sustainability; Socioeconomic and ecologic metabolism; Ecological footprint; Self-organization; Doctorado; Agroecosistemas Tropicales.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/434
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Transition Landscapes and Social Networks: Examining On-Gound Community Resilience and its Implications for Policy Settings in Multiscalar Systems Ecology and Society
Beilin, Ruth; Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne; rbeilin@unimelb.edu.au; Reichelt, Nicole Tania; Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne; reichelt@unimelb.edu.au; King, Barbara Joyce; Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne; b.king3@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au; Long, Allison; Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victorian Government; allison.long@dse.vic.gov.au; Cam, Stephanie; Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victorian Government; stephaniec@rmcg.com.au.
Community based natural resource management groups contribute to landscape scale ecological change through their aggregation of local ecological knowledge. However, the social networks at the heart of such groups remain invisible to decision makers as evidenced in funding cuts and strategic policy documents. Our research is a pilot study of the social networks in two peri-urban landscapes in Victoria, Australia. We describe the social network analysis undertaken with regard to natural resource management issues. The findings are assessed against the qualities of resilience: diversity, modularity, connectivity, and feedback loops. A social network analysis tool is discussed with participants to assess its usefulness on-ground and with agency staff...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Community based; Complex systems; Landcare; Multiscalar collaboration; Resource management; Social network analysis; Social resilience.
Ano: 2013
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