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13 + 1: A Comparison of Global Climate Change Policy Architectures AgEcon
Aldy, Joseph E.; Barrett, Scott; Stavins, Robert N..
We critically review the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. We employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The Kyoto Protocol does not fare well on a number of criteria, but none of the alternative proposals fare well along all six dimensions. We identify several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is "too little, too fast"; developing countries should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Policy architecture; Kyoto Protocol; Efficiency; Cost effectiveness; Equity; Participation; Compliance; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10541
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A Theoretical Model of Optimal Compliance Decisions under Different Penalty Designs in Emissions Trading Markets AgEcon
Restiani, Phillia; Betz, Regina.
This paper employs a theoretical model to examine compliance incentives and market efficiency under three penalty types: the fixed penalty rate, which uses a constant marginal financial penalty; the make-good provision (quantity penalty), where each missing permit in the current period is to be offset with a ratio (restoration rate) in the following period; and a mixed penalty, which combines the two penalty types. Using a simple two-period model of firm's profit maximisation, we analyse compliance decisions and the efficient penalty level under each penalty type. Firms‟ compliance strategies are modelled as an irreversible investment in abatement measures and permit buying in the market. Our findings indicate that the penalty type does not affect...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Penalty design; Compliance; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107585
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An adherence trilogy is essential for long-term HAART success BJID
Garcia,Rosa; Schooley,Robert T.; Badaró,Roberto.
Adherence is the milestone of a successful therapy. Over the last decade several authors have addressed the importance of adherence for optimal results of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Many health care systems are investing substantial resources to make available contemporary antiretroviral therapy. Despite the large investment in medications, insufficient investments have been made into an integrated adherence component to maximize the impact of these medications. Adherence, unlike drug therapy, cannot be defined as a single method with a defined prescription or formula. Instead, it is the result of a complex interaction between the patient, a prescribed medication and the health system. Many reports are available analyzing each of these components. We...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Adherence; Compliance; Antiretroviral therapy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702003000500005
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An Experimental Analysis of Compliance in Dynamic Emissions Markets AgEcon
Stranlund, John K.; Murphy, James J.; Spraggon, John M..
Two important design elements for emission trading programs are whether and to what extent firms are able to bank emissions permits, and how these programs are to be enforced. In this paper we present results from laboratory emissions markets designed to investigate enforcement and compliance when these markets allow permit banking. Banking is motivated by a decrease in the aggregate permit supply in the middle of multi-period trading sessions. Consistent with theoretical insights, our experiments suggest that high permit violation penalties have little deterrence value in dynamic emissions markets, and that the main challenge of enforcing these programs is to motivate truthful self-reports of emissions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Compliance; Enforcement; Emissions trading; Laboratory experiments; Permit markets; Permit banking; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; C91; L51; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93966
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An Experimental Economic Analysis of Carbon Trading Options for Australia AgEcon
Tisdell, John G.; Grainger, Corinne.
Australia is currently developing a carbon emissions trading program. The Garnaut report recommendations include options for the allocation of carbon credits, trading schemes, banking and borrowing, and self reporting mechanisms. This paper reports the results of a series of economic experiments in which we explored spot and future markets given high and low levels of carbon credit reductions. The results provide important insights to the current debate in Australia and highlight the importance of well crafted market design.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Emissions trading; Compliance; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q53; Q54.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51044
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An improved HPLC method for the quantitation of 6-mercaptopurine and its metabolites in red blood cells BJMBR
Oliveira,B.M.; Romanha,A.J.; Alves,T.M.A.; Viana,M.B.; Zani,C.L..
A procedure is described for the rapid determination of the intra-erythrocyte concentration of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its metabolites, 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP). Erythrocytes (8 x 10(8) cells) in 350 µl Hanks solution containing 7.5 mg dithiothreitol were treated with 50 µl 70% perchloric acid. The precipitate was removed by centrifugation (13,000 g) and the supernatant hydrolyzed at 100°C for 45 min. After cooling, 100 µl was analyzed directly by HPLC using a Radialpack Resolve C18 column eluted with methanol-water (7.5:92.5, v/v) containing 100 mM triethylamine. 6-TG, 6-MP and the hydrolysis product of 6-MMP, 4-amino-5-(methylthio)carbonyl imidazole, were monitored at 342, 322 and 303 nm using a Shimadzu...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Acute lymphoblastic; Ukemia; Chemotherapy; 6-Mercaptopurine; Compliance; Children.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2004000500004
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Bt Corn Farmer Compliance with Insect Resistance Management Requirements: Results from the 2002 Minnesota and Wisconsin Farm Polls AgEcon
Buttel, Frederick H.; Merrill, Jeanne; Chen, Lucy; Goldberger, Jessica; Hurley, Terrance M..
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reregistered Bt corn in 2001 with mandatory Insect Resistance Management (IRM) requirements in order to promote sustainable use by farmers. Since then studies report IRM compliance rates ranging from 80 to 90 percent. Using survey data from Minnesota and Wisconsin, we show that previous compliance rate estimates are likely too high because they do not use a comprehensive measure for compliance. With a more comprehensive measure, we find compliance rates ranging between 60 to 75 percent.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bt corn; Compliance; Insect Resistance Management; Refuge; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/13659
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Bycatch and discards: from improved knowledge to mitigation programmes Introduction ArchiMer
Rochet, Marie-joelle; Catchpole, Tom; Cadrin, Steve.
Discarding is considered by many as an important problem in world fisheries. In many regions, data collection onboard commercial vessels has intensified, and the understanding of both human and ecological drivers of discards is improving quickly. Discarding patterns vary widely across regions, fisheries, gears, and species. Fishers' responses to regulations and markets explain these complex patterns, on top of resource availability partly driven by environmental fluctuations. This expanded knowledge base provides an appropriate basis for discussing the discard mitigation measures proposed in various settings. In September 2012, a theme session was convened at the ICES Annual Science Conference in Bergen, Norway, to discuss these issues. This themed set of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bycatch and discards; Catch quotas; Compliance; Landing obligation; Landing quotas; Market incentives; Minimum landing sizes; Onboard observer programmes; Selectivity.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00202/31353/29911.pdf
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Challenging the win-win discourse on conservation and development: analyzing support for marine protected areas Ecology and Society
Chaigneau, Tomas; Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter; T.W.B.Chaigneau@exeter.ac.uk; Brown, Katrina; Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter; katrina.brown@exeter.ac.uk.
Conservation designations such as protected areas are increasing in numbers around the world, yet it is widely reported that many are failing to reach their objectives. They are frequently promoted as opportunities for win-win outcomes that can both protect biodiversity and lead to economic benefits for affected communities. This win-win view characterizes the dominant discourse surrounding many protected areas. Although this discourse and the arguments derived from it may lead to initial acceptance of conservation interventions, this study shows how it does not necessarily result in compliance and positive attitudes toward specific protected areas. Consequently, the discourse has important implications not just for making the case for protected area...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Attitudes; Behavior; Compliance; Fisheries; Natural resource management; Philippines.
Ano: 2016
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Compliance to antiretroviral medication as reported by AIDS patients assisted at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul BJID
Monreal,Maria Tereza Ferreira Duenhas; Cunha,Rivaldo Venâncio da; Trinca,Luzia Aparecida.
Compliance to antiretroviral medication is a problem for AIDS patients. Compliance can be influenced by the characteristics of the therapeutic program, by the health guidance professionals, by the patient, and by society in general. A group of 139 Brazilian AIDS patients from the Infectious-Parasitic Diseases day clinic at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul were interviewed from September 27, 1999 to January 21, 2000. We identified and evaluated the frequency of noncompliance to antiretroviral medication, as well as the associated motives. Those who ingested 80%, or more, of prescribed dosages during the week previous to the interview were considered compliant. Among the patients interviewed, 70% mentioned loss or...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: AIDS; Compliance; Antiretroviral.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702002000100002
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Compliance with handwashing at two intensive care units in São Paulo BJID
Furtado,Guilherme H.C.; Santana,Solange L.; Coutinho,Ana Paula; Perdiz,Luciana B.; Wey,Sérgio B.; Medeiros,Eduardo A.S..
Handwashing compliance was compared at two medical- surgical intensive care units (ICUs) of a teaching and a non-teaching hospital. The mean compliance was 22.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Respiratory therapists at the non-teaching hospital had the best handwashing compliance (52.6%). Nursing assistants at the teaching hospital had the worst compliance (11.5%). Nursing assistant was the only health-care worker category with a significant difference between the two ICUs (odds ratio = 6.0; 95% confidence interval = 3.83-9.43; p< 0.001).
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Compliance; Handwashing; Healthcare workers; Intensive care.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702006000100007
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Compliance-adjusted intervention effects in survival data AgEcon
Kim, Lois G.; White, Ian R..
Survival data are most frequently analyzed by the intention-to-treat principle. However, presenting a compliance-adjusted analysis alongside the primary analysis can provide an insight into the effect of the treatment for those individuals actually complying with their randomized intervention. There are a number of methods for this type of analysis. Loeys and Goetghebeur (2003) use proportional hazards techniques to provide an estimate of the treatment effect for compliers when compliance is measured on an all-or-nothing scale. This methodology is here made available through a new Stata command, stcomply.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Stcomply; Compliance; Proportional hazards; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116246
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Conservation Auctions and Compliance: Theory and Evidence from Laboratory Experiments AgEcon
Kawasaki, Kentaro; Fujie, Takeshi; Koito, Kentaro; Inoue, Norikazu; Sasaki, Hiroki.
Poster prepared for presentation at the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association 2010 AAEA,CAES, & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, July 25-27, 2010.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Auctions; Conservation contracting; Compliance; Environmental Economics and Policy; C91; D44; Q24.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61188
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Costs of compliance with EU regulations and competitiveness of the EU dairy sector AgEcon
Bezlepkina, Irina V.; Jongeneel, Roelof A.; Brouwer, Floor M.; Dillen, Koen; Meister, Anton D.; Winsten, Jonathan R.; de Roest, Kees; Demont, Matty.
The introduction of cross-compliance mechanism in the European Union with its 2003 CAP-reform might affect the costs of production and thus competitiveness of the EU. Little evidence is available to asses the costs of compliance with regulations and it implication for trade. In this study a farm level competitiveness analysis of the impacts of the Nitrate Directive and the Identification & registration Directive focuses on the dairy sector in Germany, France, Italy, Netherlands and UK (within EU), and the US and New Zealand (outside EU). The findings from this study are integrated into a trade analysis which assesses the impact of compliance costs on competitiveness of the various trading nations in global trade. Representative farm studies were used...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Compliance; Dairy sector; GTAP; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44153
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Cyclic pamidronate treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta: Report from a Brazilian reference center Genet. Mol. Biol.
Pinheiro,Bruna; Zambrano,Marina B.; Vanz,Ana Paula; Brizola,Evelise; Souza,Liliane Todeschini de; Félix,Têmis Maria.
Abstract Treatment of moderate and severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) with cyclic pamidronate at the Reference Center for OI Treatment in Southern Brazil was studied. A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2002 to 2012. Data were obtained during inpatient (drug infusion) and outpatient care. Clinical data, including the presence of blue sclerae, dentinogenesis imperfecta, history and site of the fractures, biochemical data, including calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels, were systematically collected. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Forty-five patients (26 females) were included in the study, and the age of the patients at the time of diagnosis ranged from 1 to 144...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Osteogenesis imperfecta; Bone fracture; Clinical features; Pamidronate treatment; Compliance.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572019000200252
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Finding the Stronger Impact among Bribery, Financial Reward, and Religious Attitude: The Insights of Experiment on Environmental Tax Compliance in Indonesia AgEcon
Iskandar, Deden Dinar; Wuenscher, Tobias.
The degradation of environmental quality has been one of the main concerns in Indonesia. The government has mentioned the environmental tax as the instrument of environmental management; however, the primary potential problem will be the issue of compliance. Inspired by the situation in Indonesia, this study is expected to contribute on environmental regulation and tax compliance literatures by examining and comparing the impact of bribery, financial reward, and religious attitude on compliance in a developing country where the bribery prevails. The study employs laboratory experiment approach. The results indicate that bribery has the strongest impact; the presence of bribery significantly worsens the compliance. Financial reward enhances the compliance...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental tax; Compliance; Laboratory experiment; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124316
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Fish wariness is a more sensitive indicator to changes in fishing pressure than abundance, length or biomass ArchiMer
Goetze, Jordan S.; Januchowski-hartley, Fraser A.; Claudet, Joachim; Langlois, Tim J.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Jupiter, Stacy D..
Identifying the most sensitive indicators to changes in fishing pressure is important for accurately detecting impacts. Biomass is thought to be more sensitive than abundance and length, while the wariness of fishes is emerging as a new metric. Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) that involve the opening and closing of an area to fishing are the most common form of fisheries management in the western Pacific. The opening of PHCs to fishing provides a unique opportunity to compare the sensitivity of metrics, such as abundance, length, biomass and wariness, to changes in fishing pressure. Diver-operated stereo video (stereo-DOV) provides data on fish behavior (using a proxy for wariness, minimum approach distance) simultaneous to abundance and length...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Artisanal fisheries; Catch efficiency; Compliance; Conservation; Customary management; Fish behavior; Fisheries management; Flight initiation distance.
Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00610/72247/71050.pdf
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Impact of Government-Sponsored Pollution Prevention Practices on Environmental Compliance and Enforcement: Evidence from a Sample of US Manufacturing Facilities AgEcon
Sam, Abdoul G..
A two-way fixed effects Poisson model is used to investigate the impact of 43 EPA-sponsored pollution prevention (P2) practices on compliance and enforcement for a sample of facilities in the US manufacturing sector. I find that P2 adoption reduces environmental violations in three industries while increasing violations in two others. P2 adoption also spurs fewer enforcement actions in three industries. I further partition the P2 practices into three categories based on their approach to improve environmental performance. In doing so, I find that practices that involve changes in operating procedures--about a third of adopted P2 practices--such as instituting a self-inspection and monitoring program to discover spills or leak sources, improving maintenance...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pollution Prevention Act; P2 practices; Compliance; Enforcement; Poisson models; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q53; L51; C23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49306
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Imperfect Enforcement of Emissions Trading and Industry Welfare: A Laboratory Investigation AgEcon
Stranlund, John K.; Murphy, James J.; Spraggon, John M..
This paper uses laboratory experiments to investigate the performance of emission permit markets when compliance is imperfectly enforced. In particular we examine deviations in observed aggregate payoffs and expected penalties from those derived from a model of risk-neutral payoff-maximizing firms. We find that the experimental emissions markets were reasonably efficient at allocating individual emission control choices despite imperfect enforcement and significant noncompliance. However, violations and expected penalties were lower than predicted when these are predicted to be high, but were about the same as predicted values when these values were predicted to be low. Thus, although a standard model of compliance with emissions trading programs tends to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Enforcement; Compliance; Emissions trading; Permit markets; Pollution; Laboratory experiments; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; C91; L51; Q58.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42124
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Improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers: an intervention study in a Hospital in Guizhou Province, China BJID
Mu,Xia; Xu,Yan; Yang,Tingxiu; Zhang,Ji; Wang,Chong; Liu,Wei; Chen,Jing; Tang,Luyu; Yang,Huai.
Abstract Objective Hand hygiene (HH) is a critical component for controlling hospital-acquired infection (HAI). The present study was designed to develop an intervention approach to improve compliance with HH among healthcare workers in a hospital setting. Methods The HH intervention study was conducted in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, China and organized by its Department of HAI Management. It was an observational, prospective, quasiexperimental (before-after intervention) study. The study was divided into two phases: the baseline phase and the intervention phase. The investigative team included clinical monitoring staff and infection control practitioners who received a series of instructions on HH compliance, monitoring skills, and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Hand hygiene; Compliance; Hospital-acquired infection.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702016000500413
Registros recuperados: 41
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