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A Conflict of Legitimate Concerns or Pandering to Vested Interests? Conflicting Attitudes Towards the Regulation of Trade in Genetically Modified Goods - The EU and the US AgEcon
Perdikis, Nicholas.
The success of multilateral negotiations in reducing explicit trade barriers has focused the attention of policy makers and other interest groups on the impact domestic policies and attitudes may have on trade flows. In the area of genetically modified goods the principal area of dispute between the U.S. and the EU involves fundamental differences in the perception of these goods and consumer attitudes towards them. The current dispute settlement mechanisms do not provide a way of dealing with this type of issue. Existing bodies were designed to deal with "producer vested" interests and so cannot deal with "legitimate" consumer concerns. The paper concludes that a new body should be established to deal with these within the ambit of the WTO.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Conflicts; EU; GMOs; Trade; U.S.; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23835
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Analyse du rôle de l'IFREMER dans l'instruction du dossier Salmor ArchiMer
Drévès, Luc.
This report describes the contribution made by IFREMER in the various stages of installation of a new salmon culture in barge's tanks moored in Morlaix Bay. Tacking into account the opposition to this project, including direct criticism of the role of IFREMER, a considerable effort is made to provide detailed environmental impact data to the appropriate Government office
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Effluents d'aquaculture; Aquaculture en barge; Courantométrie; Conflits; Ostréiculteurs; Pêcheurs; Offshore aquafarming; Aquafarming effluents; Current; Conflicts; Fishermen; Aquaculturists.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00080/19145/16740.pdf
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Comitês de Bacias Hidrográficas de rios do Médio São Francisco: possibilidades e desafios de gestão do uso da água AgEcon
Gomes, Claudia Salgado; Reis, Ricardo Pereira; Galizoni, Flavia Maria; Ribeiro, Eduardo Magalhaes.
O presente estudo tem como tema a gestão das águas, que se tornam cada vez mais escassas, o que acaba por desencadear conflitos entre os diferentes usuários. Diante dessa situação, essa pesquisa objetivou estudar os problemas e conflitos mais freqüentes relacionados à água nos rios do Médio São Francisco, em Minas Gerais, especificamente nos rios Verde Grande, Riachão e Jequitaí, verificando em quais situações essas questões culminam na formalização de Comitês de Bacias Hidrográficas e em que medida estes conseguem enfrentar tais questões. Foram identificados vários problemas que contribuem para a escassez de água nos rios pesquisados. Tais problemas, em sua maioria, são comuns aos três rios, com destaque para a derrubada de mata nativa. Os conflitos mais...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Água; Conflitos; Comitê; Bacia hidrográfica; Water; Conflicts; Committee; Water basin; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108139
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Existing Territories and Formalization of Territorial Use Rights for Moored Fish Aggregating Devices: The Case of Small-Scale Fisheries in the La Désirade Island (France) ArchiMer
Guyader, Olivier; Frangoudes, Katia; Kleiber, Danika.
Moored fish aggregating devices (MFADs) are used by small-scale fishers to access fish species difficult to harvest in large numbers. In the case of Guadeloupe (Caribbean area), the use of MFADs has increased considerably and this is causing congestion in these fishing areas and creating conflict between fishers. The aim of this article is to understand how informal fishing territories around the La Desirade Island were established and examine these territories through the lens of economic defendability theory. Results of semistructured interviews show that MFAD fishers display territoriality along MFAD tract lines forming quasi-privatized areas. Territoriality in this article is based on the following factors: the type of targeted resources, the cost of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Conflicts; Dolphinfish; Economic defendability; FADs quotas; Overcapacity.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00430/54151/56600.pdf
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Les conflits d'usage de l'espace littoral martiniquais ArchiMer
Thebaud, Olivier.
This report presents, in two parts, the results of a study carried out on the coast of Martinique, during 1993. The first part presents the evolution of perceptions and uses of coastal areas, linked to the socio-economic transformations of the island. Completing this presentation, based on the analysis of management plans from different periods, an overview of the recent state of occupation of coastal areas in Martinique is also given. The second part presents four case studies of conflictual situations concerning access to coastal areas, on l and and at sea, considering differents types of activities and decision-making processes. For each case study, an investigation has been conducted to identify implied actors, their motivations and strategies, as well...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Regulation; Decision making process; Conflicts; Martinique; Coast; SEM; Réglementation; Processus de décision; Conflits; Martinique; Littoral.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1994/rapport-2140.pdf
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Many Eyes on Nature: Diverse Perspectives in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve and Their Relevance for Conservation Ecology and Society
Berghoefer, Uta; Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ; uta.berghoefer@gmx.de; Rozzi, Ricardo; University of North Texas; Universidad de Magallanes (Chile); rozzi@unt.edu; Jax, Kurt; Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ; kurt.jax@ufz.de.
Relationships between humans and nature take multiple forms. This is a fundamental issue in conservation but one that is often neglected, leading to poor conservation outcomes. It is thus imperative that we come to understand better the complex relationships between humans and nature. To do so, we need to examine “nature” and the often assumed dichotomy between humans and nature. We conducted a qualitative social research inquiry to explore the societal relationships with nature in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve in Chile. From the results, we developed a framework that illustrates how different “natures” are created in the three-way relationship among the individual, society, and the physical world. We further...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Biodiversity; Biosphere reserve; Chile; Conflicts; Conservation; Local ecological knowledge; Participation; Protected areas; Valuation.
Ano: 2010
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Potential Harmonization of Supplier-Retailer Interests: The US Food Industry & Comparisons with International Examples (PowerPoint) AgEcon
Konig, Gabor.
Seminar presented to USDA Economists Group, Washington, DC, USA 03 September 2008
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market structure; Conflicts; Concentration; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Marketing.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43764
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Robbing Peter to pay Paul: replacing unintended cross-taxa conflicts with intentional tradeoffs by moving from piecemeal to integrated fisheries bycatch management ArchiMer
Gilman, Eric; Chaloupka, Milani; Dagorn, Laurent; Hall, Martin; Hobday, Alistair; Musyl, Michael; Pitcher, Tony; Poisson, Francois; Restrepo, Victor; Suuronen, Petri.
Bycatch in fisheries can have profound effects on the abundance of species with relatively low resilience to increased mortality, can alter the evolutionary characteristics and concomitant fitness of affected populations through heritable trait-based selective removals, and can alter ecosystem functions, structure and services through food web trophic links. We challenge current piecemeal bycatch management paradigms, which reduce the mortality of one taxon of conservation concern at the unintended expense of others. Bycatch mitigation measures may also reduce intraspecific genetic diversity. We drew examples of broadly prescribed ‘best practice’ methods to mitigate bycatch that result in unintended cross-taxa conflicts from pelagic longline, tuna purse...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bycatch; Conflicts; Decision support tool; Fisheries-induced evolution; Holistic management; Integrated management.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00475/58693/61206.pdf
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Saberes, poderes e os dilemas das relações socioambientais AgEcon
Naves, Flavia Luciana.
In the last years the expression environment and the concern in relation to it became common. However, the environmental question, nowadays a social and sociological problem, has been constructed along human history, gaining new and different aspects and leading to different types of conflicts. Under an apparent “consensus” about the importance of the environment there are power conflicts to define, among others, the meaning of environment, the origin and solutions of the environmental problems and the forms of relations between society and nature, which influence the entire functioning of the society. A first step to advance in the discussion about this theme may be understanding that environment or nature is not so “natural”. Therefore, we propose to...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Social-environmental relations; Conflicts; Power.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43694
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The Dynamics of Social Capital and Conflict Management in Multiple Resource Regimes: A Case of the Southwestern Highlands of Uganda Ecology and Society
Sanginga, Pascal C; International Centre for Tropical Agriculture -CIAT; p.sanginga@cgiar.org; Kamugisha, Rick N; Africa Highlands Initiative; rnkamugisha@yahoo.com; Martin, Andrienne M; Natural Resources Institute; A.M.Martin@greenwich.ac.uk.
Increasingly, social capital, defined as shared norms, trust, and the horizontal and vertical social networks that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutually beneficial collective action, is seen as an important asset upon which people rely to manage natural resources and resolve conflicts. This paper uses empirical data from households and community surveys and case studies, to examine the role, strengths, and limits of social capital in managing conflicts over the use and management of natural resources. We inventoried over 700 cases ranging from conflicts between multiple resource users to supra-community conflicts between local communities concerns for better livelihoods and national/international concerns for environment conservation....
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Bylaws; Conflicts; Gender; Highlands; Natural resources management; Social capital; Synergy; Uganda..
Ano: 2007
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