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A Bioeconomic Analysis of the Duration of Conservation Contracts AgEcon
Crowe, Bronwyn; White, Benedict.
Conservation and restoration of native vegetation is often a gradual process which may require many years to transform an ecosystem from one vegetative state to a target ecosystem. This process is stochastic, with some changes potentially irreversible. In contrast, contracts with landholders to undertake conservation measures on their property are typically for less than ten years and often make no contingencies for re-contracting at the end of the contract period. The risk to land holders and conservation agencies of contracts not being renewed and the consequent potential loss of previous investment means including covenants in conservation contracts may be attractive to both parties. A model is developed to empirically examine the optimal dynamic...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: POMDP; Biodiversity; Contracts; Monitoring; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9457
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A COORDENAÇÃO SIMULTÂNEA DE DIFERENTES CANAIS COMO ESTRATÉGIA DE DISTRIBUIÇÃO ADOTADA POR EMPRESAS DA AVICULTURA DE POSTURA AgEcon
Mizumoto, Fabio Matuoka; Zylbersztajn, Decio.
This study investigates the reasons which lead the companies to keep simultaneous vertical integrated, third part and hybrid distribution channels. Companies establish different coordination structures, the organizational arrangements, which determine how the agents involved cooperate to the development of distribution activities, according to Transaction Cost Economics and Dynamic Competence. Even choosing different distribution channels, why the company does not establish one single organizational arrangement? What factors may justify the establishment of different arrangements? Possible explanations to those questions have been pointed out in multiple distribution channels. The empirical research indicates that firms establish multiple efficient...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Distribution channels; Poultry industry; Contracts; Organizational arrangements..
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43813
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Agricultural Contracting Update: Contracts in 2003 AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
Marketing and production contracts covered 39 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural production in 2003, up from 36 percent in 2001 and a substantial increase over estimated values of 28 percent for 1991 and 11 percent in 1969. Large farms are far more likely to contract than small farms; in fact, contracts cover over half of the value of production from farms with at least $1 million in sales. Although use of both production and marketing contracts has grown over time, growth is more rapid for production contracts, which are largely used for livestock.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Contracts; Contracting; Marketing contracts; Production contracts; Vertical integration; Vertical coordination; Market structure; Risk analysis; Price signals; Industrial Organization; Marketing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33903
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Aligning Incentives for Accelerated Heifer Growth in Custom Heifer Growing Contracts AgEcon
Olynk, Nicole J.; Wolf, Christopher A..
Dairy managers today are faced with the decision to either raise their own replacements on the dairy farm or send heifers to a custom heifer grower. The largest potential challenge of contracting out the heifer raising enterprise revolves around the potential for a moral hazard problem because of hidden action on the part of the custom heifer grower. A principal-agent framework was used to elicit contract terms which provide incentives for the custom heifer grower to perform accelerated growth without heifers becoming over-conditioned. In order to provide incentives to custom growers, heifers returned to the dairy farm should be compared in performance to other heifers of similar age. We solve for the price paid per pound of gain, price paid for inch...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm management; Production economics; Contracts; Heifer growth; Moral hazard; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6077
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Aligning Incentives for Contract Dairy Heifer Growth AgEcon
Olynk, Nicole J.; Wolf, Christopher A..
As dairy farms grow and specialize in milking cows, raising replacement heifers is increasingly outsourced. Perhaps the largest challenge of outsourcing the heifer enterprise involves quality, measured as milk production potential, and the possibility for moral hazard due to hidden action on the part of the custom heifer grower. A principal-agent framework was used to elicit contract terms to provide incentives for the heifer grower to achieve desired growth rates, and enable the return of the heifer to the dairy farm on an accelerated time frame, without sacrificing quality. To mitigate incentive asymmetries, bonuses and deductions are proposed.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Contracts; Heifer growth; Moral hazard; Principal agent; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99109
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Análise de contratos da suinocultura sob a óptica da Nova Economia Institucional AgEcon
Pereira, Sandra Mara; Freire Junior, Weimar da Rocha; Miele, Marcelo; Da Silva Lobo, Debora.
Este artigo tem a intenção de analisar contratos da suinocultura sob a óptica da Nova Economia Institucional. O referencial teórico adotado foi a NEI, que fornece os conceitos dos atributos das transações que foram observados nos contratos. Como metodologia, foram analisados contratos referentes à integração para terminação (engorda) de suínos, de quatro empresas situadas na Região Sul do Brasil. Observou-se que os contratos de integração (ou parceria) têm sido um importante instrumento, tanto para as empresas processadoras, que podem contar com a produção constante e em padrões previamente especificados, quanto para os produtores rurais, que têm na suinocultura, uma atividade que lhes garante venda certa e recebimento garantido. Os contratos de integração...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nova Economia Institucional; Contratos; Atributos das Transações; Suinocultura; New Institutional Economics; Contracts; Attributes of the Transactions; Production of Pigs; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102221
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Análise dos contratos na avicultura de corte em Mato Grosso sob a ótica da nova economia institucional (NEI) AgEcon
Franco, Cleiton; Bonjour, Sandra Cristina de Moura; Pereira, Benedito Dias; Zanini, Talitha Soyara.
The Brazilian production of poultry meat in 2010 reached 12.230 million tons, a growth of 11.38%, driven by increased consumption and increased exports. Mato Grosso is the 7th. Major national producer in terms of slaughter and production numbers are growing every year, considering the production of soybeans and corn and the possibility of planting new areas, making poultry the star of this new scenario. This article aims to examine contracts of broiler farms in Mato Grosso from the perspective of New Institutional Economics. The theoretical reference provides the concepts of transaction costs and governance structures. The data were derived from contracts related to the integration of poultry production in the period of 2008 and 2009, from the point of...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: New Institucional Economy; Contracts; Attributes of the Transactions; Poultry keeping; Agribusiness; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121294
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ANALYSIS OF CHANGING METHODS OF VERTICAL COORDINATION IN THE PORK INDUSTRY AgEcon
Martinez, Stephen W.; Smith, Kevin E.; Zering, Kelly D..
This study examines the motivation behind contracts and vertical integration in the pork industry, and simulates the effects of potential improvements in coordination. Incentives related to lowering costs of measuring and sorting hogs, and protecting against opportunistic behavior associated with specific assets, can result in hog quality improvements. A framework for simulating the effects of increased coordination through contracts and vertical integration was developed and used to evaluate potential improvements in leanness. Although simulations suggest only modest changes in pork prices and supplies, gains in consumers' surplus could be substantial for larger demand shifts due to quality improvements.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Contracts; Hogs; Lean pork; Simulation model; Vertical coordination; Vertical integration; Industrial Organization; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15561
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Analysis of Expected Price Dynamics Between Fluid Milk Futures Contracts and Cash Prices for Fluid Milk AgEcon
Fortenbery, T. Randall; Cropp, Robert A.; Zapata, Hector O..
Future contracts for fluid milk began trading in late 1995 and early 1996. This paper investigates the potential use of fluid milk futures contracts as hedge vehicles for dairy producers in the Upper Midwest and California markets. This is done by developing simulated futures prices for the period 1988 to 1995. The simulated futures prices are used to estimate basis relationships between cash and futures prices for the markets considered. Results suggest that the fluid milk futures contracts could be used to reduce market price risk for producers in the Upper Midwest. Results were less conclusive for California producers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Fluid milk futures; Contracts; Basis; Dairy markets; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90427
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Bargaining Power in Relational Contracts: An Experimental Study AgEcon
Cordero Salas, Paula.
This paper provides experimental evidence of the economic impact from shifting bargaining power in relational contracts. I implement an experimental design that adjusts the bargaining power of sellers (agents) and the enforceability of the contract. I find that the vast majority of contracts take the form of efficiency wage contracts instead of contingent performance contracts when enforcement is partially incomplete and sellers have more bargaining power than buyers. The total contracted and actual compensation increase with the bargaining power of the sellers. However, sellers' profits are found to increase only if a part of the total payment is third-party enforceable. In this case, observed surplus and efficiency are lower than predictions. When no...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Contracts; Incomplete enforcement; Bargaining; Experiments; Distribution; Institutions; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; D86; K12; L14; O12; Q13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103579
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Bidding for WIC infant formula contracts: Do non-WIC customers subsidize WIC customers? AgEcon
Davis, David E..
Although the WIC food assistance program purchases over one-half of all US infant formula, I find the program has little impact on the prices paid by non-WIC customers. I estimate infant-formula marginal cost and find that it is low compared to price, implying large price-cost markups. But, the WIC program is not to blame. Instead large price-cost markups are likely due to customer’s price insensitivity. WIC’s impact on non-WIC customers comes through an increase in sales owing to a WIC “spill-over” effect. The WIC approved brand attains a prominence in the market that makes it a natural choice for non-WIC customers, which makes attaining WIC approval valuable to firms. Firms bid with rebates to attain exclusive WIC approved status which results in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Price cost margins; WIC; Oligopoly; Food Assistance; Infant Formula; Auctions; Contracts; Consumer/Household Economics; Health Economics and Policy; Industrial Organization; L11; L113; I18; D12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102457
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Can Rank-Order Tournaments Improve Efficiency of Quality Differentiated Crop Markets Under Marketing Loan Program Operation? The Case of U.S. Peanuts. AgEcon
Nadolnyak, Denis A.; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar.
In the paper, alternative contractual arrangements between crop producers and processors are evaluated with a view of addressing the major issues present in peanut markets in the U.S., the major EU supplier of high quality peanuts. The issues are the thinness of the spot markets and the absence of quality premiums, both of which impair market efficiency. Results indicate that introducing contracts with a system of quality differentials creates incentives for producer self-selection to participate in the post harvest cash market. Moreover, in the presence of sufficiently high common production risk, tournament contracts are more efficient and preferred by the producers than the standard fixed premium schedules.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Contracts; Tournaments; Efficiency; Spot markets; Peanuts; Marketing.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24703
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Competitive positioning and value chain configuration in international markets for traditional food specialties AgEcon
Borch, Odd Jarl; Roaldsen, Ingrid H.E..
In this paper we discuss the relations between the increased quality standards of traditional food products and the structuring and management of the value chain. We address the importance of different quality dimensions, and how they are combined in superior strategic configurations to achieve competitive advantage in particular in up market segments. We elaborate on the competitive positioning tools and the resource configuration of the value chain necessary for creating sustainable competitive advantage for small and medium-sized enterprises. We present results from 11 in-depth interviews with representatives from the fragmented Norwegian value chain for lamb products. The results show that to achieve customer-oriented differentiation focus effect and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Quality differentiation; Value chain; Configuration; Management; Contracts; Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7857
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Contract Design and Targeting for the Production of Public Goods in Agriculture: The Impact of the 2003 Cap Reform AgEcon
Bartolini, Fabio; Gallerani, Vittorio; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide.
The objective of this paper is to compare different ways of designing agri-environmental contracts and to set targeting under adverse selection, comparing conditions before and after CAP reform 2003. The results suggest that the present contract structure may be relevantly improved through a more accurate design and a clearer target. The reform, through the decoupling mechanism, will contribute to reduce the opportunity cost of the adoption of agri-environmental measures. This may increase the optimal amount of public goods produced by agriculture and will encourage participation by farmers. However, in order to properly exploit the new conditions brought by the 2003 reform, it is necessary to review the way agri-environmental payments are assigned and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-environmental schemes; Contracts; Multifunctional agriculture; CAP reform; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q1; Q18; Q2.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24559
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Contracting with Agents Seeking Status AgEcon
Bontems, Philippe.
We explore in this paper the consequences of status seeking preferences among agents contracting with a private principal in the context of production. We examine in particular the case of envy and we show that in general envy entails augmented distortions due to asymmetric information in optimal contracts. Furthermore if the principal neglects the preferences of the agents with respect to status, then potentially there is under-participation to the contract. We also show that if the principal is free to choose who can participate to the contract, then under some conditions the principal may prefer to contract with only a subset of potentially "profitable" agents (that is where his utility is strictly positive). We then ask whether contracting with agents...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Status; Adverse selection; Contracts; Envy; Externalities; Production Economics; D6; H0; D86.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49507
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Contracts, Transaction Costs and Agricultural Production in the Pampas AgEcon
Lema, Daniel.
This paper presents an analysis of agricultural contracts using a transaction costs approach. We contend that in a context of modern agriculture, with well defined property rights, agricultural contracts must balance costs and benefits, aligning tenant and landlord incentives towards a similar objective. The study debates the potential effects of tenancy status and duration of contracts, over soil conservation and input use. We present empirical evidence about the effects over the soil and input use in tenant (fixed rent or sharecropping) and owner-operator farms using farm level data from the 2002 National Agricultural Census of Argentina. The empirical results show some differential effects but do not support a general and clear negative effect for...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Contracts; Agriculture; Transaction Costs; Sharecropping; Property Rights; Land Tenancy; Production Economics; D2; Q15.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25420
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Contractual Relationships in the Hungarian Milk Sector AgEcon
Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Ferto, Imre; Szabo, Gabor G..
In this paper we present an empirical analysis of farmers’ contracting choice in the Hungarian milk sector using 2005 milk producer survey data, employing transaction cost economics. We focus on analysing some key determinants of farmers’ contracting choices: type of contracts, duration, number of contractors, incentives provided in the contract and business history of farmers and buyers. Some of the main results include the importance and effect of farm size, quantity of milk delivered, planned short and long run or contract related investment on farm, the possibility of farmer to influence prices on the contracting choices.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Transaction costs; Contracts; Milk products; Hungary; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90794
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Coordenação vertical e contratos informais na agricultura irrigada: um estudo de caso com aplicação do modelo Tobit AgEcon
Lima, Ricardo Chaves; Irmao, Jose Ferreira.
The theory of contracts assumes that human nature is essentially opportunistic, and economic agents protect themselves against adverse selection and moral hazard by elaborating contracts. In the case of irrigated areas in the Brazilian northeast, such contracts are not necessarily formal. That is, arrangements based on economic agent’s word are common. The data used are from acerola producers in the Petrolina-Juazeiro irrigation project. The empirical model was tobit, given that the dependent variable was characterized by a truncated distribution. The results showed that the decision to engage on contractual relations is fundamentally defined by the degree of dependence of the farmer in respect to the processing industry. Furthermore, past experience of...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Vertical coordination; Contracts; Irrigation; Tobit model; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56813
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Designing Contracts for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation AgEcon
Cordero Salas, Paula.
Reduction of carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) has been identified as a cost effective element of the post-Kyoto strategy to achieve long-term climate objectives. The success of REDD depends primarily on the design and implementation of a financial mechanism that provides land-holders sufficient incentives to participate in a REDD scheme. This paper proposes relational contracting as a more appropriate framework for analyzing proposed REDD incentive regimes rather than that of complete contracting enforcement because relational contracting relies upon mutual self-enforcement in a repeated transaction framework, which better suits the stylized facts of REDD. We characterize the optimal REDD relational contract and provide the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Contracts; Incomplete enforcement; Carbon sequestration; Climate change; Institutions; Development.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Land Economics/Use; D86; K12; L14; O12; Q54; Q56.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61129
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Determinants of hybrid forms of governance in the brazilian beef cattle market. Repositório Alice
VINHOLIS, M. de M. B.; SOUZA FILHO, H. M. de; CARRER, M. J..
2013
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Beef Cattle; Contracts; Transaction cost economics.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/974986
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