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Registros recuperados: 34
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Agglomeration, Spatial Interaction and Convergence in the EU AgEcon
Brauninger, Michael; Niebuhr, Annekatrin.
We investigate the convergence process among EU regions between 1980-2002 taking into account the effects of spatial heterogeneity and spatial spillover effects. The spatial regimes model allows for different steady-state growth paths. In contrast to previous analyses, the regimes in this paper refer to spatial categories, i.e. we assume that agglomerations, urbanised and rural regions are characterised by group-specific steadystates. Moreover, the regression analysis considers the effects of interaction among neighbouring regions, possibly leading to a spatial dependence of regional growth rates. We check whether spatial dependence is caused by spatial spillovers or based on country effects.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Convergence; Agglomeration; European Union; Spatial econometrics; Quantile regression; International Development; C21; O52; R11.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26150
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Agricultural Productivity Convergence: Myth or Reality? AgEcon
Poudel, Biswo N.; Paudel, Krishna P.; Zilberman, David.
We tested agricultural productivity convergence in the United States using the state level total factor productivity data and utilizing new estimation and cluster identification methods to identify convergence in the data. The empirical investigation did not indicate any evidence of agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) convergence at the state level. However, we found the evidence of TFP convergence at the regional level for some regions/clusters.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural total factor productivity; Convergence; Human capital; U.S. states; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Q10; O47.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100654
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Análise da convergência da produtividade da mão-de-obra agropecuária entre os estados brasileiros: aplicação de matrizes de Markov, 1990-2000 AgEcon
Fochezatto, Adelar; Stulp, Valter Jose.
The study analyzes the convergence of the labor productivity in the Brazilian agricultural sector in the nineties, comparing it with its productivity in the other sectors and projecting its future behavior through Markov matrices. The results indicate that the Brazilian states are diverging in the labor productivity in the agricultural sector. Some states will move to a high level and others to a low level of labor productivity. In five of the other sectors of the Brazilian economy there will be a convergence of the states with regard to the labor productivity. In three of these five sectors the states will converge to a low level of labor productivity; in one sector they will converge to two classes of low productivity and in another sector the states...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural; Labor productivity; Convergence; Markov model; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61233
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Analisis de convergencia en productividad agraria en las regiones europeas AgEcon
Valero, Juan Sebastian Castillo; Cuerva Narro, Maria Carmen.
RESUMEN: En este artículo se estudia la convergencia regional desde un punto de vista sectorial, centrada en el sector agrario. En el desarrollo del mismo se hace eco de la relevancia del sector agrario para una explicación histórica de las desigualdades territoriales en la Unión Europea y se analiza la evolución de la desigualdad y la convergencia de las agriculturas en las regiones europeas durante el periodo 1985-1997 a través del valor añadido agrario por ocupado. La existencia de un proceso de convergencia a niveles absolutos entre las economías regionales agrarias es un hecho constatado en el análisis. Sin embargo, las peculiaridades específicas de cada territorio hacen que no podamos hablar de una posición de equilibrio común, sino que las...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Convergence; Agricultural Productivity; Common Agricultural Policy; European regions; Productivity Analysis; O13; O41; Q18; R00.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28792
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CONVERGENCE IN U.S. TFP GROWTH FOR AGRICULTURE: IMPLICATIONS OF INTERSTATE RESEARCH SPILLOVERS FOR FUNDING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AgEcon
McCunn, Alan; Huffman, Wallace E..
This paper examines state agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) data, 1950-1982, for evidence of convergence, i.e., TFP growth rates of the future are inversely related to the TFP level at the starting data. After finding evidence of convergence, the paper examines the contributions of public and private R&D to convergence and presents implications for a more efficient organization of public agricultural research. For example, we find that increasing a states own investment in public agricultural research reduces the rate of TFP convergence but larger public investments in surrounding areas that potentially spillin increase the rate of convergence. Also, the results imply that the average rate of convergence in our best fitting model is about...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Convergence; Total factor productivity; States; Spillins; Growth; Public research; Agriculture; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18266
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Convergence or Divergence in Food Demand: Comparison of Trends in the EU and North America AgEcon
Regmi, Anita; Unnevehr, Laurian J..
Whether food demand is "converging" is tested in two ways. First, the convergence of food expenditures among 18 high-income countries is examined from 1990 to 2004. Convergence is apparent in total expenditures, cereals, and meats, even after correcting for differences in income and levels of protection. Second, specific food retailing and product introduction patterns are examined for the US, Canada, and four northern European countries for the past two decades. These show increasing shares for retail outlets selling standardized products, and increased preference for convenience, upscale, and natural product attributes across all six countries.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food expenditures; Product attributes; Convergence; Demand and Price Analysis; D12; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24687
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Distribution Dynamics of Food Price Inflation Rates in EU: An Alternative Conditional Density Estimator Approach AgEcon
Liontakis, Angelos E.; Papadas, Christos T..
This paper examines the existence of convergence and distribution dynamics of food price inflation rates within the European Union. Differences in such specific price index inflation rates and changes in their regional distributions reflect largely differences and developments in market conditions and structures. Traditional measures and approaches to β-convergence and σ-convergence, fail to capture sufficiently the evolving distributional dynamics. The latter includes possible mobility prospects within distributions and potential formation of clubs. To deal with these issues, the paper adopts developments in the literature of non parametric econometric methods and employs an alternative conditional density estimator as well. Implementation of this...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Kernel density estimator; Convergence; Distribution dynamics; Food price inflation.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58084
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Dolphins and African apes: comparisons of sympatric socio-ecology Naturalis
Bearzi, M.; Stanford, C.B..
Dolphins and African apes are distantly related mammalian taxa that exhibit striking convergences in their socioecology. In both cetaceans and African apes, two or more closely related species sometimes occur in sympatry. However, detailed reviews of the ways in which sympatric associations of dolphins and apes are similar have not been done. As field studies of dolphins and apes have accumulated, comparisons of how the two groups avoid direct food competition when in sympatry have become possible. In this paper we review sympatric ecology among dolphins and African apes, and examine convergences in species-associations in each taxa. We review evidence for hypotheses that seek to explain avoidance of food competition, and consider whether ape-dolphin...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Sympatry; Convergence; Resource partitioning; 42.84.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/262646
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Existe convergência espacial da produtividade agrícola no Brasil? AgEcon
Almeida, Eduardo Simões de; Perobelli, Fernando Salgueiro; Ferreira, Pedro Guilherme Costa.
This work analyzes the convergence of land productivity for Brazilian regions from 1991 to 2003. It evaluates if there is or not convergence of the agricultural productivity, controlling explicitly for spatial effects. To do so, an exploratory spatial data analysis was previously implemented and the presence of spatial autocorrelation for the land productivity was detected. In addition, spatial econometric models were developed for the convergence analysis.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Convergence; Land productivity; Spatial econometrics; Spatial autocorrelation.; Agribusiness; R12; C31; Q10..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61267
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Extending Theil's Inequality Index: Addressing Dynamic Convergence in the OECD AgEcon
Weatherspoon, Dave D.; Seale, James L., Jr.; Moss, Charles B..
Theil’s inequality index is used to measure convergence in 14 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in terms of per capita income, per capita government and investment expenditures, and industrial employment. Results indicate that all four variables have converged over the sample period, 1950-1988. Next, the indices of the four variables are made dynamic by using pairwise cointegration and Johansen’s I(2) multi-cointegration tests. These tests indicate that the four inequalities are cointegrated; that is, there exists a long-run equilibrium between the four inequalities of the 14 OECD countries. However, the inequality in per capita government expenditure has no effect on the G-7 equilibrium when analyzed without the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cointegration; Convergence; G-7; Inequality; OECD.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43300
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Growth and Technological Leadership in US Industries: A Spatial Econometric Analysis at the State Level, 1963–-1997 AgEcon
Pede, Valerien O.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; de Groot, Henri L.F..
For several decades, cross-country analyses have dominated the literature on economic growth. Recently, these analyses have been extended to include sectoral variation as well as spatial variation across sub-national regions. This paper investigates economic growth and potential determinants of the process of catch-up to technology leaders for several economic sectors, using data for the lower 48 US states from 1963 through 1997. We analyze the potential influence of factors such as human capital, and geographical distance to the technology leader. A spatially explicit growth model in which technological progress is endogenously determined is used to model productivity growth in nine US industries, ranging from mining to government, and including a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Regional economic growth; Convergence; Industry level; Technological leadership; Spatial econometrics; Industrial Organization; C21; I23; O33; R12.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9691
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Há Convergência do PIB per capita da agropecuária no Brasil entre 1980 a 2004? AgEcon
Spohr, Gabriela; Freitas, Clailton Ataides.
Este artigo tem como objetivo a realização dos testes de hipóteses de convergência absoluta, condicional e sigma convergência, das taxas de crescimento per capita da agropecuária dos Estados brasileiros, ao longo do período de 1980 a 2004. Esses modelos foram testados contemplando a estrutura de dados em painel. Os testes econométricos apontam um processo de convergência absoluta e quando condicionada ao capital humano a convergência torna-se mais acentuada. Contudo, as estimativas não mostram a existência de convergência sigma. This article has the objective to accomplisher by the hypothesis test convergence absolut, conditional and sigma convergence of GDP growth per capita in the farming field for the brasilian states in the period of 1980 to 2004....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Convergência; Agricultura; Econometria; Convergence; Agriculture; Econometrics; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102474
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How Homophily Affects Learning and Diffusion in Networks AgEcon
Golub, Benjamin; Jackson, Matthew O..
We examine how three different communication processes operating through social networks are affected by homophily - the tendency of individuals to associate with others similar to themselves. Homophily has no effect if messages are broadcast or sent via shortest paths; only connection density matters. In contrast, homophily substantially slows learning based on repeated averaging of neighbors' information and Markovian diffusion processes such as the Google random surfer model. Indeed, the latter processes are strongly affected by homophily but completely independent of connection density, provided this density exceeds a low threshold. We obtain these results by establishing new results on the spectra of large random graphs and relating the spectra to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Networks; Learning; Diffusion; Homophily; Friendships; Social Networks; Random Graphs; Mixing Time; Convergence; Speed of Learning; Speed of Convergence; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; D83; D85; I21; J15; Z13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50718
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Income Growth and Mobility of Rural Households in Kenya: Role of Education and Historical Patterns in Poverty Reduction AgEcon
Mathenge, Mary K.; Tschirley, David L..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/26/07.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income growth; Income persistence; Convergence; Education; Kenya; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9924
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Long Term Structural Changes in the EU Countries (1970-2000): Convergence or Divergence in the Agri-Food System? AgEcon
Peroni, Marco; Brasili, Cristina; Fanfani, Roberto.
The main objective of this paper is to analyse the structural changes in European Agri-food systems in the last 30 years in order to verify the presence of a convergence process towards a more homogeneous structure among EU countries. This analysis considers the relative importance of the main components of Agri-food systems (agriculture, food industry and food consumption) and how they change over time. The analysis of convergence utilise the European National Accounting Data (from the SEC2 Data Base of Eurostat) from 1970 to 2000 for twelve EU countries. We use tests of convergence on cross section data by countries, but also stochastic kernel methodologies to verify the dynamic evolution of groups of countries inside the EU. The results show there are...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agro-food System; Structural Changes; EU countries; Convergence; Industrial Organization; A1; C23; O1; Q10; Q17.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25659
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Per Capita Income, Human Capital, and Inequality Convergence: A Latent-Variable Approach AgEcon
Deepak, Sri Devi; Seale, James L., Jr.; Moss, Charles B..
The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze determinants of income-level convergence. Specifically, the effect of human capital on per capita income is estimated for 22 countries of the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Additionally, the effects of openness in international trade and investment and government expenditures on per capita income are estimated and evaluated. Human capital is modeled as a latent variable, and results indicate that it is a significant factor in explaining the variation of per capita income levels among the OECD countries. Further, the entire time path of human capital is utilized to explain deviations in per capita income.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Convergence; Human capital; Inequality; Latent variable; OECD.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43299
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Productivity Divergence across Kansas Farms AgEcon
Yeager, Elizabeth A.; Langemeier, Michael R..
This study used 30 years of continuous data for 135 farms in Kansas to explore changes in productivity using Malmquist productivity indices (MPI). The indices were used to determine whether there was productivity convergence or divergence in Kansas farms. The results showed there was significant divergence among the farms. The average annual productivity growth was 0.50 percent; the top farms based on MPI were larger in terms of value of farm production, crop farm income, and livestock farm income and received a larger percentage of their income from oilseeds, feed grains, and swine than the other farms on average.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Convergence; Divergence; Productivity growth; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117777
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Productivity Growth and Convergence in Crop, Ruminant and Non-Ruminant Production: Measurement and Forecasts AgEcon
Ludena, Carlos E.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Preckel, Paul V.; Foster, Kenneth A.; Nin Pratt, Alejandro.
There is considerable interest in projections of future productivity growth in agriculture. Whether one is interested in the outlook for global commodity markets, future patterns of international trade, or the interactions between land use, deforestation and ecological diversity, the rate of productivity growth in agriculture is an essential input. Yet solid projections for this variable have proven elusive – particularly on a global basis. This is due, in no small part, to the difficulty in measuring historical productivity growth. The purpose of this paper is to report the latest time series evidence on total factor productivity growth for crops, ruminants and non-ruminant livestock, on a global basis. We then follow with tests for convergence amongst...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Malmquist index; Productivity; Convergence; Projections; Crops; Livestock; Productivity Analysis; D24; O13; O47; Q10.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25392
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Profit Patterns Across American Agriculture AgEcon
Blank, Steven C.; Erickson, Kenneth W.; Moss, Charles B..
To remain viable, agriculture in each location must offer returns that are competitive with those from alternative investments and sufficient to cover producers' financial obligations. Economic theory says that rates of return converge over time as resources flow into more-profitable industries and out of less-profitable industries, causing factor price changes. Both traditional growth and trade theories say factor markets will adjust to equalize commodity returns over time. This study examines spatial relationships in agriculture's profitability over time. Results show temporal and spatial convergence of returns consistent with trade and development theories. However, there are profit patterns unique to state/regional agriculture, raising policy...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Convergence; Return on assets; "risk of ruin"; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31212
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Regional Convergence in the European Union (1985-1999): A Spatial Dynamic Panel Analysis AgEcon
Badinger, Harald; Muller, Werner G.; Tondl, Gabriele.
We estimate the speed of income convergence for a sample of 196 European NUTS 2 regions over the period 1985-1999. So far there is no direct estimator available for dynamic panels with strong spatial dependencies. We propose a two-step procedure, which involves first spatial filtering of the variables to remove the spatial correlation, and application of standard GMM estimators for dynamic panels in a second step. Our results show that ignorance of the spatial correlation leads to potentially misleading results. Applying a system GMM estimator on the filtered variables, we obtain a speed of convergence of 6.9 per cent and a capital elasticity of 0.43.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Growth; Convergence; Spatial dependence; Spatial filtering; Dynamic panels; GMM; Community/Rural/Urban Development; C23; O00; R11.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26329
Registros recuperados: 34
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