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Registros recuperados: 29
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A Cost-Effectiveness Study of Animal Disease Eradication Strategies: Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Ireland AgEcon
Dillon, Emma J..
The primary focus of this poster paper is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative control strategies for a number of simulated outbreaks of Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) in four agriculturally diverse Irish regions, examining for the first time, the potential role of emergency vaccination in the country. With the increasing threat of transboundary animal diseases due to globalisation, wider market integration and increased animal movement it is important that such an evaluation of control and eradication strategies be undertaken and contingency plans be put in place. The new EU Directive (2003/85/EC) on FMD control permits the use of emergency vaccination as part of an FMD control strategy. The slaughter of infected animals and "dangerous...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Foot-and-Mouth disease; Control strategies; Transboundary animal diseases; Emergency vaccination; Computer simulation; Cost-effectiveness; Livestock Production/Industries; Q1; Q17; Q58.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25321
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Allocation of CO2 Emissions Allowances in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Program AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Kahn, Danny.
Cap-and-trade programs for air emissions have become the widely accepted, preferred approach to cost-effective pollution reduction. One of the important design questions in a trading program is how to initially distribute the emissions allowances. Under the Acid Rain program created by Title IV of the Clean Air Act, most emissions allowances were distributed to current emitters on the basis of a historic measure of electricity generation in an approach known as grandfathering. Recent proposals have suggested two alternative approaches: allocation according to a formula that is updated over time according to some performance metric in a recent year (the share of electricity generation or something else) and auctioning allowances to the highest bidders....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxides; Mercury; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10650
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Alternative Land Use Policies: Real Options with Costly Reversibility AgEcon
Song, Feng; Zhao, Jinhua; Swinton, Scott M..
This paper adopts a real options framework to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of four types of subsidies that aim to encourage a socially desirable land use under return uncertainties and costly reversibility of land use change. We first present a land conversion model to show how the subsidies that are expected net present value (ENPV) equivalent can change a representative farmer’s optimal land conversion rules differently for converting land into an alternative use as well as converting out of it. This is because these subsidies affect the land conversion costs, land return level and uncertainty differently. Then in the context of encouraging energy crop production, we compare the probabilities of inducing the representative farmer to convert land from...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Monte Carlo simulations; Real options; Agricultural subsidies; Cost-effectiveness; Two-way land conversion; Agricultural and Food Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q24; Q48.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61510
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Alternative to Comprehensive Ecosystem Services Markets: The Contribution of Forest-Related Programs in New Zealand AgEcon
Bhatta, Arun; Bigsby, Hugh R.; Cullen, Ross.
Due to the public goods characteristics of many ecosystem services and their vital importance to human welfare, various mechanisms have been put in place to motivate private landowners in the provision of ecosystem services. A common approach is to try to develop a comprehensive ecosystem services market where landowners can receive payments from beneficiaries of ecosystem services. Much research has been directed at developing methods for valuing the range of ecosystem services so that they can be incorporated into ecosystem services markets. However, valuation methods are difficult, expensive and time consuming. Other approaches to the provision of ecosystem services such as payments for ecosystem services usually focus on a single service like water or...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ecosystem services market; Spill-over effect; Cost-effectiveness; New Zealand; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115350
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Calculating the Costs of Environmental Regulation AgEcon
Pizer, William A.; Kopp, Raymond J..
Decisions concerning environmental protection hinge on estimates of economic burden. Over the past 30 years, economists have developed and applied various tools to measure this burden. In this paper, developed as a chapter for the Handbook of Environmental Economics, we present a taxonomy of costs along with methods for measuring those costs. At the broadest level, we distinguish between partial and general equilibrium costs. Partial equilibrium costs represent the burden directly borne by the regulated entity (firms, households, government), including both pecuniary and nonpecuniary expenses, when prices are held constant. General equilibrium costs reflect the net burden once all good and factor markets have equilibrated. In addition to partial...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social cost; Cost-benefit; Cost-effectiveness; Environmental regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q20; Q28; H41; L50; D58.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10762
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Can genetic engineering for the poor pay off? An ex-ante evaluation of Golden Rice in India AgEcon
Stein, Alexander J.; Sachdev, H.P.S.; Qaim, Matin.
Genetic engineering (GE) in agriculture is a controversial topic in science and society at large. While some oppose genetically modified crops as proxy of an agricultural system they consider unsustainable and inequitable, the question remains whether GE can benefit the poor within the existing system and what needs to be done to deliver these benefits? Golden Rice has been genetically engineered to produce provitamin A. The technology is still in the testing phase, but, once released, it is expected to address one consequence of poverty " vitamin A deficiency (VAD) " and its health implications. Current interventions to combat VAD rely mainly on pharmaceutical supplementation, which is costly in the long run and only partially successful. We develop a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Genetic engineering; Beta-carotene biofortification; Vitamin A deficiency; Golden Rice; Health benefits; DALYs; Cost-effectiveness; Cost-benefit analysis; India; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8534
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CO2 Allowance Allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Effect on Electricity Investors AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Kahn, Danny; Palmer, Karen L..
The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is an effort by nine Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states to develop a regional, mandatory, market-based cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electricity sector. The initiative is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the RGGI region and beyond. The implications of these changes for the value of electricity-generating assets and the market value of the firms that own them depends on the initial allocation of carbon dioxide allowances, the composition of generating assets owned by the firm, and the locations of those assets. Changes in asset values inside the RGGI region may be positive or negative, whereas changes outside of the RGGI region are almost...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation-performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Global warming; Carbon dioxide; Asset value; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10495
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF CO-REGULATORY APPROACHES TO FOOD SAFETY CONTROLS AgEcon
Hussein, Mohamud; Fearne, Andrew; Martinez, Marian Garcia; Di Falco, Salvatore.
Food safety controls are currently enforced in the UK by a variety of regulatory approaches that considerably differ in their efficiency and effectiveness in achieving social goals of safe food supply and improved consumer confidence. Aim of this study is to establish whether a coregulatory enforcement of these controls is more cost-effective than the traditional command-and- control enforcement modes. First of its kind, the study reviewed a vast theoretical literature on economics of food safety and incentives to develop a conceptual framework and appropriate methodology for comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of co-regulatory approaches to food hygiene controls in the UK meat industry. A panel data on costs and compliance of 710 meat firms operating...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cost-effectiveness; Co-regulation; Food safety; Incentives; Panel data modelling; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; C23; K32; Q18; Q28.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91725
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Comparing Price and Non-price Approaches to Urban Water Conservation AgEcon
Olmstead, Sheila M.; Stavins, Robert N..
Urban water conservation is typically achieved through prescriptive regulations, including the rationing of water for particular uses and requirements for the installation of particular technologies. A significant shift has occurred in pollution control regulations toward market-based policies in recent decades. We offer an analysis of the relative merits of market-based and prescriptive approaches to water conservation, where prices have rarely been used to allocate scarce supplies. The analysis emphasizes the emerging theoretical and empirical evidence that using prices to manage water demand is more cost-effective than implementing non-price conservation programs, similar to results for pollution control in earlier decades. Price-based approaches also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cost-effectiveness; Water Conservation; Market-based Approaches; Policy Instrument Choice; Water Price; Q25; Q28; Q58; L95.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42919
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Comparison at Dairy Farm Level of Different Policies to Decrease Nutrient Losses to Ground and Surface Waters in the Netherlands AgEcon
Berentsen, Paul B.M..
This paper describes and compares two governmental policies that aim to decrease nutrient losses from farming to ground and surface waters in the Netherlands. The mineral bookkeeping system (MINAS) is the first policy. It is applied in the Netherlands since 1998 and it is based on a farm gate balance approach. This national policy was definitely rejected on October 2, 2003 by the EU Court of Justice as it was considered not to comply fully with the EU Nitrate Directive. Consequently, the Netherlands developed the Application Standards Policy (ASP) based on a soil balance approach which will replace MINAS starting 2006. Especially for dairy farming, that combines plant and animal production, nutrient input and output at soil level are hard to determine as...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Dairy farming; Nutrient losses; Environmental policy; Nitrate directive; Cost-effectiveness; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24290
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Cost Savings Sans Allowance Trades? Evaluating the SO2 Emission Trading Program to Date AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas.
Title IV of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act initiated a historic experiment in incentive-based environmental regulation through the use of tradable allowances for emission of sulfur dioxide by electric generating facilities. To date, relatively little allowance trading has taken place; however, the costs of compliance have been much less than anticipated. The purpose of this paper is to address the apparent paradox that the allowance trading program may not require (very much) trading to be successful. Title IV represented two great steps forward in environmental regulation: first a move toward performance standards and second formal allowance trading. The first step has been sufficient to date for improving dynamic efficiency and achieving...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emission trading; SO2; Clean Air Act; Cost-effectiveness; Incentive-based regulation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q28; Q48; L51.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10682
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Cost-Benefit Analysis and Regulatory Reform: An Assessment of the Science and the Art AgEcon
Kopp, Raymond J.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Toman, Michael.
The continuing efforts in the 104th Congress to legislate requirements for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and the revised Office of Management and Budget guidelines for the conduct of such assessments during a regulatory rulemaking process highlight the need for a comprehensive examination of the role that CBA can play in agency decision-making. This paper summarizes the state of knowledge regarding CBA and offers suggestions for improvement in its use, especially in the context of environmental regulations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cost-benefit; Cost-effectiveness; Risk management; Regulatory reform; Demand and Price Analysis; D6; L5.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10851
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Costs of Reducing Nutrient Losses in Denmark - Analyses of Different Regulation Systems and Cost Effective Measures AgEcon
Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Jorgen Dejgaard; Hasler, Berit.
The economic calculations carried out prior to the Plan for the Aquatic Environment III included a comparison of regulation systems aimed at reducing nitrogen leaching, analyses of measures for reducing phosphorus losses and estimation of administrative costs. The conclusions were that taxation of the N-surplus introduced at the sector level was the most cost effective regulation when compared with administrative regulation and set a side. For phosphorus a balance between incoming and outgoing phosphorus is very costly as this requires that much slurry is transported from the western to the eastern part of Denmark. The final plan for the Aquatic Environment III from 2004 included a 13% reduction of N-leaching until 2015 based on cost effective...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cost-effectiveness; Cost of reducing nitrogen leaching; Phosphorus; Administrative costs; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q51; Q52; Q53.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24536
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Determining the cost-effectiveness of Phytophthora cinnamomi management in the Fitzgerald River National Park AgEcon
Davis, Katrina J.; Pannell, David J.; Kragt, Marit Ellen.
The Fitzgerald River National Park is one of the world’s 25 biological hotspots, containing many endemic flora and fauna species. Its unique biodiversity is being threatened by the introduced root pathogen, Phytophthora cinnamomi. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of strategies to manage Phytophthora cinnamomi in the park, using the Investment Framework for Environmental Resources (INFFER). Management strategies based on current and higher investment levels are shown to have high Benefit Cost Indices. These results support the use of public conservation funds to address the threat of Phytophthora cinnamomi, and show the need for improved understanding of the impact and the adoption of strategies.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Cost-effectiveness; Economic investment framework; Phytophthora cinnamomi; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124288
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Direct Payments for Environmental Services from Mountain Agriculture in Japan: Evaluating its Effectiveness and Drawing Lessons for Developing Countries AgEcon
Sakuyama, Takumi.
This article evaluates the effectiveness of ex-post targeting of the direct payment program for mountain agriculture in Japan. A regression analysis explaining the entry into the program shows that the farm profitability and the production cost were significant positive and negative factor, respectively, in determining the uptake, while the efforts by local governments were a robust factor in facilitating the enrollment. These findings imply ineffective ex-post targeting and call for the differentiation of the premium, alternative incentives to promote forestation for the un-enrolled fields and additional funds targeted to those prefectures with the low uptake ratio. Lessons drawn from the Japanese experience for effective incentive measures in developing...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cost-effectiveness; Direct payment; Environmental services; Mountain farming; Targeting; Transaction costs; Japan; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/110128
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Does Scale Matter? Cost Effectiveness of Agricultural Nutrient Abatement When Target Level Varies AgEcon
Iho, Antti.
Agricultural production is facing high requirements on nutrient runoff reduction. Furthermore, the reductions should by done efficiently. For instance, the European Water Framework Directive calls for cost-effectiveness from schemes of measures to fulfill the target of good water quality in European river basins. In this paper we analyse the implications of target level variation on efficiency properties of agricultural phosphorus abatement. We analyse the robustness of cost-effectiveness as the scheme of measures is adopted from another, identical river basin with different target level on total phosphorus abatement. We find that even between homogeneous regions the cost-effective scheme of measures is unique for all target levels of reduction, and that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cost-effectiveness; Phosphorus abatement; Buffer strips; Wetlands; Fertilizer use; Water framework directive; Crop Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q18; Q25.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24701
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Efficient Conservation in a Utility-Maximization Framework Ecology and Society
Davis, Frank W; University of California; fd@bren.ucsb.edu; Costello, Christopher; University of California; costello@bren.ucsb.edu; Stoms, David; University of California; stoms@bren.ucsb.edu.
Systematic planning for biodiversity conservation is being conducted at scales ranging from global to national to regional. The prevailing planning paradigm is to identify the minimum land allocations needed to reach specified conservation targets or maximize the amount of conservation accomplished under an area or budget constraint. We propose a more general formulation for setting conservation priorities that involves goal setting, assessing the current conservation system, developing a scenario of future biodiversity given the current conservation system, and allocating available conservation funds to alter that scenario so as to maximize future biodiversity. Under this new formulation for setting conservation priorities, the value of a site depends on...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Biodiversity; Sierra Nevada; California; Conservation; Cost-effectiveness; Irreplaceability; Planning; Retention; Scenario.
Ano: 2006
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Environmental Economics AgEcon
Stavins, Robert N..
This article, prepared for the forthcoming second edition of the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, provides an overview of the economics of environmental policy. Included are the setting of goals and targets, notably the Kaldor-Hicks criterion, and the related method of assessment known as benefit-cost analysis. Also reviewed are the means of environmental policy, that is, the choice of specific policy instruments, featuring an examination of potential criteria for assessing alternative instruments, with focus on cost-effectiveness. The theoretical foundations and experiential highlights of individual instruments are reviewed, including conventional command-and-control mechanisms and market-based instruments.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental economics; Efficiency; Cost-effectiveness; Benefit-cost analysis; Market-based instruments; Tradeable permits; Pollution taxes; Environmental Economics and Policy; K320; Q280; Q380; Q480.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10841
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Environmental Law and Public Policy AgEcon
Revesz, Richard L.; Stavins, Robert N..
This chapter provides an economic perspective of environmental law and policy with regard to both normative and positive dimensions. It begins with an examination of the central problem in environmental regulation: the tendency of pollution generators in an unconstrained market economy to externalize some of the costs of their production, leading to an inefficiently large amount of pollution. We examine the ends of environmental policy, that is, the setting of goals and targets, beginning with normative issues, notably the Kaldor-Hicks criterion and the related method of assessment known as benefit-cost analysis. We examine this analytical method in detail, including its theoretical foundations and empirical methods of estimation of compliance costs and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental economics; Environmental law; Efficiency; Cost-effectiveness; Benefit-cost analysis; Environmental federalism; Environmental Economics and Policy; K320; Q280; Q380; Q480.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10742
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Modeling environmental risk and land management trade-offs in the Great Barrier Reef catchment AgEcon
Mallawaarachchi, Thilak; Mazur, Kasia; Lawson, Kenton.
We develop a catchment scale modeling framework to identify cost-effective strategies for joint onsite abatement and offsite mitigation of land-based pollution from agricultural activities that pose a risk to water quality in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). An illustrative example of the Barron catchment in north Queensland is used to demonstrate an approach to specify social planner’'s problem for non-point source pollution management as a cost minimisation model to meet a specified reduction in land-based pollution emissions at the receiving waters of GBR. We focus on the tradeoffs between onsite pollution control and offsite pollution mitigation under a collective contract for nutrient reduction at a sub-catchment level and discuss implementation options.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Non-point source pollution; Water quality; Land use; Cost-effectiveness; Coastal zone management; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10377
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