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Registros recuperados: 28
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Caracteristicas produtivas de cabras 1/2 Anglo-Nubiana + 1/4 Pardo Alpina + 1/4 Moxotó (Tricross). Infoteca-e
SILVA, F. L. R. da; ARAÚJO, A. M. de.
Resumo: Avaliou-se a producao media diaria de leite de cabras do grupo genetico tricross da Embrapa Caprinos, durante quatro anos, num total de 680 lactacoes. O rebanho foi mantido em pastagem nativa com suplementacao mineral durante o ano, porem na epoca seca, o rebanho recebeu volumoso de silagem de sorgo, e concentrado a base de milho com farelo de soja. O rebanho tricross foi submetido a tres estacoes de monta por ano. O controle leiteiro foi feito uma vez por semana, de manha e a tarde. O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as caracteristicas produtivas de leite de cabras Tricross(F1) e suas bimesticas(F2). As matrizes tricross(F2) foram 40% e 23% inferiores as tricross(F1), para a producao total de leite e producao media diaria, respectivamente, e...
Tipo: Circular Técnica (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Brasil; Ceará; Hybrid vigour.; Crossbreeding; Caprino; Cabra; Melhoramento genético animal; Cruzamento; Produção leiteira; Vigor híbrido; Goats; Genetic improvement; Milk production; Heterosis..
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/515303
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Carcass conformation and joints composition of Churra Galega Bragançana and crossbred lambs by Suffolk and Merino Precoce sire breeds IPB - Escola Superior Agrária
Teixeira, A.; Cadavez, Vasco; Delfa, R.; Bueno, M.S..
Carcasses of Churro Galego Bragançano purebred and Suffolk and Merino Precoce crossbred lambs reared under three different conventional production system of northeast of Portugal were evaluated. Carcasses of male lambs had larger muscle longissimus width (P < 0.05) and smaller subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.05) than the female lambs. Carcasses of crossbred lambs had higher (P < 0.05) compactness indices and leg and shoulder proportion than Bragançano purebred. Suffolk crossed had lower KKCF proportion (P < 0.05) than Bragançano and Merino crossbred lambs. Male lambs had higher (P < 0.05) muscle proportion in almost all carcass joints than the female lambs. It was concluded that Suffolk can be used as sire breed in Bragançano ewes to...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Sheep; Crossbreeding; Tissue composition; Production system; Local breed.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10198/846
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Carcass quality of crossbred steers with different degrees of zebu blood in the genotype: meta-analysis R. Bras. Zootec.
Venturini,Tiago; Menezes,Luís Fernando Glasenapp de; Kuss,Fernando; Martin,Thomas Newton; Vonz,Douglas; Paris,Wagner.
In order to evaluate the effect of the different percentages of zebu blood in the genotype of crossbred steers on carcass traits, a meta-analysis was carried out, using 30 studies conducted in Brazil that have been published since the year 2000. The parameters evaluated were hot carcass weight (221 estimates), cold carcass weight (232), hot carcass (236) and cold carcass yield (223), subcutaneous fat thickness (238) and the percentages of saw cut (233), forequarter (234) and sidecut (246 estimates). Initially, exploratory analysis was performed for each of the variables for detection of publication vices through the dispersion of observations by pointing out the outliers eliminated. Normality tests were normal and the data were subjected to analysis of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Carcass yield; Crossbreeding; Heterosis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982011001100041
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Characteristics of the wool produced by ewes raised for meat production R. Bras. Zootec.
Ribeiro,Edson Luis de Azambuja; Pires,Cleber Cassol; Mizubuti,Ivone Yurika; Silva,Leandro das Dores Ferreira da; Castro,Filipe Alexandre Boscaro de; Koritiaki,Natália Albieri; Pereira,Elzânia Sales; Pinto,Andréa Pereira.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of wool produced by ewes of different genetic groups, ages, and reproductive statuses. A total of 115 ewes, of the following genetic groups, were used: 10 Corriedale, 37 Hampshire Down, 26 1/2 Hampshire Down + 1/2 Corriedale, 24 1/2 Ile de France + 1/2 Corriedale, and 18 1/2 Suffolk + 1/2 Corriedale. Age was determined by the number of permanent incisors, ranging from four teeth to eight teeth. Ewes were further classified by their reproductive status into: lambed, having reared one lamb; and not-lambed. Hampshire and half-blood Suffolk ewes were heavier (53.2 and 52.7 kg, respectively), while Corriedale animals were lighter (40.1 kg). Older ewes and not-lambed ewes were heavier as well....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Crossbreeding; Fiber; Ovis aries; Sheep.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982015001100405
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Concentrate levels of crossbred bulls slaughtered at 16 or 22 months: performance and carcass characteristics Animal Sciences
Pinto, Adriana; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Guerrero, Ana; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Perotto, Daniel; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do.
This study was performed to assess the animal performance of 97 bulls, ½ Purunã vs. ½ Canchim, that were slaughtered at 16 (16M) or 22 (22M) months with three concentrate levels (0.8, 1.2, and 1.6%) of body weight (BW). The initial body weight was lower for the 16M bulls. The final body weight and hot carcass weights were similar between the two slaughter ages. The hot carcass dressing was higher for 22M bulls. The average daily gain was higher for 16M bulls. The feed intake and dry matter feed conversion were similar between 16 and 22M bulls. The carcass length, marbling, and bone percentage were lower for 16M bulls. However, the Longissimus dorsi muscle area was higher for 16M bulls. The leg length, cushion thickness, fat thickness, conformation, colour,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Zootecnia; Produção animal; Qualidade de carne bovine; Feed intake; Crossbreeding; Longissimus..
Ano: 2015 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/25116
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Concentrate supplementation during pregnancy and lactation of ewes affects the growth rate of lambs from a variety of crosses R. Bras. Zootec.
Torreão,Jacira Neves da Costa; Rocha,Arturene Marques; Marques,Carlo Aldrovandi Torreão; Bezerra,Leilson Rocha; Gottardi,Fernanda Patrícia; Araújo,Marcos Jácome de; Souza Júnior,Edmilson Lúcio de; Oliveira,Ronaldo Lopes.
The objective of this study was to determine how concentrate supplementation during late third gestation and lactation affects ewe and offspring performance from birth to weaning. Thirty-six ewes and their offspring (n = 32) were used. Eighteen Morada Nova and 18 Santa Inês ewes were artificially inseminated with semen from Dorper ram and distributed in a completely randomized factorial arrangement (2 × 2) consisting of two supplementation levels (5 and 15 g kg-1 of BW) and two breeds (Morada Nova and Santa Inês) or two crosses (Dorper × Morada Nova and Dorper × Santa Inês). The ewes were weighed, their body condition was evaluated during pregnancy, and the weaning weight of the lambs at up to 70 days old was measured. There was no effect of breed or...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Crossbreeding; Feed evaluation; Performance.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982014001000544
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Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali) JARTS
Toure, Abdoulaye; Moula, Nassim; Kouriba, Ali; Traore, Bakary; Leroy, Pascal; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas.
Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali), this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5-118) and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3 +/- 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha). Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Animal Husbandry; Agricultultural economics dairy cattle; Genetic resources; Multivariate analysis; Mali; Zebu; Crossbreeding.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.jarts.info/index.php/jarts/article/view/2015011347137
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Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models PAB
Petrini,Juliana; Dias,Raphael Antonio Prado; Pertile,Simone Fernanda Nedel; Eler,Joanir Pereira; Ferraz,José Bento Sterman; Mourão,Gerson Barreto.
The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567), yearling weight (n=58,124), and scrotal circumference (n=20,371) of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF) and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM) included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R) included all the effects of the RM model except the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bos taurus x Bos indicus; Animal breeding; Beef cattle; Correlation matrix; Crossbreeding; Variance inflation factor.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2012001200010
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Divergence and genetic variability among superior rubber tree genotypes PAB
Gouvêa,Lígia Regina Lima; Chiorato,Alisson Fernando; Gonçalves,Paulo de Souza.
The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic variability and divergence among 22 superior rubber tree (Hevea sp.) genotypes of the IAC 400 series. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using eight quantitative traits (descriptors), including yield. In the univariate analyses, the estimated parameters were: genetic and environmental variances; genetic and environmental coefficients of variation; and the variation index. The Mahalanobis generalized distance, the Tocher agglomerative method and canonical variables were used for the multivariate analyses. In the univariate analyses, variability was verified among the genotypes for all the variables evaluated. The Tocher method grouped the genotypes into 11 clusters of dissimilarity. The...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Hevea brasiliensis; Crossbreeding; Multivariate analysis; Selection.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2010000200007
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Effects of crossbreeding on slaughter traits and breast muscle chemical composition in chinese chickens Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Avic.
Huang,Ai-xia; Li,Jin-jun; Shen,Jun-da; Tao,Zheng-rong; Ren,Jin-dong; Li,Guo-qing; Wang,De-qian; Tian,Yong; Yang,Fu-sheng; Ding,Wei-ping; Wu,Tian-xing; Lu,Li-zhi.
We investigated the effects of crossbreeding on slaughter traits and the chemical composition of chicken breast muscle. Trials were conducted using 120 broilers from four lines: Xiao-Shan chicken (XS), Xian-Ju chicken (XJ), Xiao-Shan chicken♂♂ × Xian-Ju chicken♀♀ (Zhenan 1, ZNY1) and Xiao-Shan chicken♂♂ × (Guang-Xi Yellow chicken♂♂×Xian-Ju chicken♀♀) ♀♀ (Zhenan 2, ZNY2). The birds were slaughtered at 120 days of age and the slaughter traits were measured. Breast muscles were sampled to determine chemical composition. The slaughter traits of hybrid chickens were improved. Both hybrid strains had higher intramuscular fat (IMF) and inosine-5'-monophosphate (inosinic acid, IMP). Concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in breast muscles from the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Amino acid; Chicken; Crossbreeding; Fatty acid; Inosine-5'-monophosphate; Intramuscular fat; Slaughter traits.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-635X2011000400005
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Effects of nutritional plans and genetic groups on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of finishing pigs Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment.
VELOSO,Rogério de Carvalho; DUARTE,Márcio de Souza; SILVA,Fabyano Fonseca e; SARAIVA,Alysson; GUIMARÃES,Simone Eliza Facioni; CHIZZOTTI,Mário Luiz; CAMARGO,Ederson Gomes; LOPES,Paulo Sávio.
Abstract We aimed to evaluate the effects of paternal genotypes (Piau, Duroc-based, and Pietrain) and nutritional plans with different digestible lysine contents (Low, Medium, and High) on performance, carcass, and meat quality traits of pigs. Pietrain and Duroc crossbred barrows and gilts were similar in performance and carcass traits and had the greatest values when compared to Piau crossbred pigs. Regarding meat quality, drip loss was greater in pork from Pietrain crossbred barrows and gilts compared to Duroc and Piau crossbred pigs. The High nutritional plan had the greatest daily digestible lysine intake value, followed by the Medium and Low nutritional plans. Most of the performance, carcass, and meat quality traits that were evaluated in barrows and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Crossbreeding; Digestible lysine; Duroc; Piau; Pietrain.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-20612019000300538
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Feed intake and prediction assessments using the NRC, CNCPS and BR-CORTE systems in Nellore and Red Norte steers finished in feedlot R. Bras. Zootec.
Machado Neto,Otávio Rodrigues; Ladeira,Márcio Machado; Gonçalves,Tarcisio de Moraes; Lopes,Leandro Sâmia; Oliveira,Dalton Mendes de; Bassi,Marcelo Silva.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the dry matter intake (DMI) and nutrient consumption in Nellore and Red Norte steer finished in a feedlot and compare the actual and predicted values by NRC (2000), CNCPS 5.0 and BR-CORTE systems. Forty-one animals, 19 Nellore and 22 Red Norte steers, with initial live weight of 361 ± 31 kg and 367 ± 30 kg, respectively, were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, with 28 days for adaptation and 56 experimental days. The animals were weighed at the beginning and at end of each 28-day period after 16 hours fasting. The dry matter intake was estimated by LIPE, chrome oxide and indigestible dry matter (DMi) markers. There were no differences between Nellore and Red Norte DMI when expressed in kg/day (10.66 vs....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Crossbreeding; Markers; Nutritional requirements; Zebu breeds.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982010000200024
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Floral phenology, seed germination and hybrid plants of the Amerindian yam (Dioscorea trifida) Acta Amazonica
BEYERLEIN,Patrick; MENDES,Ângela M. S.; PEREIRA,Henrique S..
ABSTRACT The Amerindian yam (Dioscorea trifida) is a food plant native to the Amazon region. Several local varieties are cultivated by traditional family farmers for consumption and local trade. However, socioeconomic processes may be causing species genetic erosion. Knowledge about species sexual reproduction is essential for its conservation and genetic improvement. The objective of this study was to observe the floral phenology, to assess the germination and dormancy of seeds, to conduct controlled pollinations and to select hybrid plants of D. trifida with agronomic potential. Seed dormancy was confirmed and was broken by after-ripening at 28 oC and 80% RH. We carried out controlled pollinations between local landraces and cultivated the resulting...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Amazonia; Dioscoreaceae; Native food plant; Controlled pollination; Crossbreeding.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0044-59672019000300167
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Genetic evaluation models for post-weaning weight gain in a multibreed Angus-Nelore population PAB
Prestes,Alan Miranda; Oliveira,Mauricio Morgado de; Mello,Fernanda Cristina Breda; Rorato,Paulo Roberto Nogara; Lopes,Jader Silva; Feltes,Giovani Luis; Bravo,André Padilha.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to identify the most suitable model for the genetic evaluation of post-weaning weight gain in a multibreed Angus-Nelore population. Three models were tested using the Bayesian inference method: traditional animal model (M1), multibreed animal model without (M2) and with segregation (M3). The choice of the best model followed the criteria: number of parameters (Np), deviance information criterion (DIC), conditional predictive ordinate (CPO), and deviance based on Bayes factors. Spearman’s rank correlations were estimated for the top 10, 20, and 30% sires. M1 presented the highest values for all criteria, except for Np, and the lowest direct heritability estimate of 0.15±0.01. The heritability estimates for M2 and M3...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Animal breeding; Crossbreeding; Dominance; Epistatic losses; Genetic parameters.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2019000102803
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Genetic gain for body weight, feed conversion and carcass traits in selected broiler strains Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Avic.
Schmidt,GS; Figueiredo,EAP; Ledur,MC.
The Brazilian Swine and Poultry Research Center (Embrapa Suínos e Aves) maintains a chicken breeding program for meat production since 1985. Two control lines (LLc and PPc) are maintained, whereas two male lines (TT and ZZ) and three female lines (PP, VV and KK) have been selected. This paper reports the genetic gain after 15 generations of combined selection (mass and independent culling levels) in order to develop the commercial broiler stocks Embrapa 021 and Embrapa 022. Selection pressure has been exerted on weight gain, carcass traits and fertility. In addition, female lines have also been selected for egg production, whereas males have been selected for feed efficiency since 1992. All lines have been selected for breast area instead of carcass traits...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Control line; Crossbreeding; Genetic gain; Meat production; Production; Selection.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-635X2006000100004
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Genomic selection in multi-breed dairy cattle populations R. Bras. Zootec.
Cole,John Bruce; Silva,Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa da.
ABSTRACT Genomic selection has been a valuable tool for increasing the rate of genetic improvement in purebred dairy cattle populations. However, there also are many large populations of crossbred dairy cattle in the world, and multi-breed genomic evaluations may be a valuable tool for improving rates of genetic gain in those populations. Multi-breed models are an extension of single-breed genomic models in which a genomic relationship matrix is used to account for the breed origin of alleles in the population, as well as allele frequency differences between breeds. Most studies have found little benefit from multi-breed evaluations for pure breeds that have large reference populations. However, breeds with small reference populations may benefit from...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Crossbred cattle; Crossbreeding; Genomic evaluation; Multi-breed populations.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982016000400195
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Heteroskedasticity for weaning weight of Charolais-Zebu crossbred calves R. Bras. Zootec.
Toral,Fábio Luiz Buranelo; Torres Júnior,Roberto Augusto de Almeida; Lopes,Paulo Sávio; Cardoso,Fernando Flores; Silva,Luiz Otávio Campos da.
The objective of the present study was to analyze models with genetic and/or residual heteroskedasticity for genetic evaluation of the weaning weight of Charolais-Zebu crossbred calves. Weaning weight data from 56,965 crossbred calves were analyzed using animal models with different combinations of genetic and residual heteroskedasticity and/or homoskedasticity. The inference on a posteriori distributions of genetic parameters were by the Monte Carlo method via Markov chains. The model with genetic and residual heteroskedasticity was the best fit on the data. Groups of animals with different genetic compositions, expressed as percentages of Charolais-Zebu breed alleles and individual and maternal heterozygosis, had different genetic variances. These...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Animal breeding; Bayesian inference; Canchim; Crossbreeding; Selection.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000500013
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Ingestive behavior of Nellore cows and their straightbred or crossbred calves R. Bras. Zootec.
Vargas Junior,Fernando Miranda de; Wechsler,Francisco Stefano; Rossi,Patrícia; Oliveira,Marcus Vinicius Morais de; Schmidt,Patrick.
This trial aimed to investigate the influence of calf genetic group on the ingestive behavior of Nellore dams and their offspring on pasture. Twenty one primiparous and multiparous Nellore cows were assigned to the experiment; 13 cows nursed straightbred Nellore calves; and eight cows nursed halfbred Simmental × Nellore calves. The observations started in the morning, as soon as identification of the animals in daylight was possible, and they lasted until after sunset, when identification became impossible. The observations were made at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 30 weeks after calving. The following events were continuosly observed: grazing, rumination, idleness, water and mineral intake, and suckling frequency and length.. The dams of straightbreds showed a...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Crossbreeding; Grazing; Idleness; Rumination; Suckling.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982010000300026
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Intake, digestibility and nitrogen use efficiency in crossbred F1 Holstein × Zebu grazing cows R. Bras. Zootec.
Santos,Stefanie Alvarenga; Valadares Filho,Sebastião de Campos; Detmann,Edenio; Valadares,Rilene Ferreira Diniz; Ruas,José Reinaldo Mendes; Prados,Laura Franco; Amaral,Paloma de Melo; Mariz,Lays Débora Silva.
The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, digestibility and nitrogen (N) compounds use efficiency in F1 Holstein × Zebu grazing cows. Eighteen crossbred cows (six Holstein × Gir, six Holstein × Guzerat, and six Holstein × Nellore) were used in the experiment, constituting three experimental treatments in simple random samples, under the same feeding conditions. At the estimation of individual intake at grazing, titanium dioxide was used for estimating fecal excretion and indigestible neutral detergent fiber, in order to determine pasture intake. There was effect of the lactation period on nutrient intake, except for the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) in % of body weight (BW), as well as those...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Brachiaria decumbens; Crossbreeding; Milk production; Performance.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-35982012000400027
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Intake, milk production and weight change curves for lactating Holstein x Zebu cows under grazing Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
Santos,S.A.; Valadares Filho,S.C.; Detmann,E.; Ruas,J.R.M.; Prados,L.F.; Mariz,L.D.S..
The purpose of this study was to evaluate feed intake and develop lactation and weight change curves for Holstein x zebu cows under grazing. Eighteen F1 cows were used, divided into three treatments; 6 were Holstein x Gir (HGI), 6 were Holstein x Guzerat (HGU), and another 6 were Holstein x Nelore (HNE), under the feeding conditions of pasture plus concentrate with 22% of crude protein (CP). To estimate individual feed intake at pasture, 2 markers were used: titanium dioxide to estimate fecal dry matter (DM) excretion, and the indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF) to estimate individual pasture intake. The Wood (1967) model was used to evaluate milk yield and the parameters were estimated for each genetic group, as follows: HGI =...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Crossbreeding; F1; Lactation; Tropical grasses.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-09352014000300827
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