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Acute effect of passive cycle-ergometry and functional electrical stimulation on nitrosative stress and inflammatory cytokines in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial BJMBR
França,E.E.T.; Gomes,J.P.V.; De Lira,J.M.B.; Amaral,T.C.N.; Vilaça,A.F.; Paiva Júnior,M.D.S.; Elihimas Júnior,U.F.; Correia Júnior,M.A.V.; Forgiarini Júnior,L.A.; Costa,M.J.C.; Andrade,M.A.; Ribeiro,L.C.; De Castro,C.M.M.B..
Early mobilization is beneficial for critically ill patients because it reduces muscle weakness acquired in intensive care units. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive cycle ergometry (PCE) on the nitrous stress and inflammatory cytometry in critically ill patients. This was a controlled, randomized, open clinical trial carried out in a 16-bed intensive care unit. The patients were randomized into four groups: Control group (n=10), did not undergo any therapeutic intervention during the study; PCE group (n=9), lower-limb PCE for 30 cycles/min for 20 min; FES group (n=9), electrical stimulation of quadriceps muscle for 20 min; and FES with PCE group (n=7), patients underwent PCE and FES,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cytokines; Nitrosative stress; Intensive care unit; Physiotherapy.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2020000400605
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ACUTE-PHASE REACTIONS, INCLUDING CYTOKINES, IN PATIENTS BITTEN BY BOTHROPS AND CROTALUS SNAKES IN BRAZIL J. Venom. Anim. Toxins
BARRAVIERA,B.; LOMONTE,B.; TARKOWSKI,A.; HANSON,L. Å.; MEIRA,D.A..
Thirty-one patients bitten by venomous snakes in Botucatu area (State of São Paulo - Brazil), sixteen by Bothrops spp. and fifteen by Crotalus durissus terrificus, were studied. The group comprised twenty-nine males and two females, ranging from fourteen to sixty-three years of age (mean 33 ± 15). Leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphopenia, increase of mucoproteins and C-reactive protein, decrease of total serum protein and albumin, were observed on the first day after the accident. In addition, increased serum levels of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but not of IL-1<FONT FACE="Symbol">b</FONT> and TNF-<FONT FACE="Symbol">a</FONT>, were observed. The alterations were generally more intense in patients bitten by Crotalus durissus...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Snake venom; Acute-phase reactions; Cytokines; C-reactive protein; Inflammation.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-79301995000100003
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Aging alters the production of iNOS, arginase and cytokines in murine macrophages BJMBR
Cecílio,C.A.; Costa,E.H.; Simioni,P.U.; Gabriel,D.L.; Tamashiro,W.M.S.C..
The limited amount of information on the primary age-related deficiencies in the innate immune system led us to study the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase, and cytokines in macrophages of young (8 weeks old) and old (72 weeks old) female BALB/c mice. We first evaluated iNOS and arginase inducers on peritoneal (PMΦ) and bone marrow-derived (BMMΦ) macrophages of young BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and then investigated their effects on macrophages of old mice. Upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), resident and thioglycolate-elicited PMΦ from young mice presented higher iNOS activity than those from old mice (54.4%). However, LPS-stimulated BMMΦ from old mice showed the highest NO levels (50.1%). Identical NO levels were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aging; INOS; Arginase; Cytokines; Murine macrophages; Inflammatory stimuli.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2011000700010
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Aging reduces the primary humoral response and the in vitro cytokine production in mice BJMBR
Simioni,P.U.; Costa,E.H.; Tamashiro,W.M.S.C..
Aging is accompanied by a decrease in several physiological functions that make older individuals less responsive to environmental challenges. In the present study, we analyzed the immune response of female BALB/c mice (N = 6) of different ages (from 2 to 96 weeks) and identified significant age-related alterations. Immunization with hapten-protein (trinitrophenyl-bovine serum albumin) conjugates resulted in lower antibody levels in the primary and secondary responses of old mice (72 weeks old). Moreover, young mice (2, 16, and 32 weeks old) maintained specific antibodies in their sera for longer periods after primary immunization than did old mice. However, a secondary challenge efficiently induced memory in old mice, as shown by the increased antibody...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Aging; Cytokines; Antibody; Proliferation; T cell response; T cell subsets.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2007000800012
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Amifostine reduces inflammation and protects against 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis and hyposalivation BJMBR
Barbosa,S.C.M.; Pereira,V.B.M.; Wong,D.V.T.; Santana,A.P.M.; Lucetti,L.T.; Carvalho,L.L.; Barbosa,C.R.N.; Callado,R.B.; Silva,C.A.A.; Lopes,C.D.H.; Brito,G.A.C.; Alencar,N.M.N.; Lima-Júnior,R.C.P..
Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and dose-limiting side effect of cancer treatment, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiotherapy. The efficacy of the therapeutic measures to prevent OM is limited and disease prevention is not fully observable. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent with a described anti-inflammatory potential. It is clinically used to reduce radiotherapy and chemotherapy-associated xerostomia. This study investigated the protective effect of amifostine on an experimental model of OM. Hamsters were divided into six groups: saline control group (5 mL/kg), mechanical trauma (scratches) of the right cheek pouch; 5-FU (60 and 40 mg/kg, ip, respectively, administered on days 1 and 2); amifostine (12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg) + 5-FU + scratches....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cancer chemotherapy toxicity; Oral mucositis; 5-Fluorouracil; Amifostine; Cytokines.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2019000300601
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Antibody and cytokine serum levels in patients subjected to anti-rabies prophylaxis with serum-vaccination J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Ayres,J. A.; Barraviera,B.; Calvi,S. A.; Carvalho,N. R.; Peraçoli,M. T. S..
Rabies is considered a fatal disease once clinical symptoms have developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological aspects and immune response in patients attacked by domestic and wild animals and subjected to post-exposure rabies treatment with equine serum and associated vaccine. Thirty-three patients were evaluated; they were between 13 and 65 years old, 75.8% were male and 24.2% female, and from the Botucatu neighborhood. Twenty healthy control individuals with the same age range were also studied. Specific antibodies to equine immunoglobulins and IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 production were evaluated by ELISA. IgM, IgE, IgG and subclasses, and rabies virus antibodies serum levels were determined by nephelometry and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Rabies; Anti-rabies prophylaxis; Immunoglobulins; Cytokines.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992006000300008
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Assessment of cytokine values in serum by RT-PCR in HIV-1 infected individuals with and without highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Meira,DA; Almeida,RAMB; Barbosa,AN; de Souza,LR; Olivo,TET; Henriques,RMS; Golim,MA; Araújo Jr,JP; Nagoshi,LR; Orikaza,CM; Calvi,SA.
A cross-sectional study was performed on HIV-1 infected individuals with or without antiretroviral treatment (ARV) in the AIDS Day Hospital, Botucatu Medical School, UNESP. Between August 2004 and October 2005, 73 HIV-1 infected individuals were divided into three groups: infected individuals with or without AIDS who had never received ARV (G1 = 15); patients on HAART that had had plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) equal to or greater than 50 copies/mL (G2 = 27); and patients on HAART with undetectable VL for at least the past six months (G3 = 31). There was also an additional group that comprised blood donors without any sign of the disease and with negative HIV serum tests (G4 = 20), which was the control group. Serum cytokine levels (values in pg/mL) were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: RT-PCR; ELISA; Cytokines; HIV; AIDS; HAART; Apoptosis.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992008000400011
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Astrocytic expression of GFAP and serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in rats treated with different pain relievers BJPS
Amaral,Gisele Ferreira; Dossa,Pietro Domingues; Viebig,Lígia Bocamino; Konno,Fabiana Toshie Camargo; Consoli,Amanda; Martins,Maria de Fátima Monteiro; Viani,Flávio Cesar; Bondan,Eduardo Fernandes.
ABSTRACT Pro-inflammatory cytokines and glial cells, especially microglial cells, have been implicated in persistent pain sensitization. Less is known about the role of astrocytes in pain regulation. This study aimed to observe the expression of the astrocytic biomarker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the serum levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after short-term administration of central pain relievers in rats not submitted to noxious stimuli. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups, receiving for nine days- (1) amitriptyline (Amt-10 mg/kg/day, by gavage); (2) gabapentin (Gb-60 mg/kg/day, by gavage; (3) methadone (Me-4.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal route [IP]); (4) morphine (Mo-10 mg/kg/day, IP);...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Neuropathic pain/treatment; Astrocytes/pain regulation; Analgesics/tests/treatment; Cytokines; Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/study.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502016000400623
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Attenuation of phosphamidon-induced oxidative stress and immune dysfunction in rats treated with N-acetylcysteine BJMBR
Suke,S.G.; Ahmed,R.S.; Pathak,R.; Tripathi,A.K.; Banerjee,B.D..
The effect of N-acetylcysteine, a thiolic antioxidant, on attenuation of phosphamidon-induced oxidative stress and immune dysfunction was evaluated in adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g. Rats were divided into four groups, 8 animals/group, and treated with phosphamidon, N-acetylcysteine or the combination of both for 28 days. Oral administration of phosphamidon (1.74 mg/kg), an organophosphate insecticide, increased serum malondialdehyde (3.83 ± 0.18 vs 2.91 ± 0.24 nmol/mL; P < 0.05) and decreased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (567.8 ± 24.36 vs 749.16 ± 102.61 U/gHb; P < 0.05), catalase activity (1.86 ± 0.18 vs 2.43 ± 0.08 U/gHb; P < 0.05) and whole blood glutathione levels (1.25 ± 0.21 vs 2.28 ± 0.08 mg/gHb; P < 0.05) showing...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cytokines; Antioxidant; Organophosphate; Oxidative stress; Immunotoxicity.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2008000900004
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Autoimmune diseases in the TH17 era BJMBR
Mesquita Jr.,D.; Cruvinel,W.M.; Câmara,N.O.S.; Kállas,E.G.; Andrade,L.E.C..
A new subtype of CD4+ T lymphocytes characterized by the production of interleukin 17, i.e., TH17 cells, has been recently described. This novel T cell subset is distinct from type 1 and type 2 T helper cells. The major feature of this subpopulation is to generate significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, therefore appearing to be critically involved in protection against infection caused by extracellular microorganisms, and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and allergy. The dynamic balance among subsets of T cells is important for the modulation of several steps of the immune response. Disturbances in this balance may cause a shift from normal immunologic physiology to the development of immune-mediated disorders. In autoimmune diseases,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Autoimmune diseases; Cytokines; TH17 cells; IL-17; IL-22; IL-23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2009000600002
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Avian cytokines in health and disease Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Avic.
Wigley,P; Kaiser,P.
Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cytokines; Immunity; Infectious disease; Inflammation; Vaccination.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-635X2003000100001
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Balanced cytokine-producing pattern in mice immunized with an avirulent Trypanosoma cruzi Anais da ABC (AABC)
Soares,Milena B. P.; Gonçalves,Renata; Pyrrho,Alexandre S.; Costa,Deise A.; Paiva,Claudia N.; Gattass,Cerli R..
We have previously demonstrated that inoculation of BALB/c mice with trypomastigotes of CL-14, an avirulent Trypanosoma cruzi clone, prevents the development of parasitemia and mortality after challenge with virulent CL strain. In this report, we investigated the cytokine and antibody profiles induced by inoculation with CL-14 clone. Groups of mice were inoculated with trypomastigotes of CL-14 clone and challenged with infective CL strain. Challenged CL-14-inoculated mice had lower levels of IFN-<FONT FACE=Symbol>g</font> and higher production of IgG1 antibodies as compared to CL strain-infected mice. Previous inoculation with CL-14 clone partially prevented the suppression of IL-2 production caused by CL strain infection. No significant...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Trypanosoma cruzi; Protection; Cytokines; Humoral response.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652003000200005
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Benznidazole affects expression of Th1, Th17 and Treg cytokines during acute experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.
Gatto,Mariana; Oliveira,Larissa Ragozo Cardoso; Dias,Fernanda De Nuzzi; Araújo Júnior,João Pessoa; Lima,Carlos Roberto Gonçalves; Lordelo,Eliana Peresi; Santos,Rodrigo Mattos dos; Kurokawa,Cilmery Suemi.
Abstract Background The present study evaluated the effect of treatment with benznidazole on mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-10, TGF-β and FoxP3 in spleen and heart tissue of BALB/c mice in the acute phase of an experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, strains JLP or Y. Methods The mRNA expression of cytokines and parasite load were assessed by q-PCR. Dependent groups were compared using Student's paired t-test and independent groups were compared using Student's unpaired t-test. Results Infection with the JLP or Y strains increased expression of IFN-γ in the heart and of IL-10 and IL-17 in the spleen and heart compared to uninfected animals. Treatment increased the expression of IFN-γ and decreased the expression of IL-17, IL-10, TGF- β and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Chagas disease; Trypanosoma cruzi; Immune response; Cytokines; Q-PCR.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-91992017000100320
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Blastocyst-endometrium interaction: intertwining a cytokine network BJMBR
Castro-Rendón,W.A.; Castro-Álvarez,J.F.; Guzmán-Martinez,C.; Bueno-Sanchez,J.C..
The successful implantation of the blastocyst depends on adequate interactions between the embryo and the uterus. The development of the embryo begins with the fertilized ovum, a single totipotent cell which undergoes mitosis and gives rise to a multicellular structure named blastocyst. At the same time, increasing concentrations of ovarian steroid hormones initiate a complex signaling cascade that stimulates the differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, preparing the uterus to lodge the embryo. Studies in humans and in other mammals have shown that cytokines and growth factors are produced by the pre-implantation embryo and cells of the reproductive tract; however, the interactions between these factors that converge for successful...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Embryo implantation; Trophoblast; Cytokines; Prostaglandins; Aspirin.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2006001100001
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Cardiac gene expression and systemic cytokine profile are complementary in a murine model of post-ischemic heart failure BJMBR
Lachtermacher,S.; Esporcatte,B.L.B.; Montalvão,F.; Costa,P.C.; Rodrigues,D.C.; Belem,L.; Rabischoffisky,A.; Faria Neto,H.C.C.; Vasconcellos,R.; Iacobas,S.; Iacobas,D.A.; Dohmann,H.F.R.; Spray,D.C.; Goldenberg,R.C.S.; Campos-de-Carvalho,A.C..
After myocardial infarction (MI), activation of the immune system and inflammatory mechanisms, among others, can lead to ventricular remodeling and heart failure (HF). The interaction between these systemic alterations and corresponding changes in the heart has not been extensively examined in the setting of chronic ischemia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate alterations in cardiac gene and systemic cytokine profile in mice with post-ischemic HF. Plasma was tested for IgM and IgG anti-heart reactive repertoire and inflammatory cytokines. Heart samples were assayed for gene expression by analyzing hybridization to AECOM 32k mouse microarrays. Ischemic HF significantly increased the levels of total serum IgM (by 5.2-fold) and total IgG (by...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Experimental post-ischemic heart failure; Anti-heart antibodies; Cytokines; Immunoarray; RNAm - Microarray.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2010000400009
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Caveolin-1-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human colon carcinoma cells Biol. Res.
FELLEY-BOSCO,EMANUELA; BENDER,FLORENT; QUEST,ANDREW F.G..
Reactive oxygen species are now widely recognized as important players contributing both to cell homeostasis and the development of disease. In this respect nitric oxide (NO) is no exception. The discussion here will center on regulation of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for two reasons. First, only iNOS produces micromolar NO concentrations, amounts that are high by comparison with the picomolar to nanomolar concentrations resulting from Ca2+-controlled NO production by endothelial eNOS or neuronal nNOS. Second, iNOS is not constitutively expressed in cells and regulation of this isoenzyme, in contrast to endothelial eNOS or neuronal nNOS, is widely considered to occur at the transcriptional level only. In particular, we were...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Inducible nitric oxide synthase; Proteosome_mediated proteolysis; Nitroxysomes; Cytokines; Caveolae; Caveolin-1.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602002000200007
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Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV BJMBR
Farber,J.M..
Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-<FONT FACE="Symbol">g</font> and that specifically target...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cytokines; Lymphoid cells; HIV-1; Receptors.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1998000100002
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Clinical and immunological features of patients with atopy and concomitant HTLV-1 infection BJMBR
Gaspar-Sobrinho,F.P.; Souza-Machado,A.; Santos,S.B.; Orge,G.; Lessa,H.A.; Cruz,A.A.; Carvalho,E.M..
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces an exacerbated type 1 immune response characterized by high spontaneous IFN-γ and TNF-α production. Allergic rhinitis and asthma are associated with the type 2 immune response, with elevated secretion of IL-4 and IL-5. The aim of this study was to characterize the immune response in atopic HTLV-1 carriers. The cytokine profile of atopic HTLV-1 carriers (N = 10; all females) was compared with that of non-atopic HTLV-1 carriers (N = 14; 9 females and 5 males). Mean patient age of atopic and non-atopic groups was 45 ± 8 and 38 ± 11 years, respectively. All atopic HTLV-1 carriers had rhinitis with or without asthma and a skin prick test positive for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen 1 (Derp-1). There...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Asthma; Atopy; Cytokines; HTLV-1; Rhinitis.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2010001200005
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Clinical and laboratory aspects of common variable immunodeficiency Anais da ABC (AABC)
Kokron,Cristina M.; Errante,Paolo R.; Barros,Myrthes T.; Baracho,Gisele V.; Camargo,Maristela M.; Kalil,Jorge; Rizzo,Luiz V..
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immunological disorder characterized by defective antibody production, recurrent infections, most notably of the respiratory tract, autoimmune phenomena and cancer. Some CVID patients may also present disturbances of the cellular immune response such as a decrease in the number and proportion of different lymphocyte populations, diminished lymphoproliferative response to mitogens and antigens, altered production of cytokines, and deficient expression of cell-surface molecules. Most Brazilian CVID patients included in this study show a decrease in T and B lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Furthermore, their lymphocytes are more susceptible to apoptosis following activation than normal individuals, and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Immunodeficiency; Humans; Antibody; Cytokines; Clinical features.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652004000400007
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Conditioned medium from activated spleen cells supports the survival of rat retinal cells in vitro BJMBR
Sholl-Franco,A.; Araujo,E.G..
Cytokines are a heterogeneous group of molecules that have been associated with several functions in the nervous system, such as survival and differentiation of neuronal and glial cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that conditioned medium from spleen cells activated with concanavalin A increased neuritogenesis and survival of retinal cells, as measured by biochemical and morphological criteria. Our data showed that conditioned medium induced a five-fold increase in the amount of protein after 120 h in vitro. This effect was not inhibited by the blockade of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels with 5.0 µM nifedipine. However, the use of an intracellular calcium chelator (15.0 µM BAPTA-AM) inhibited this effect. Our results support the idea...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cytokines; Growth factor; Neuroimmunology; Retina; Development.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1997001100006
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