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Registros recuperados: 49
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A realidade da cadeia do trigo no Brasil: o elo produtores/cooperativas AgEcon
Brum, Argemiro Luis; Muller, Patricia Kettenhuber.
The present article is about the wheat productive chain in Brazil and focuses on the economic reality of its main connecting links, with emphasis on the links between agricultural and industrial production. Let it be accentuated that the article brings present time accounts of the sector in Brazil, from the result analysis of field research among agricultural producers, producer co-operatives and wheat mills. The study of the Brazilian wheat culture chain, with its problems, offers a broader view to understand the e country’s conditions, which would allow us not only to answer the exposed doubts, but over all to shed some light on the main paths traced by Brazil’s wheat production in these first years of the XXIst century. The national wheat culture is...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Wheat; Productive chain; Competitiveness; Agribusiness; D23.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61276
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Agency Theory Issues in the Food Processing Industry AgEcon
Boland, Michael A.; Golden, Bill B.; Tsoodle, Leah J..
The objective is to identify significant determinants of performance for food processing firms over the 1992 to 2003 time period, focusing particularly on the issue of family control. Variables measuring firm effects such as asset size, governance, income distribution, and risk are used to explain return on equity. This study builds upon previous research by including a measure of income distribution in the food processing industry. Governance variables are found to be significant determinants of return on equity. The results found no evidence of agency problems in family-controlled firms during this time period.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Institutional economics; Organizational economics; Agribusiness; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Production Economics; D23; G34; Q13; Q14.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47203
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An Assessment of the EPA's SO2 Emission Allowance Tracking System AgEcon
Lile, Ronald D.; Bohi, Douglas R.; Burtraw, Dallas.
On November 8, 1996, various Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officials, scholars and industry representatives gathered at Resources for the Future (RFF) to examine the EPA's method for classifying private SO2 allowance transactions by the Allowance Tracking System (ATS). The one-day workshop at RFF was designed to evaluate how well the EPA's classification scheme within the ATS currently meets the needs of constituencies with a vested interest in the allowance trading system, and to determine if other classifications would be more beneficial. The EPA has limited its collection of information to that which is necessary to ensure compliance with environmental goals. In particular, the EPA has interpreted its mission to be one of minimal interference in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Transaction costs; Regulated industries; Electric utilities; Emissions; Environmental Economics and Policy; D23; D49; H70; K23; L94; Q25.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10890
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An Economic Model for Bioprospecting Contracts AgEcon
Ding, Helen; Nunes, Paulo A.L.D.; Onofri, Laura.
This paper explores the use of a micro-economic model to analyse the provisions and parties of bioprospecting contracts. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry as the representative biodiversity buyer, presenting an original theoretical framework that explains the main contract characteristics or stylised facts. Against this background, it considers the main contractors involved in these private contracts, i.e. biodiversity sellers and biodiversity buyers, analysing both the magnitude and distribution of the respective payoffs. Particular attention is devoted to the different, mixed impacts of bioprospecting contracts and patenting on social welfare. The positive welfare impacts delivered by bioprospecting contracts are associated with the potential...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bioprospecting Contract; Genetic Resource; Biodiversity Buyer; Biodiversity Seller; Patenting; Welfare Analysis; Benefit Sharing; Productivity Analysis; D21; D23; D61; L14; Q57.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7450
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Biological Carbon Sinks: Transaction Costs and Governance AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Activities that remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in forest and agricultural ecosystems can generate CO2-offset credits that can thus substitute for CO2 emissions reduction. Are biological CO2-uptake activities competitive with CO2 offsets from reduced fossil fuel use? In this paper, it is argued that transaction costs impose a formidable obstacle to direct substitution of carbon uptake offsets for emissions reduction in trading schemes, and that separate caps should be set for emissions reduction and sink-related activities. While a tax/subsidy scheme is preferred to emissions trading for incorporating biologically-generated CO2 offsets, contracts that focus on the activity and not the amount of carbon sequestered are most likely to lead to the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon sequestration; Transaction costs; Climate change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q54; Q23; Q42; H23; D23.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45505
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Collective Entrepreneurship: An Emerging Phenomenon in Producer-Owned Organizations AgEcon
Cook, Michael L.; Plunkett, Brad.
This paper introduces and defines the concept of collective entrepreneurship. A review of the defensive single-level rent-seeking objective of traditional agricultural cooperatives is introduced followed by an analysis of recent studies documenting a shift in the objective functions of producers jointly integrating toward more multiple-level rent-seeking entities. This process of shifting from market failure-ameliorating collective action mechanisms toward rent-seeking group action organizations is labeled collective entrepreneurship. The justification for introducing this concept is based on the Olsonian premise that rational, self-interested individuals will not act to achieve their common or group interests without coercion or selective incentives.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural cooperatives; Entrepreneurship; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Labor and Human Capital; D23; D72; Q13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43777
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Comparative Advantages, Transaction Costs and Factor Content of Agricultural Trade: Empirical Evidence from CEE AgEcon
Kancs, d'Artis; Ciaian, Pavel; Pokrivcak, Jan.
The present study examines factor content of the CEE transition country agricultural trade. We examine the relative country abundance for labour, capital and land, and test the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek (HOV) hypothesis. Our empirical findings suggest that the factor content of agricultural exports and imports is rather similar in CEE and most of the agricultural trade flows do not satisfy the HOV prediction. In order to explain the general lack of agricultural specialisation and the observed paradox in the CEE's agricultural trade, we examine the role of transaction costs and market imperfections. We find that transaction costs and market imperfections distort farm specialisation and hence factor content of agricultural trade.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Factor Content; Agricultural Trade; Comparative Advantages; Transaction Cost; Agricultural and Food Policy; F12; F14; D23; Q12; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115421
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Competition Intensity, Potential Competition and Transaction Cost Economics AgEcon
Busse, Matthias.
As the process of globalisation of the world economy progresses, the degree of international competition among enterprises increases as well. Yet not all industries or branches are affected to the same extent by this development. One of the most important factors which determine the degree of globalisation of an industry is the level of transaction costs. Whereas low transaction costs tend to result in globalised markets, high transaction costs induce segmented markets. Because they may also indicate the degree of potential competition, transaction costs can be of great importance for competition authorities in the case of corporate mergers and acquisitions. Heterogeneous consumer preferences and product differentiation, as two additional determinants of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Transaction costs; Potential competition; Competition policy; International Relations/Trade; F00; F13; D23.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26168
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Contract and Exit Decisions in Finisher Hog Production AgEcon
Dong, Fengxia; Hennessy, David A.; Jensen, Helen H..
Finisher hog production in North America has seen a shift toward larger production units and contract-organized production since circa 1990. Given the efficiency gains and conversion costs associated with contract production, growers may have to choose between long term commitment through investments and atrophy with intent to exit in the intermediate term. A model is developed to show that growers with any of three efficiency attributes (lower innate hazard of exit, variable costs, or fixed contract adoption costs) are not only more likely to contract but will also produce more and expend more on lowering business survival risks. Using the 2004 U.S. Agricultural Resource Management Survey for hogs, a recursive bivariate probit model is estimated in which...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural industrialization; Hog production; Occupation choice; Production contracts; Recursive bivariate probit; Relationship-specific investments; Sector dynamics.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Production Economics; D23; Q12; J26; J43..
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49343
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Determinantes dos arranjos contratuais1: O caso da transação produtor-processador de carne bovina no Uruguai AgEcon
Mondelli, Mario P.; Zylbersztajn, Decio.
What are the determinants of the commercial channel choice in the beef producers-processors transactions? The question refers to the coordination and production control problem associated to changes in consumer’s awareness of specific attributes in food products. Two contractual arrangements coexist in this transaction: direct-contracting and broker-induced transactions Transaction Cost Economic offers helpful insights to understand the reason for the development and adaptations of different contractual arrangement moved by transaction cost economizing perspective. The empirical analysis is focused in the Uruguayan beef agro-industrial system. Analysis integrates (i) institutional and organizational changes in the beef industry; (ii) based on the analysis...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Vertical Coordination; Beef System; Contractual arrangement; Transaction Cost Economics; Agribusiness; D23; L14; Q13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61237
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Distributing pollution rights in cap-and-trade programs: are outcomes independent of allocation? AgEcon
Fowlie, Meredith; Perloff, Jeffrey M..
According to the Coase theorem, if property rights to pollute are clearly established and emissions permit markets nearly eliminate transaction costs, the permit market equilibrium will be independent of how the permits are initially distributed among …firms. Testing the independence of …firms' permit allocations and emissions is difficult because of endogeneity and omitted variable bias. We exploit the random assignment of …firms to different permit allocation cycles in Southern California's RECLAIM Program to test for a causal relationship between facility-level emissions and initial permit allocations. Our primary …finding is that a null hypothesis of zero effect cannot be rejected.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air pollution; Emissions trading; Transaction costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; D21; D23; H11; Q50; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47002
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Do Leader and Organizational Characteristics Affect Scientist's Productivity? A Multilevel Analysis of Nigerian Agricultural Research System AgEcon
Ragasa, Catherine; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Abdullahi, Aliyu Sabi.
Organizations offer employees with opportunities to cultivate their innovativeness and facilitate greater productivity. In this paper we analyze preconditions for individual productivity of agricultural researchers in Nigeria, measured in terms of the self-reported number of scholarly publications and technologies produced; presence of external collaborators; number of dissemination events for publications produced; and perceived adoption level of technologies developed. It utilizes a multilevel analysis to systematically examine what characteristics of individual scientists and organizations promote greater individual productivity. The statistically significant random-effect estimates show that there is considerable variance across the 47 organizations...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Organizational culture; Multilevel analysis; Poisson; Productivity; Research; Motivation; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q16; L32; D23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103723
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Explaining Agro-Industrial Contract Breaches: The Case of Brazilian Tomatoes Processing Industry AgEcon
Zylbersztajn, Decio; Nadalini, Lygia B..
Three hundred small tomato growers located in Brazilian northeast states, supplied a processing industry. In view of the large number of contract hazards and weak enforcement of clauses, managers have decided to move to the Midwest, where a reduced number of larger farmers have been contracted. The industry blamed high transaction costs due to the weak mechanism of public enforcement of property rights. The industry blamed some farmers of selling the product at the market for fresh consumption. Also, farmers blamed the industry for taking advantage of asymmetric information related to quality. This study presents an analysis of contract architecture and an evaluation of effects of transaction costs related variables on the likelihood of contract breaches....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agro-food governance; Transaction costs and strategy; Agroindustry contracts.; Agribusiness; D23; L23.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61922
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Factor Content of Agricultural Trade AgEcon
Kancs, d'Artis; Ciaian, Pavel.
Replaced with revised version of paper 08/25/09.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Factor content; Heckscher-Ohlin; Factor abundance; Agricultural trade; International Relations/Trade; F12; F14; D23; Q12; Q17.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44458
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Factor Content of Agricultural Trade: The Role of Firm Heterogeneity and Transaction Costs AgEcon
Kancs, d'Artis; Ciaian, Pavel.
In this paper we study the determinants of the factor content of the CEE agricultural trade. Examining empirically three hypothesis, which relate cross-country differences in technology, relative factor abundance and transaction costs and market imperfections to the factor content of trade, we find that the first two hypotheses are confirmed by the majority of the developed EU countries, but rejected by roughly one half of the CEE transition country pairs. Second, we find that when accounting for transaction costs of farm (re)organisation, both hypotheses are confirmed by the majority of the CEE country pairs. These findings provide empirical evidence of market imperfections, and particularly, of transaction costs of farm (re)organisation in the CEE.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Factor content; Bilateral trade; Relative factor abundance; Technological differences; Agriculture; Transaction costs; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Relations/Trade; Production Economics; F12; F14; D23; Q12; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51429
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Firm Heterogeneity, Contract Enforcement, and the Industry Dynamics of Offshoring AgEcon
Naghavi, Alireza; Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P..
We develop an endogenous growth model to study the long run consequences of offshoring with firm heterogeneity and incomplete contracts. In so doing, we model offshoring as the geographical fragmentation of a firm’s production chain between a home upstream division and a foreign downstream one. On the positive side, we show that, when contracts are incomplete, the possibility of offshoring has favorable implications for economic growth. Yet, offshoring induced by a higher bargaining power of the upstream division can hamper growth: while there is always a positive correlation between upstream bargaining weight and offshoring activities, there is a non-monotonic relationship between these and growth. Whether offshoring with incomplete contracts also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Offshoring; Heterogeneous Firms; Incomplete Contracts; Growth; Industry Dynamics; Industrial Organization; D23; F23; L23; O31; O43.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52542
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Forest-Mill Integration: A Transaction Costs Perspective AgEcon
Niquidet, Kurt; O'Kelly, Glen.
In Canada, where public ownership of forestland is prevalent, a central decision facing policy makers is how to allocate timber resources to private forest companies. Debates tend to focus around what proportion of the annual harvest should be devoted to markets opposed to long-term contracts. To give a guide to policy makers, we surveyed forest firms from New Zealand and Sweden where this decision is based purely on a commercial basis. On average, mills source fifty percent of their fibre from the market. However, using a fractional logit model, we test whether theories from transaction cost economics influence this decision. Results are consistent with transaction cost economics; firms decrease the proportion of fibre sourced from a market with...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Transaction costs; Forest tenure; Vertical integration; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D23; K23; L22; L73.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37086
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Fragile Social Norms: (un) Sustainable Exploration of Forest Products AgEcon
Zylbersztajn, Decio.
The exhaustion of natural resources is a central problem in the international agenda. The particular case of Amazon forest is at the top on the international environmental discussion. Two related problems are keys to be considered in the discussion of sustainable development in this region. First the predatory use of the natural resources of the forest mainly timber and genetic resources. Second the recognition of the existence of a population of around 20 million inhabitants in the region defined as “Legal Amazon Area”, aiming the improvement on the living conditions, enhancement of income level and acceleration of development. How to match both objectives is a puzzle faced by the present generation. The region is populated by initiatives of international...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Risk and Uncertainty; Q01; Q56; D23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59117
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GHG Trading Framework for the U.S. Biofuels Sector AgEcon
Kumarappan, Subbu; Joshi, Satish V..
Substitution of petroleum fuels with biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has been shown to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These GHG reductions can be traded in the emerging carbon markets, and methodologies for quantifying and trading are still being developed. The main challenges in developing such GHG trading framework are analyzed. An outline of such a framework is presented that depends on the life cycle assessment of GHG reductions, along with a combination of project specific and regional standard performance measures. The advantages of assigning GHG property and trading rights to biofuel producers are discussed. At carbon prices of $10 per metric ton, estimated additional revenues to biofuel producers range from $ 17 to 64 million dollars...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Ethanol; Biodiesel; Carbon trading; GHG emissions trading; Methodology; CCX; CDM; Maize; Lignocellulosics; Well to wheel; Life cycle analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q42; D23; D4.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54530
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Governance Control Mechanisms in Portuguese Agricultural Credit Cooperatives AgEcon
Cabo, Paula; Rebelo, Joao.
Over the last decade Portuguese Agricultural Credit Cooperatives (ACCs) have increasingly face survival challenges related to their difficulty in gathering equity. The main source of ACCs equity is the net benefit; thus, understanding how ACCs governance can work on correcting bad economic performance is of crucial importance to overcome this constraint. The main objective of this paper is to describe the governance control mechanisms in the ACCs. Five governance mechanisms are identified: board and chairman change (internal mechanisms), central ACC intervention by an agent or by management board replacement and merger. Empirical analysis proved that the internal governance mechanisms activity is not related to the ACC performance. Additionally: (a) ACCs...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cooperatives; Credit; Governance; Multinominal logit; Agricultural Finance; D23; L29.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24623
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