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Registros recuperados: 18
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A Club No More - The WTO after Doha AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
Since its inception the GATT, and subsequently the WTO, has been able to operate in a fashion that is more consistent with a club than an inclusive organization that encouraged the active participation of all its members. The WTO Ministerial Meeting in Doha in November 2001 appears to have been a watershed in how the organization functions, and the club model may no longer be appropriate. While it is not yet clear what will replace the previous model, it is apparent that decision making will be much more diffused and the interests of a much broader spectrum of member countries taken into account. The central question is whether or not the transformed organization can still serve the interests of those who were previously able to dominate the club–the major...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Club; Developing countries; Doha; International trade; Multilateral organization; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23909
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AGRICULTURAL MARKETS LIBERALIZATION AND THE DOHA ROUND AgEcon
Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Beghin, John C.; de Cara, Stephane; Fang, Cheng; Isik, Murat; Matthey, Holger.
Using a partial equilibrium model of world agriculture, we investigate the multilateral removal of all border taxes and farm programs and their distortion of world agricultural markets. These distortions have significant terms-of-trade effects. World trade is also significantly impacted by both types of distortions. Trade expansion is substantial for most commodities, especially dairy, meats, and vegetable oils. Net agricultural and food exporters (Brazil, Australia, and Argentina) emerge with expanded exports; whereas net importing countries with limited distortions before liberalization are penalized by higher world markets prices and reduced imports. The US gains significant export shares in livestock products and imports more dairy products....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Doha; Agriculture; Trade liberalization; Domestic policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25875
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Agricultural Trade Policy Modelling: Insights from a Meta-Analysis of Doha Development Agenda Outcomes AgEcon
Hess, Sebastian; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan.
In a meta-analysis of trade policy models, Hess and von Cramon-Taubadel (2008) use over 5800 simulated welfare effects from 110 studies of potential Doha Development Agenda outcomes to identify characteristics of models, data and policy experiments that influence simulation results. This meta-analysis, which is recapitulated here, produces plausible results and explains a significant proportion of the variation in simulated welfare effects. However, due to insufficient documentation and the complexity of the general and partial equilibrium models in the literature sample, many explanatory variables employed in this analysis are binary. This precludes more detailed analysis of their impacts across models. Therefore, a partial equilibrium model and a single...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Trade; Policy model; Doha; Meta-analysis; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43466
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Canadian Agriculture and the Doha Development Agenda: The Challenges AgEcon
Rude, James; Meilke, Karl D..
The WTO Framework Agreement that negotiators accepted in July 2004, and built upon at the 2005 Hong Kong Ministerial meeting provides a guide to the commitments a Doha Development Agenda agreement may contain. These commitments will relate to direct and indirect export subsidies, domestic support and market access. Commitments in each of these areas will have implications for Canadian agriculture. This article explores these implications for supply management, the Canadian Wheat Board and domestic support programs.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Canadian agriculture; Doha; Trade liberalization; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23825
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Classifying, Measuring and Analyzing WTO Domestic Support in Agriculture: Some Conceptual Distinctions AgEcon
Brink, Lars.
Much confusion permeates discussions of the domestic support provisions of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture and in the ongoing Doha negotiations. The paper clarifies some conceptual distinctions with a view to dispelling some confusion, enhancing communication, and facilitating the representation of domestic support provisions in economic analysis. It distinguishes between classification of policy measures and measurement of support, between measures and support, among measures classified in various categories, between applied support and commitments, and between applied support that counts towards commitments and applied support that does not. It highlights certain issues, including the role of criteria in classifying policy measures (such as those...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: WTO; Agriculture; Domestic support; Doha; AMS; De minimis; Commitments; Rules; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7337
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Classifying, Measuring and Analyzing WTO Domestic Support in Agriculture: Some Conceptual Distinctions AgEcon
Brink, Lars.
Much confusion permeates discussions of the domestic support provisions of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture and in the ongoing Doha negotiations. The paper clarifies some conceptual distinctions with a view to dispelling some confusion, enhancing communication, and facilitating the representation of domestic support provisions in economic analysis. It distinguishes between classification of policy measures and measurement of support, between measures and support, among measures classified in various categories, between applied support and commitments, and between applied support that counts towards commitments and applied support that does not. It highlights certain issues, including the role of criteria in classifying policy measures (such as those...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: WTO; Agriculture; Domestic support; Doha; AMS; De minimis; Commitments; Rules.; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14581
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EXPLAINING THE HEALTH CHECK:THE BUDGET, WTO, AND MULTIFUNCTIONAL POLICY PARADIGM REVISITED AgEcon
Daugbjerg, Carsten; Swinbank, Alan.
Three potential explanations of past CAP reforms have been identified in the literature: a budget constraint, pressure from GATT/WTO negotiations or commitments, and a paradigm shift emphasising agriculture’s provision of public goods. The presentation, content and context of the Health Check reform proposals of 2007/08 are assessed. The proposals are probably more ambitious than first supposed. The Health Check was not primarily driven by budget pressures; the European Commission’s wish to adopt an offensive negotiating stance in the closing phases of the Doha Round was a more likely explanatory factor. The EU’s response to the commodity price spikes in 2008, and its Health Check proposals, suggest that the supposed switch from a state-assisted policy...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Health Check; CAP Reform; WTO; Doha; Paradigm change; Multifunctional; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F13; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44818
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Free Trade Agreements and The Doha Round of WTO Negotiations -- Implications for the U.S. Dairy Industry AgEcon
Dobson, William D..
This paper updates findings on the impact to the U.S. dairy industry of international trade talks and free trade agreements with regard to foreign access to U.S. dairy markets and U.S. farm milk prices.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Free Trade Agreements; WTO Negotiations; Doha; U.S. Dairy Industry; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37464
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GROUNDNUT TRADE LIBERALIZATION: A SOUTH-SOUTH DEBATE? AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Diop, Ndiame; Matthey, Holger; Sewadeh, Mirvat.
We use a new partial-equilibrium, multi-market international model to analyze trade and agricultural policies affecting markets for peanut/groundnut products. The model covers four goods in thirteen countries/regions, including a large set of developing countries. Welfare is evaluated by looking at consumers' equivalent variation, quasi-profits in farming, quasi-profits in crushing, and taxpayers' revenues and outlays implied by distortions. We calibrate the model on recent historical data and current policy information. We analyze several groundnut trade liberalization scenarios in deviation from the recent historical baseline. Trade liberalization in groundnut markets has a strong South-South dimension, opposing India and, to a lesser extent, China to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distortion; Doha; Groundnuts; Negotiations; Oil; Peanut; Protection; Trade liberalization; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18329
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MODELING TARIFF RATE QUOTAS IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT: THE CASE OF SUGAR MARKETS IN OECD COUNTRIES AgEcon
van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Beghin, John C.; Mitchell, Don.
We use mixed-complementarity-problem programming to implement tariff rate quotas (TRQs) in the global computable general equilibrium (CGE) Linkage model. We apply the approach to TRQs in sugar markets in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. We calibrate the model on 2000 policy levels for OECD countries to reflect the full implementation of their World Trade Organization commitments. We look at reforms of TRQ and TRQ-like schemes in the European Union, the United States, and Japan, as well as multilateral trade liberalization. We derive the impact of reforms on welfare, bilateral trade flows, and terms of trade. A 33 percent multilateral decrease of ad valorem tariffs, combined with a 33 percent increase in imports under...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: CGE model; Doha; Liberalization; Sugar; Tariff rate quota; Trade negotiations; TRQ; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18612
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MODELING WORLD PEANUT PRODUCT MARKETS: A TOOL FOR AGRICULTURAL TRADE POLICY ANALYSIS AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Matthey, Holger.
This paper presents a new partial-equilibrium, multi-market international model developed to analyze policies affecting peanut products markets. The model covers four goods (food-quality peanuts, crush-quality peanuts, peanut oil, and groundnut cake) in 13 countries/regions (Argentina, Canada, China, the EU-15, the Gambia, India, Malawi, Mexico, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, the United States, and Rest of World). Welfare is evaluated by looking at consumers' equivalent variation, quasi-profits in farming (peanut farming, livestock), quasi-profits in crushing, and taxpayers' revenues and outlays implied by distortions. We calibrate the model for three recent years (1999/2000, 2000/01, and 2001/02) on historical data. We illustrate the model's...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade policy analysis; Crush; Doha; Groundnut; Model; Oil; Peanuts; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18618
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Multilateral Trade and Agricultural Policy Reforms in Sugar Markets (Revised) AgEcon
Elobeid, Amani E.; Beghin, John C..
We analyze the impact of trade liberalization, removal of production subsidies, and elimination of consumption distortions in world sugar markets using a partial-equilibrium international sugar model calibrated on 2002 market data and current policies. The removal of trade distortions alone induces a 27% price increase while the removal of all trade and production distortions induces a 48% increase by 2011/12 relative to the baseline. Aggregate trade expands moderately, but location of production and trade patterns change substantially. Protectionist OECD countries (the EU, Japan, the US) experience an import expansion or export reduction and significant contraction in production in unfettered markets. Competitive producers in both OECD countries...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Doha; Domestic subsidies; Sugar; Trade liberalization; WTO; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18604
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RETHINKING AGRICULTURAL DOMESTIC SUPPORT UNDER THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Hart, Chad E..
This paper focuses on the third pillar of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the discipline of agricultural domestic support. The paper examines the current definition of agricultural domestic support used by the WTO, focusing on the Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS) and other forms of support that are less to least distorting (Blue and Green Box payments). The analysis looks at the recent experience of four member states (the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Brazil). The structure of recent support varies considerably by country. Some countries, notably the United States, have strategically used the de minimis exemption to deflate their support figures substantially in order to remain...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Aggregate measure of support; Agricultural domestic support; Amber box; AMS; Blue box; Doha; Green box; World Trade Organization; WTO; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18296
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Suspension of the Doha Round of Multilateral Negotiations and the Need for Its Resuscitation AgEcon
Das, Dilip K..
The Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTNs) has proved to be egregiously problem-prone. Due to deep dissension among WTO members it had to be suspended, and efforts to revive it have so far not succeeded. Although the mercantilist mindset of the participants has been frequently blamed for the consistently tardy progress of negotiations, there is more to the situation than just a mindset. This article methodically analyzes the various steps taken since the launch of the Doha Round and dwells on the challenges faced during the MTNs. Time and again negotiating members and country groups publicized their constructive intentions, and a series of official pronouncements provided a surfeit of evidence of commitment to the objectives of the Doha...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Doha; Failure; Multilateral negotiations; Progress; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6319
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THE U.S. SUGAR INDUSTRY UNDER EU AND DOHA TRADE LIBERALIZATION AgEcon
Andino, Jose; Taylor, Richard D.; Koo, Won W..
This study evaluates potential reforms of the EU and some liberalization policies under the Doha agenda proposal. Results indicate that EU sugar policy reforms will increase the Caribbean sugar price from 8.7 to 9.96 cents, but will not affect the U.S. sugar industry. If the world sugar industry is liberalized on the basis of the WTO-Doha framework proposal, U.S. sugar imports will increase to 1.9 million tons and wholesale price will decrease from 24.89 to 23.79 cents per pound. Under this scenario, it is also expected that the Caribbean price will increase from 8.7 to 12.1 cents per pound. Brazil will benefit the most as production and export sales increase.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sugar; Liberalization; Production; Price; EU reform; Doha; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23567
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Triggers, Remedies and Tariff Cuts: Assessing the Impact of a Special Safeguard Mechanism for Developing Countries AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Meilke, Karl D..
On July 30, 2008, the WTO negotiations broke down because Members could not bridge their differences on the operation of a Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) for low-income countries. This study evaluates two scenarios concerning the recent July (2008) SSM proposal – one in which low-income countries are allowed to breach their pre-Doha bound tariffs and one in which they are not -- using a global, stochastic, partial equilibrium model of world wheat markets. We find that the July (2008) SSM proposal is not very trade distorting despite leading to sizeable SSM duties. Moreover, the question of whether developing countries should be allowed to exceed their pre-Doha bound tariffs depends heavily on the product under consideration, the extent of tariff cuts to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: WTO; SSM; Special safeguard mechanism; Doha; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46627
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U.S. Sugar Policy Options and Their Consequences under NAFTA and Doha AgEcon
Abler, David G.; Beghin, John C.; Blandford, David; Elobeid, Amani E..
We analyze the potential impact of continuing the existing U.S. sugar program, replacing it with a standard program, and implementing the standard program with multilateral trade liberalization. Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), duty-free sugar imports from Mexico will undermine the programs ability to operate on a "no-cost" basis to U.S. taxpayers. As the Mexican beverage industry is likely to expand considerably its high-fructose corn syrup use, the sugar thereby displaced will seek a market in the United States. Under these conditions, marketing allotments could not be utilized under current legislation and prices would likely fall to the loan rate. The government would accumulate significant sugar stocks. The replacement of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Doha; NAFTA; Policy; Sugar; U.S. sugar program; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18510
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Who Should Make the Rules of Trade? - The Complex Issue of Multilateral Environmental Agreements AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
In recent years, governments have negotiated a number of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) that include clauses regarding trade measures that conflict with their WTO obligations. As yet, there has been no formal dispute regarding which obligations should prevail, but the threat of conflict is perceived to be sufficiently grave for the parties to the Doha Ministerial to agree to examine the issue. Those who have strong preferences for environmental amenities have put considerable effort into fostering MEAs and are lobbying hard for them to prevail over the WTO in their areas of competence. The current lack of transparency caused by conflicting rules increases the degree of risk perceived in the international commercial environment. As MEAs allow...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Doha; MEA; Negotiations; Ratification; Trade measures; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23928
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