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A Cautionary Note on Individual Transferable Quotas Ecology and Society
Sumaila, U. Rashid; UBC Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia; r.sumaila@fisheries.ubc.ca.
Individual transferable quotas (ITQs) are a type of catch share system, which is a tool used by some governments to manage fisheries. Technical reasons for taking a rather cautious approach to the implementation of ITQs have been provided previously. In the current contribution, I first highlight the strengths and weaknesses of ITQs and then provide suggestions on how to design and implement these quotas to mitigate their weaknesses. ITQs need to be designed carefully as part of a broad ecosystem-based management scheme to meet the three generally accepted objectives of modern fisheries management: ecological, economic, and social sustainability.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Catch shares; Ecological sustainability; Economic sustainability; Economic efficiency; Exclusive and transferable rights; Ecosystem-based fisheries management; Fisheries; Individual transferable quotas; ITQs; Social sustainability.
Ano: 2010
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Adoption of Resource Conservation Technologies in Indo-Gangetic Plains of India: Scouting for Profitability and Efficiency AgEcon
Singh, N.P.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, Ranjit; Vashist, A.K.; Khan, Farida; Varghese, Nisha.
This study has evaluated the superiority of resource conservation technologies (RCTs) over conventional methods of cultivation and has identified the factors influencing adoption of these technologies. It has provided succinct evidences from four states — Bihar, Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh — by comparing the adopters and non-adopters of RCTs in the rice-wheat cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. The study has highlighted superiority of RCTs over the conventional practices in terms of cost saving and efficient inputs-use. However, there is a need to internalize the RCTs in their totality by applying plans and strategies based on local dynamics. The study has suggested the need of policy formulations for dissemination and wider...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Resource conservation technologies; Economic efficiency; DEA approach; RCTs; Indo-Gangetic Plains; Wheat; Rice; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q30; Q34; Q32.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109410
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An application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to Evaluate Economic Efficiency of Poultry Farms in Bangladesh AgEcon
Begum, Ismat Ara; Buysse, Jeroen; Alam, Mohammad Jahangir; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido.
This study estimates the technical, allocative and economic efficiency obtained from the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach using farm level survey data to a sample of 100 poultry farmers in Bangladesh for the year 2007. The results from the DEA approach show that there is substantial technical, allocative and economic inefficiency in poultry production in Bangladesh. The results of the study reveal that under constant return to scale (CRS) and variable returns to scale (VRS) specification, on average, the farms technical, allocative and economic efficiencies were 88%, 70%, 62% and 89%, 73%, 66% respectively. Thus the results indicate that efficiency scores vary substantially across the sampled farms. To explain some of these variations, the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economic efficiency; DEA; Poultry farms; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50900
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Análise econômica da exploração de leite no cariri paraibano - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.7115 Animal Sciences
Moura, José Fábio Paulino; CCA/UFPB; Pimenta Filho, Edgard Cavalcanti; CCA/UFPB; Gonzaga Neto, Severino; CCA/UFPB; Leite, Saulo Vilarim Farias; EMEPA/PB; Guilhermino, Magda Maria; DA/UFRN; Menezes, Marcos Paulo Carrera; CCHSA/UFPB.
Este estudo objetivou avaliar os custos de produção, receitas e rentabilidade da atividade leiteira de seis sistemas de produção de leite bovino no Cariri paraibano. Foi objetivo, também, identificar os componentes que exerceram maior influência sobre os custos finais da atividade por meio dos resultados econômicos e indicadores técnicos de desempenho econômico. Para a realização das análises econômicas, os produtores foram divididos em dois grupos, em função do vínculo com a Cooperativa, sendo sócios e não-sócios. A receita bruta da atividade foi suficiente para cobrir os custos operacionais efetivos e totais nas propriedades 1, 2, 3 e 5. Os itens que compõem o custo operacional efetivo de produção do leite foram responsáveis por porcentuais superiores a...
Tipo: Pesquisa de campo Palavras-chave: 5.04.05.00-4 bovinocultura leiteira; Eficiência econômica; Sistemas de produção Produção Animal bovine milk; Economic efficiency; Production system.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/7115
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Análisis de los procesos de comercialización y venta de carne de pollo: El caso de pequeños expendios. Colegio de Postgraduados
Teniza Sampedro, Edgar.
El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar los procesos de comercialización de carne de pollo en tres pequeños expendios del Distrito Federal, un puesto fijo y dos puestos ambulantes. La finalidad fue identificar los componentes del proceso de comercialización y la combinación óptima de insumos. Se utilizaron funciones estocásticas de producción, en tanto que la eficiencia fue evaluada con la función Cobb-Douglas en el paquete estadístico Stata. Del análisis económico se encontró que el puesto fijo tuvo los costos de producción más bajos: costo total de $1854 ± 382; costo variable total $1740 ± 387; y costo fijo de $114 ± 23 por día. Las ventas y ganancias del puesto ambulante atendido por familiar $2832 por día y $570 por día respectivamente fueron las más...
Palavras-chave: Comercialización de carne de pollo; Eficiencia económica; Función estocástica de producción; Economic efficiency; Marketing of poultry meat; Stochastic production function; Desarrollo y Gestión de Sistemas Ganaderos; Maestría Tecnológica.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1727
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Animals’ Health Control Efficiency in Northwest Portugal: A Two-stage DEA Approach AgEcon
Costa, Leonardo; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.; Silva, Elvira.
A two-stage approach is employed to analyze the efficiency of cooperatives responsible for ruminants’ disease control (OPP) at the farm level in Northwest Portugal. In the first stage, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to estimate and decompose input-based overall inefficiency for each OPP. The input-based inefficiency measures are generated using the directional input distance function. In the second stage, the inefficiency estimates are regressed on environmental and organizational factors in order to explain efficiency differentials. Despite substantial environmental differences, the empirical results indicate that most cooperatives can reduce costs by improving scale efficiency and pure technical efficiency.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Input directional distance function; Bootstrapping; Economic efficiency; Animal health services.; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58000
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Assessing programmes for the provision of agri-environmental services – An efficiency analysis realized in Southern Germany AgEcon
Kantelhardt, Jochen; Eckstein, Karin; Hoffmann, Helmut.
Agricultural land use does not only concern farmers, but is of high relevance for the environment. Agri-environmental programmes aim to foster the environmental soundness of agricultural production. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of agri-environmental programmes on the economic and the environmental performance of farms. Using the nonparametric method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), we calculated the economic as well as the environmental efficiencies of farms and examined whether farms are able to succeed in combining environmental and economic efficiency. As study object serves a South German agri-environmental programme, the Bavarian KULAP. A farm survey was conducted covering a total of 102 farmers. The results show that farmers who...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-environmental programme; Data envelopment analysis; Environmental efficiency; Economic efficiency; Environmental Economics and Policy; Productivity Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51688
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Avaliação econômica comparativa de sistemas de produção de gado de corte sob condições de risco no Mato Grosso do Sul AgEcon
Simoes, Andre Rozemberg Peixoto; Moura, Altair Dias de; Rocha, Denis Teixeira da.
The present work aimed to analyze the economical efficiency and the risk associated with three different cattle production systems (Cow-calf, Rearing and Finishing) in the Alto Pantanal (MS) Area. For that, the economical efficiency of each system was assessed and then the Monte Carlo risk simulation method was performed. The deterministic analysis showed that the Rearing system was the most profitable while the Finishing system presented the worst profit result. The Cow-calf system obtained an intermediate profit result. The risk economical analysis revealed the Cow-calf system as the lower risky system. On the other hand, the Finishing system showed the higher risk, presenting 28,7% of probability to obtain negative profit. The Rearing system showed the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cattle production systems; Economic efficiency; Monte Carlo risk simulation; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55172
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Beneficios privados y beneficios sociales en la cadena de la manzana para la exportación en el Uruguay. AgEcon
Rava, Catalina; Lanfranco, Bruno A.; Ferraro, Bruno.
Este trabajo analizó el desempeño de la cadena exportadora de manzana para consumo en fresco, en Uruguay, mediante el método de la matriz de análisis de políticas (MAP). Se trabajó con la variedad Royal Gala, una de las más exportadas localmente por su temprana maduración y su buena aceptación en mercados de valor, como el europeo. Se cuantificaron los efectos de las políticas públicas (impuestos, subsidios, cargas sociales) y las eventuales fallas de mercado que afectan los distintos eslabones, estimándose las potenciales transferencias de recursos, desde o hacia la cadena. Primero se computaron los ingresos y costos en los distintos eslabones considerados: producción, transporte, procesamiento y empaque. Se calcularon los beneficios privados y sociales...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Policy analysis matrix; Production systems; Economic efficiency; Public policies; Export markets; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Political Economy; Public Economics; D40; D61; E62; H20.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121682
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Competitividad y cadena de valor de cítricos en México: Caso Nuevo León. Colegio de Postgraduados
Magdaleno Hernández, Adalberto.
Lo cítricos de Nuevo León, tienen calidad de exportación, pero existe una barrera sanitaria que impide su libre comercio a EUA. El gobierno estatal esta realizando inversiones para que parte de su región citrícola sea declarada libre de mosca de la fruta, eliminando así dicha barrera comercial. Sin embargo, hay pocos estudios que indiquen: la rentabilidad, ventaja comparativa de la producción citrícola, el desarrollo de cadenas de valor y la participación del gobierno en ello. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar éstas situaciones. Para ello se utilizó la metodología de Matriz de Análisis de Política (MAP) desarrollada por Monke y Pearson, en 121 de huertas de naranja de riego (5,513 ha); considerando cinco tecnologías y un valor promedio del...
Palavras-chave: Eficiencia económica; Matriz de Análisis de Política (MAP); Ventaja comparativa; Naranja; Economic efficiency; Policy Analysis Matrix; Comparative advantage; Orange; Economía; Maestría.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/766
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Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Swiss Agri-Environmental Measures on Sector Level AgEcon
Schader, Christian; Sanders, Jurn; Offermann, Frank; Lampkin, Nicolas; Stolze, Matthias.
This paper focuses on non-linear programming models and their suitability for ex-ante evaluations of agri-environmental policies on sector level. An approach is presented to compare organic farming payments as a multi-objective policy, with other, more targeted agri-environmental policies in Switzerland. The Swiss version of the comparative static sector-consistent farm group model FARMIS is able to group the sector’s farms into organic and non-organic farms and optimise them separately. CH-FARMIS is expanded with three modules particularly for this study: a) allowing for the simulation of uptake; b) integrating life cycle assessment data for energy use, eutrophication and biodiversity; and c) estimating the policy and farm-group-specific public...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Positive mathematical programming; Life cycle assessment; Organic farming; Environmental indicators; Economic efficiency; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6604
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Do farmers provide agri-environmental services efficiently? – An economic analysis AgEcon
Kantelhardt, Jochen; Eckstein, Karin.
Agricultural land use does not only concern farmers, but also has a large number of social and environmental effects. Consequently, it is to be assumed that farmers have to use financial resources as well as labour in order to provide these services. Using the nonparametric method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), we calculated the economic as well as the ecological efficiencies of farms and examined whether farms are able to succeed in combining ecological and economic efficiency. In addition to this analysis, we studied the driving factors of the respective efficiencies. The study was carried out in four typical production regions in Bavaria which vary in their proportions of grassland as well as their yield potential; thus, the study regions reflect a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural land use; Data envelopment analysis; Ecological efficiency; Economic efficiency; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7973
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DOES EFFICIENT WATER MANAGEMENT MATTER? PHYSICAL AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF WATER USE IN THE RIVER BASIN AgEcon
Cai, Ximing; Ringler, Claudia; Rosegrant, Mark W..
With growing water scarcity and increasing competition across water-using sectors, the need for water savings and more efficient water use has increased in importance in water resources management. Improvement in the physical efficiency of water use is related to water conservation through increasing the fraction of water beneficially used over water applied, while enhancing economic efficiency is a broader concept seeking the highest economic value of water use through both physical and managerial measures. Physical and economic efficiency measures are both useful indicators for water management at the irrigation system and river basin level. However, the relationship between physical efficiency and economic efficiency is not always clear and the values...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Basin water management; Water use efficiency; Irrigation efficiency; Economic efficiency; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16043
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Economic Competition and Evolution: Are there Lessons from Ecology? AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
After discussing generally models in ecology and economics that combine competition, optimization and evolution, this article concentrates on models of intraspecific competition. It demonstrates the importance of diversity/inequalities within populations of species and other environments for the sustainability of their populations, given the occurrence of environmental change. This is demonstrated both for scramble (open-access) and contest competition. Implications are drawn for human populations and for industrial organization. The possibility is raised that within industry competition may not always exist between firms in all stages of the development of a new industry. Policy implications are considered. For example, it is argued that policies...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Competition policy; Ecology; Economic efficiency; Evolution; Intraspecific competition; Market development; Environmental Economics and Policy; L100; J100; Q150.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90526
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Economic efficiency of agricultural production in Brazil Rev. Econ. Sociol. Rural
Vicente,José R..
This study measures levels of technical, allocative and economic efficiency in agricultural crop production for Brazil in 1995. A nonparametric frontier model (DEA) under constant returns to scale was used. On average, the results suggest that the sector suffers from moderate technical inefficiency and from strong allocative inefficiency. If full technical efficiency were achieved, the crop production would increase by more than 30% over that obtained in 1995. Land and labor were overutilized, while fertilizers and pesticides were underutilized. Climate, soil conditions and irrigation use affected technical efficiency levels, and education in rural areas helped explain the extent of allocative efficiency. The state of São Paulo State was the only...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural production; Nonparametric frontier; Economic efficiency; Technical efficiency; Allocative efficiency.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-20032004000200002
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Economic efficiency of Embrapa's research centers and the influence of contextual variables. Repositório Alice
SOUZA, G. da S. e; GOMES, E. G.; MAGALHÃES, M. C.; AVILA, A. F. D..
In this paper we measure, with a DEA BCC model, the economic efficiency of Embrapa's (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) research centers. We model the DEA economic efficiency as a linear function of the contextual variables revenue generation capacity, partnership intensisty, improvement of administrative processes, cost rationalization, size and type of research centers. The model used is a of the type dynamic panel and assumes a strucutred correlation matrix intra times and unstructured inter times. In order to better disciminate the efficient units we used a heuristic efficiency score that aggregates the efficiencies in relation to the original and inverted DEA frontiers. Partnerships positive effect in the efficiency scores does not confirm...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Data Envelopment analysis; Economic efficiency; Contextual variables; Análise de envoltória de dados; Eficiência econômica; Variávil contextual.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/659604
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ECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS AgEcon
Antle, John M.; Capalbo, Susan Marie; Mooney, Sian; Elliott, Edward T.; Paustian, Keith H..
Under the Kyoto protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change the United States is charged with reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to seven percent below their 1990 levels by the period 2008-2012. These reductions could be met from many industries including agriculture. In this paper, an economic simulation model is linked to the CENTURY ecosystem model to quantify the economic efficiency of policies that might be used to sequester carbon (C) in agricultural soils in the Northern Great Plains region. Model outputs are combined to assess the costs of inducing changes in equilibrium levels of soil C through three types of policies. The first is a CRP-style policy that provides producers with per-acre payments for converting...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Policy design; Economic efficiency; Soil carbon; Sequestration; Valuing soil carbon; Great Plains agriculture; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21879
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ECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE NORTHERN PLAINS AgEcon
Antle, John M.; Capalbo, Susan Marie; Mooney, Sian; Elliott, Edward T.; Paustian, Keith H..
Under the Kyoto protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change the United States is charged with reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to seven percent below their 1990 levels by the period 2008-2012. These reductions could be met from many industries including agriculture. In this paper, an economic simulation model is linked to an ecosystem model to quantify the economic efficiency of policies that might be used to sequester carbon (C) in agricultural soils in the Northern Plains region. Simulations with the Century ecosystem model show that long-term soil C levels associated with a crop/fallow system are less than those for grass alone, but that soil C levels for grass-clover-pasture are greater than for continuously cropped...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Policy design; Economic efficiency; Soil carbon; Sequestration; Valuing soil carbon; Great Plains agriculture; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q2.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29239
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Efficient Public Provision of Commodities: Transaction Costs, Bounded Rationality and Other Considerations AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
After briefly reviewing recent economic theories about the economic welfare consequences of public provision of private commodities, this article examines the cost efficient supply of publicly provided commodities. In the light of the presence of transaction costs and bounded rationality, and consequences for the competence of public bodies, it considers whether the following are cost effective: (1) increased out-sourcing of government funded work and supplies using market and competitive mechanisms; (2) greater contestability of employment in the public sector; (3) more widespread imposition of user charges for publicly supplied commodities; and (4) the increased use of performance budgeting and accounting in the public sector. These measures are often...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bounded rationality; Competence; Economic efficiency; Transaction costs; User charges; Public Economics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90529
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Eficiência econômica na produção de frango de corte. Repositório Alice
TUPY, O.; SHIROTA, R..
1998
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Frango de corte; Eficiência econômica; Produção; Chickens; Economic efficiency; Production.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/44353
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