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An Economic Evaluation of a Pest Management Control Program: "Outfox the Fox" AgEcon
Jones, Randall E.; Saunders, Glen; Balogh, Suzy.
Foxes are regarded as a serious pest of environmental and grazing systems in Australia. The fox is a recognised predator of native wildlife and has been a significant contributor to the population decline of many native mammal, bird and reptile species. There are also claims that foxes may account for up to 30% of lamb mortalities in some areas, while mortality due to predation of 2 to 5% is more likely in most regions. The ‘Outfox the Fox’ program was established by NSW Agriculture in conjunction with a number of Rural Land Protection Boards to achieve a more strategic and coordinated fox baiting program. This program relies on a community driven and integrated management approach to the problem. The main features are to synchronise baiting across...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Benefit cost analysis; Research evaluation; Economic surplus; Fox; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q160.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42653
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Assessing the Impact of International Natural Resource Management Research: The Case of Zero Tillage in India's Rice-Wheat Systems AgEcon
Laxmi, Vijay; Erenstein, Olaf.
A conservative ex-ante assessment of supply-shift gains alone (excluding social and environmental gains), shows that the investment in zero tillage (ZT) R&D by the Rice-Wheat Consortium and CIMMYT was highly beneficial with a benefit-cost ratio of 39, a net present value of US$ 94 million and an internal rate of return 57%. Sensitivity analysis highlights the influential role of the yield gain, the contribution of reduced tillage (i.e. partial adoption) and the assumed time-lag. Significant positive spillovers of sunk ZT R&D costs – both previous and from elsewhere - also contributed to the high returns. The case thereby highlights the potential gains from successful technology transfer and adaptation. The case however also underscores that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Natural resource management research; Impact assessment; Economic surplus; Zero tillage; Q11; Q12; Q16; Crop Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25694
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Disposition of precipitation: Supply and Demand for Water Use by New Tree Plantations AgEcon
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Finlayson, John D.; Hume, Iain H..
As the greatest rainwater users among all vegetative land covers, tree plantations have been employed strategically to mitigate salinity and water-logging problems. However, large-scale commercial tree plantations in high rainfall areas reduce fresh water inflows to river systems supporting downstream communities, agricultural industries and wetland environmental assets. A bio-economic model was used to estimate economic demand for water by future upstream plantations in a sub-catchment (the 2.8 million ha Macquarie valley in NSW) of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Given four tree-product values, impacts were simulated under two settings: without and with the requirement that permanent water entitlements be purchased from downstream entitlement...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; Forest; Environmental services; Catchment; Water sources; Interception; Entitlement; Supply; Demand; Market; Economic surplus; Evapo-transpiration; Urban water; Irrigation; Wetlands..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101225
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Economic Considerations of Animal Welfare Policy AgEcon
Bicknell, Kathryn.
Animal welfare considerations are becoming increasingly important for producers of animal-derived agricultural products. Recent media attention on issues of housing conditions for intensively reared livestock and induced calving in dairy production make it clear that some members of the public feel strongly about the overall welfare of farm animals. In many cases, practices that are now perceived as welfare unfriendly are also associated with lower per-unit costs of production, creating a ‘classic’ economic trade-off between production and welfare objectives. In this paper a relatively simple partial equilibrium model is used to illustrate that the distributional impacts of animal welfare regulations (for both humans and animals) depend critically on...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Animal welfare; Partial equilibrium analysis; Externality; Economic surplus; Agribusiness; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115718
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Economic impacts of soil fertility management research in West Africa AgEcon
Akinola, Adebayo A.; Alene, Arega D.; Adeyemo, Remi; Sanogo, Diakalia; Olanrewaju, Adetunji S..
This paper assesses the potential economic impacts of balanced nutrient management systems technology options: BNMS-manure, which combines inorganic fertilizer and organic manure, and BNMS-rotation, which is maize–soybean rotation, in maize-based systems in the northern Guinea savanna areas of Nigeria, Ghana, Togo and Benin. The economic surplus analysis suggested that BNMS-manure research and extension could achieve returns ranging from 17 to 25% and a maximum adoption of 24 to 48%, for the conservative and base scenario respectively; and that BNMS-rotation research and extension could achieve returns ranging from 35 to 43% and a maximum adoption of 20 to 40%, for the conservative and base scenario respectively. Our results were consistent with earlier...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Balanced nutrient management systems; BNMS-manure; BNMS-rotation; Economic surplus; Northern Guinea savanna; West Africa; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56932
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Economic Surplus Measurement in Multi-Market Models AgEcon
Zhao, Xueyan; Mullen, John D.; Griffith, Garry R..
Despite continuing controversy, economic surplus concepts have continued to be used in empirical cost-benefit analyses as measures of welfare to producers and consumers. In this paper, the issue of measuring changes in producer and consumer surplus resulting from exogenous supply or demand shifts in multi-market models is examined using a two-input and two-output equilibrium displacement model. When markets are related through both demand and supply, it is shown that significant errors are possible when conventional economic surplus areas are used incorrectly. The economic surplus change to producers or consumers should be measured sequentially in the two markets and then added up.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Equilibrium displacement model; Multi-market; Economic surplus; R&D evaluation; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12910
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EVALUATING THE SHORT- AND LONG-RUN ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE VIRGINIA-MARYLAND REGIONAL COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE AgEcon
Liu, Binzhang; Kshirsagar, Shukla; Johnson, Thomas G.; Thatcher, Craig D.; Norton, George W..
Colleges of veterinary medicine are often asked to provide evidence of the economic impacts of their activities. This paper presents methods for evaluating a veterinary college and applies them to the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine. It assesses short-run impacts on income and employment using input-output analysis. Long-run benefits are estimated using a combination of economic surplus analysis, travel cost analysis and demand estimation, animal-owner willingness-to-pay based on a survey of practicing veterinarians, and earnings differentials.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Economic impact assessment; Economic surplus; Input-output; Returns to veterinary education; Travel cost method; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15297
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Potential Impacts of Bt Eggplant on Economic Surplus and Farmers’ Health in India AgEcon
Krishna, Vijesh V.; Qaim, Matin.
In this article, the potential impacts of Bt eggplant technology in Indian agriculture are analyzed. Several proprietary Bt hybrids are likely to be commercialized in the near future. Based on field trial data, it is shown that the technology can significantly reduce insecticide applications and increase effective yields. Comprehensive farm survey data are used to project farm level effects and future adoption rates. Simulations show that the aggregate economic surplus gains of Bt hybrids could be around US $108 million per year. Consumers will capture a large share of these gains, but farmers and the innovating company will benefit too. As the company has also shared its technology with the public sector, Bt open-pollinated varieties might become...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Bt eggplant; Economic surplus; Health costs; Pesticides; Public-private partnership; Health Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9909
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Seafood Import Demand in the Caribbean Region AgEcon
Nguyen, Giap V.; Jolly, Curtis M..
Cointegration analysis and an Error Correction Model are used to estimate aggregate seafood import demand functions for selected Caribbean countries. The results show that seafood import demand is price elastic. Exchange rate has a negative effect on seafood import quantity. Income and tourist arrivals have positive impacts on seafood imports. Seafood import negatively affects domestic fishery production. Tariff and production support policies reduce seafood imports, and enhance domestic production. Both policies increase producer surplus, but a tariff reduces consumer surplus, and a production expansion policy increases consumer surplus. A production expansion subsidy is a more appropriate policy instrument than a tariff for small open economies,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Seafood; Import demand; Cointegration; Economic surplus; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; Q17; Q22; C32.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56479
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The Economic Impact and the Distribution of Benefits and Risk from the Adoption of Insect Resistant (Bt) Cotton in West Africa AgEcon
Falck-Zepeda, Jose Benjamin; Horna, J. Daniela; Smale, Melinda.
Cotton is the largest source of export receipts of several West African countries. Statistics however show a decreasing tendency in cotton yields and an increasing tendency in pesticide use. Under this circumstances there appear to be potential payoffs from the use of biotechnology products in the farming systems of the region. In this study we estimate different scenarios for the potential deployment of insect resistant cotton in selected countries in West Africa (WA). We use an economic surplus model augmented with a more rigorous sensitivity analysis of model parameters. Hypothetical scenarios of Bt cotton adoption in WA are simulated and single point values of model parameters are substituted with probability distributions. The scenarios include: no...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bt cotton; West Africa; Economic surplus; Risk; Probability distributions; Impact assessment; Net benefits; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42395
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The Efficiency–-Equity Tradeoffs in Agricultural Research Priority Setting: The Potential Impacts of Agricultural Research on Economic Surplus and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria AgEcon
Alene, Arega D.; Manyong, Victor M.; Tollens, Eric; Abele, Steffen.
Public agricultural research has come under increasing pressure to redefine its strategic priorities to contribute to poverty alleviation goals. However, the issue of whether the poor benefit more from agricultural research that pursues efficiency or equity objectives remains unresolved, largely due to lack of empirical evidence on the nature and magnitude of the efficiency–equity tradeoffs. This paper estimates the potential impacts of agricultural research on economic surplus and poverty reduction in Nigeria, identifies strategic priorities according to both efficiency and equity criteria, and examines the nature and magnitude of the efficiency–equity tradeoffs. The results show that there are no significant efficiency–equity tradeoffs because the rural...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty reduction; Economic surplus; Research priority setting; Nigeria; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; I32; I38; O13; O32; Q16.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25260
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Valuing Intellectual Property Rights in an Imperfectly Competitive Market: A Biopharming Application AgEcon
Kostandini, Genti; Mills, Bradford F..
Small research firms developing biotechnology applications often focus on establishing intellectual property rights (IPRs), which can then be sold to more established firms with existing market channels. This paper presents a method for valuing the IPRs for an innovation that lowers product production costs below those associated with the patented process of a monopolist. The application to Glucocerebrosidase enzyme from transgenic tobacco suggests an IPRs value of about $1.75 billion. Despite the innovator’s market power, significant surplus gains also accrue to consumers. Further, U.S. antitrust laws that prohibit IPRs acquisition by the current monopolist increase consumer welfare by almost 50%.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biopharmaceuticals; Biopharming; Economic surplus; Imperfect competition; Intellectual property rights; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis; Financial Economics; Marketing; D23; M13; D43; D60.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56641
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Welfare Implications of Washington Wheat Breeding Programs AgEcon
Nogueira, Lia; Marsh, Thomas L..
We calculate the welfare effects of the WSU wheat breeding programs for producers and consumers in Washington State, Oregon, Idaho, the United States and the rest of the world. We develop a partial equilibrium multi-region, multi-product, multi-variety trade model for wheat that provides consumer, producer and total surplus for each wheat class and region. Our results provide evidence suggesting that WSU wheat breeding programs have increased welfare in Washington State, in the United States and the rest of the world.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Welfare; Wheat breeding programs; Economic surplus; Partial equilibrium; Agribusiness; F14; F17; Q11; Q16; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93419
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Winners and losers from Johne’s disease eradication from the Scottish dairy herd: a Markov-Chain simulation AgEcon
Weldegebriel, Habtu T.; Gunn, George J.; Stott, Alistair W..
In this paper, we evaluated the welfare effects of a hypothetical programme of Johne's disease eradication from the Scottish dairy herd on different stakeholders in the domestic milk market. We undertook the evaluation using a Markov-Chain simulation and applying an economic welfare analysis which takes into consideration the effects of an eradication programme on product price, on output quantity, on cost and on milk yield for given levels of supply and demand elasticities. We found that, following the eradication of the disease, milk yield per cow increased for all herd sizes in Scotland whereas price and unit cost of milk production fell. Consequently, milk consumers gained around £14.3 million in discounted economic surplus and producers with infected...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Johne's; Eradication programme; Economic welfare effects; Economic surplus; I180.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36872
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