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A future for marine fisheries in Europe (Manifesto of the Association Francaise d'Halieumetrie) ArchiMer
Gascuel, D.; Bez, Nicolas; Forest, Andre; Guillotreau, P.; Laloe, F.; Lobry, Jeremy; Mahevas, Stephanie; Mesnil, Benoit; Rivot, Etienne; Rochette, S.; Trenkel, Verena.
We, members of the Association Francaise d'Halieumetrie, share the conviction that European fisheries have a future. It is time to get off the wrong track. Radical change is required to embark on the path of sustainable development and truly implement the ecosystem approach to fisheries. Today, high fishing pressure is deployed to catch a rare resource, which in return is responsible for the rarity. We must reverse the situation: an abundant resource that affords high catches applying moderate fishing pressure. All management tools and especially all actors must be mobilized. The transition is not simple, and European solidarity must accompany the changes. It is well worth the effort. By reducing fishing pressure, it will be possible in the medium term to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Access regulation; Ecosystem approach to fisheries; European Common Fishery Policy; ITQ; MPA; MSY; Management plan; Overcapacity; Subsidies.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00035/14598/11947.pdf
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Caractérisation empirique et détaillée des captures : Contribution à l'approche écosystémique des pêches ArchiMer
Fauconnet, Laurence.
The ecosystem approach of sheries requires to rethink sheries management at integrated scales. Knowledge on shing pressure at the community level remains limited while pressure is the lever by which management operates. This work aims at characterizing in detail catches, that is indirectly shing pressure, and to link its components to different management objectives. For doing so, this work relies on analyses of at-sea observer data. The ecosystem approach of sheries requires to rethink sheries management at integrated scales. Knowledge on shing pressure at the community level remains limited while pressure is the lever by which management operates. This work aims at characterizing in detail catches, that is indirectly shing pressure, and to link its...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pression de peche; Metriques de diversite; Rejets; Communautes marines; Gestion ecosystemique des peches; Selectivite; Observations a bord des navires de peche professionnelle; Comparaison d'engins; Analyses multivariees.; Shing pressure; Diversity metrics; Discards; Marine communities; Ecosystem approach to fisheries; Selectivity; Observations onboard professionnal fishing vessels; Gear comparison; Multivariate analyses.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00256/36717/35331.pdf
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Do changes in environmental and fishing pressures impact marine communities? An empirical assessment ArchiMer
Rochet, Marie-joelle; Trenkel, Verena; Carpentier, Andre; Coppin, Franck; Gil De Sola, Luis; Leaute, Jean-pierre; Mahe, Jean-claude; Maiorano, Porzia; Mannini, Alessandro; Murenu, Matteo; Piet, Gerjan; Politou, Chrissi-yianna; Reale, Bruno; Spedicato, Maria-teresa; Tserpes, George; Bertrand, Jacques.
P>1. The development of ecosystem approaches to environmental management implies the need to account for multiple pressures on ecosystems. Trends in multiple metrics that respond differently to changes in major environmental pressures need to be combined to evaluate the impacts of fishing and environmental changes on fish communities. 2. An exploited fish community is viewed as a three-level food chain in which the two upper levels, or functional groups, are targeted by fishing fleets, while the lowest level is subject to environmental variation. Qualitative modelling is used to predict changes at the two upper levels, that is, top-down vs. bottom-up perturbations. Abundance and length metrics are calculated from survey data for 14 Mediterranean and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bottom-up control; Community metrics; Compensation; Ecosystem approach to fisheries; Ecosystem assessment; Functional groups; Groundfish community; Mediterranean; North Atlantic; Top-down control.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00008/11925/8637.pdf
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Do population and community metrics tell the same story about recent changes in Northern Mediterranean fish communities? ArchiMer
Rochet, Marie-joelle; Trenkel, Verena; Gil De Sola, Luis; Politou, Chrissi-yianna; Tserpes, George; Bertrand, Jacques.
This document presents a comparative study of human impacts on the length-structure of fish communities across North-Mediterranean ecosystems. We use survey data to examine trends in length-based metrics and their consistency within and among the two levels of organisation populations and communities, and to suggest interpretations of observed trend combinations. We start from a set of population processes potentially affected by human pressures: fishing will induce mortality especially in target species, whereas the hydrological environment and eutrophication potentially affect recruitment and individual growth. How population changes will be reflected at the community level is expected to depend on community evenness. Based on this expectation, a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Community metrics; Ecosystem approach to fisheries; Fish community; Length-based metrics; Mediterranean; Survey data.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00133/24377/22389.pdf
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Evolutionary impact assessment: accounting for evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management ArchiMer
Laugen, Ane; Engelhard, Georg; Whitlock, Rebecca; Arlinghaus, Robert; Dankel, Dorothy J.; Dunlop, Erin S.; Eikeset, Anne M.; Enberg, Katja; Jorgensen, Christian; Matsumura, Shuichi; Nussle, Sebastien; Urbach, Davnah; Baulier, Loic; Boukal, David S.; Ernande, Bruno; Johnston, Fiona D.; Mollet, Fabian; Pardoe, Heidi; Therkildsen, Nina O.; Uusi-heikkilae, Silva; Vainikka, Anssi; Heino, Mikko; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Dieckmann, Ulf.
Managing fisheries resources to maintain healthy ecosystems is one of the main goals of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF). While a number of international treaties call for the implementation of EAF, there are still gaps in the underlying methodology. One aspect that has received substantial scientific attention recently is fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). Increasing evidence indicates that intensive fishing has the potential to exert strong directional selection on life-history traits, behaviour, physiology, and morphology of exploited fish. Of particular concern is that reversing evolutionary responses to fishing can be much more difficult than reversing demographic or phenotypically plastic responses. Furthermore, like climate change, multiple...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ecosystem approach to fisheries; Ecosystem services; Fisheries yield; Fisheries-induced evolution; Impact assessment; Sustainable fisheries.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00124/23522/21409.pdf
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La pêche, une activité ancestrale en mutation ArchiMer
Gros, Philippe.
Fisheries and aquaculture provide at least 15% of their animal protein diet to 4.3 billion persons. The rise of aquaculture dates back to the end of the 1980s, when fisheries’ production rate was beginning to decline, sounding the end of its post World War II growth phase. The volume of official landings culminated 25 years ago, without outlook for any further increase. About 60% of fish stocks are currently exploited at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) level, most of the other ones being overexploited because of the chronic overcapacity of the fleets and of poorly regulated access to fishing. The ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) emerged as paradigm shift in the 1990s, underpinning the renewal of management objectives and governance along with...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Common fishery policy; Ecological footprint; Ecosystem approach to fisheries; Fisheries; Global change; Good ecological status.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00183/29414/27775.pdf
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Trophic level-based indicators to track fishing impacts across marine ecosystems ArchiMer
Shannon, Lynne; Coll, Marta; Bundy, Alida; Gascuel, Didier; Heymans, Johanna J;; Kleisner, Kristin; Lynam, Christopher; Piroddi, Chiara; Tam, Jorge; Travers-trolet, Morgane; Shin, Yunne.
Trophic level (TL)-based indicators have been widely used to examine fishing impacts in aquatic ecosystems and the induced biodiversity changes. However, much debate has ensued regarding discrepancies and challenges arising from the use of landings data from commercial fisheries to calculate TL indicators. Subsequent studies have started to examine survey-based and model-based indicators. In this paper, we undertake an extensive evaluation of a variety of TL indicators across 9 well-studied marine ecosystems by making use of model- as well as surveyand catch-based TL indicators. Using detailed regional information and data on fishing history, fishing intensity, and environmental conditions, we evaluate how well TL indicators are capturing fishing effects...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Trophic level; Global comparison; Indicator; Survey; Catch; Ecosystem model; Trophic spectra; Convention on Biological Diversity; Food webs; Ecosystem approach to fisheries.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00222/33361/31768.pdf
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Using cognitive maps to investigate fishers' ecosystem objectives and knowledge ArchiMer
Prigent, Magali; Fontenelle, Guy; Rochet, Marie-joelle; Trenkel, Verena.
This paper presents a survey of French Eastern English Channel fishers' observations of the past and current state of the marine ecosystem and their wishes for the future, as a first step towards formulating management objectives. Twenty-nine semi-directive interviews were carried out in June 2006 among fishers and shellfish farmers. Cognitive maps proved useful to formalise their experience and knowledge. Most interviewees mentioned a decrease of the resource in recent years and pointed out the presence of several problems, such as pollution, degradation of the ocean floor and harmful impacts of human activities, including fishing. The indicators used by the fishers as the basis to form their opinion were similar to those generally used by scientists for...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Eastern English Channel; Management objectives; Stakeholder interview; Cognitive map; Ecosystem approach to fisheries; Fisher knowledge.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-6134.pdf
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Using size-based indicators to evaluate the ecosystem effects of fishing ArchiMer
Shin, Yunne-jai; Rochet, Marie-joelle; Jennings, Simon; Field, John; Gislason, Henrik.
The usefulness and relevance of size-based indicators (SBIs) to an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) are assessed through a review of empirical and modelling studies. SBIs are tabulated along with their definitions, data requirements, potential biases, availability of time-series, and expected directions of change in response to fishing pressure. They include mean length in a population, mean length in a community, mean maximum length in a community, and the slope and intercept of size spectra. Most SBIs can be derived from fairly standard survey data on length frequencies, without the need for elaborate models. Possible fishing- and environment-induced effects are analysed to distinguish between the two causes, and hypothetical cases of reference...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Size spectrum; Size based indicators; Ecosystem approach to fisheries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/publication-775.pdf
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