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A parametric approach for evaluating the technical efficiency of the brazilian agricultural sector. Repositório Alice
SOUZA, G. da S. e; GOMES, E. G.; GAZZOLA, R.; WANDER, A. E.; SOUZA, R. da S..
In this study we assessed the technical efficiency of the 27 Brazilian states in the years 1995/96 and 2006. The ata on land and labor were otained from the agricultural census of the two considered periods. Data on credit for investment and running costs were obtained from the Brazilian Central Bank reports. In the analysis we used a DEA CCR model and a stochastic frontier with technical effects. The second model better fit the data, with 99% of correlation between predicted and observed values. The results show that Distrito Federal had the highest technical efficiency in agriculture in 2006 and the second highest in 1995/96. The lowest technical efficiency was found int Piauí in 2006 and in Tocantins in 1995/96. The estimated elasticities show that...
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Technical efficiency; Stochastic frontier; Elasticity; Agriculture.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/661472
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A Review of Agricultural Policy Evolution, Agricultural Data Sources, and Food Supply and Demand Studies in Egypt AgEcon
Soliman, Ibrahim; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Bassiony, Halah.
Over the years the control of the Government of Egypt on the agricultural sector has increasingly weakened with the progressive elimination of the input subsidy, area control, price control, procurement control, and the constraints in private sector participation in processing and trade. The only remaining major government involvement is the food subsidy in some wheat products, the “baladi” bread subsidy in particular. Policy analysis studies in Egypt have been made possible because the Government of Egypt collects and publishes significant amounts of agricultural data on a regular basis. Two of the most widely used data sets are the Household Budget Survey conducted and published by the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, and the Food...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural data; Agricultural policy; Egypt; Elasticity; Supply and demand.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59510
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A Stochastic Production Investigation of Fish Farms in Ghana AgEcon
Onumah, Edward E.; Acquah, H. de-Graft.
This paper considers the stochastic production frontier approach to analyse the technical efficiency and its determinants of fish farms in Ghana using a cross-section data of 150 farms. It considers the explicit effects of family and hired labour on production by setting the log-value of the zero-observation of these two sources of labour to zero with dummy variables. Results demonstrate that expected elasticities of mean output with respect to all input variables are positive and significant. Findings also show that family and hired labour used for fish farming in Ghana may be equally productive. Fish farms in Ghana are revealed to be characterised by technology with increasing return to scale. The combined effects of operational and farm specific factors...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Technical efficiency; Stochastic frontier; Elasticity; Return to scale; Farm Management; Productivity Analysis; GA; IN.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109738
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Advertising and U.S. Nonalcoholic Beverage Demand AgEcon
Zheng, Yuqing; Kaiser, Harry M..
As a first effort at modeling nonalcoholic beverage demand in a systemwide framework that includes bottled water, this article examines the impact of advertising on the demand for nonalcoholic beverages in the United States. We employed an AIDS (almost ideal demand system) model of five jointly estimated equations that included advertising expenditures as explanatory variables to evaluate annual U.S. consumption of nonalcoholic beverages for 1974 through 2005. Results suggest that advertising increases demand for fluid milk, soft drinks, and coffee and tea, but not for juice or bottled water. Advertising spillover effects occur in over 50 percent of the cases considered, and such effects can be substantial, particularly for advertising of soft drinks, and...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Advertising; Demand; Elasticity; Nonalcoholic beverages; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45658
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Analysing Wine Demand With Artificial Neural Networks AgEcon
Gerolimetto, M.; Mauracher, Christine; Procidano, I..
In this paper we analyse wine demand in Italy using microdata. Instead of estimating a traditional parametric model (like AIDS) we employed artificial neural networks (ANN) and evaluate the elasticities using two different methods, specific for the non parametric framework. We compared the performances of the two methods to estimate elasticities and put in evidence the relevance of some demographic variables together with the usual economic ones, explaining the consumer's behaviour.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Artificial neural networks; Demand analysis; Wine; Elasticity; Demand and Price Analysis; C14; C21; Q11; Q13.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24753
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Building aggregate timber supply models from individual harvest choice AgEcon
Polyakov, Maksym; Wear, David N.; Huggett, Robert.
Timber supply has traditionally been modelled using aggregate data. In this paper, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products for the US state of North Carolina from a stand-level harvest choice model applied to detailed forest inventory. The simulated elasticities of pulpwood supply are much lower than reported by previous studies. Cross price elasticities indicate a dominant influence of sawtimber markets on pulpwood supply. This approach allows predicting the supply consequences of exogenous factors and supports regular updating of supply models.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Timber supply; Harvest choice; Conditional logit; Elasticity; Expectations; Simulation..
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48168
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Changes in Import Demand Elasticity for Red Meat and Livestock: Measuring the Impacts of Animal Disease and Trade Policy AgEcon
Susanto, Dwi; Rosson, C. Parr, III; Henneberry, Shida Rastegari.
This paper estimates import demand functions for red meat and live cattle and investigates the impact of BSE and the trade ban on Canadian Cattle and beef on U.S. import demand elasticity using an error correction model (ECM). The results show that beef, pork, and live cattle were price inelastic prior to the BSE case. There has been statistical evidence of the effect of BSE and the trade bans on import demand elasticity in favor of more elastic demand. The effect is, however, quite small in absolute values for pork and beef imports and is relatively more elastic for live cattle. But the import demand elasticities of the three products are still inelastic. The use of ECM model provides efficient and robust estimates of the parameters.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: BSE; Elasticity; Import demand; Red meat and live cattle; Trade bans; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6337
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CHINA'S RURAL HOUSEHOLD DEMAND FOR FRUIT AND VEGETABLES AgEcon
Han, Tong; Wahl, Thomas I..
A two-stage budgeting LES-LA/AIDS system is sued to estimate rural household demand in China with special emphasis on changes in demand for fruit and vegetable commodities across different income groups. The own-price elasticity for food was found to be more elastic than that for clothing, housing, durable goods, and other items. Within the food group, price elasticities range from -1.042 to -0.019. Grain, with an expenditure elasticity of almost unity, is an important staple food for the average rural household. Vegetables are important nonstaple foods relative to fruits. Lower value vegetables are the most price elastic in the vegetable group. Fruits are more price elastic than vegetables, with grapes being the most price elastic. Different income...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: AIDS model; Chinese rural households; Elasticity; Household demand; Household demand; LES model; Two-stage budgeting; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15108
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Competitividad de las exportaciones Bolivianas hacia el mercado Chileno en el marco del acuerdo de complementación económica Boliviano Chileno Colegio de Postgraduados
Chuquimia Vargas, Humberto.
Con el propósito de evaluar la sensibilidad de las exportaciones bolivianas hacia Chile ante cambios en el tipo de cambio real bilateral (boliviano – chileno) y ante cambios en la apertura comercial de Chile, se estimó un modelo de ecuaciones simultáneas compuesto de tres ecuaciones: exportaciones bolivianas hacia Chile, tipo de cambio real boliviano chileno; y producto interno bruto chileno. Los resultados muestran que las exportaciones de Bolivia a Chile responden de manera inversa y elástica ante una apreciación del boliviano frente al peso chileno, ceteris paribus, rezagado un periodo posterior a la implementación del Acuerdo de Complementación Económica con Chile. Y responde de manera directa e inelástica ante cambios en la apertura...
Tipo: Tesis Palavras-chave: Modelo de ecuaciones simultáneas; Elasticidad; Exportaciones; Tipo de cambio real; Apertura comercial; Maestría; Economía; Simultaneous equation model; Elasticity; Exports; Real exchange rate; Commercial opening.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1472
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DEMAND FOR HEALTHY FOOD IN THE UNITED STATES AgEcon
Feng, Xudong; Chern, Wen S..
This study investigates the demand for selected healthy food groups in the United States. The original linear approximate almost ideal demand system (LA/AIDS) is modified by the use of a Laspeyres index and a normalization in order to compute demand elasticities identically to the AIDS model. The results of this study suggest that poultry is the most price elastic while cereals are the least price elastic. Fresh fruits and fresh vegetables are more price elastic than processed fruits and processed vegetables. Increasing income would induce the increases in the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits more than that of cereals and bakery products, while increasing health risk concerns would induce the decreases in the consumption of bakery products and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: AIDS model; Elasticity; Healthy food; Household demand; United States; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21857
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Demanda y distribución de agua en el norte de Sinaloa. Colegio de Postgraduados
Torres Sombra, Jesús.
La disminución de los niveles de almacenamiento de agua en las presas de la región norte de Sinaloa y el incremento en su demanda para uso agrícola y residencial hacen urgente establecer políticas que promuevan la distribución y uso eficiente. Para conocer los factores que explican el comportamiento de la demanda de agua en los sectores residencial, agrícola, pecuario, industrial y comercial del norte de Sinaloa, México, se estimó un modelo de ecuaciones simultáneas, compuesto de diez ecuaciones y tres identidades. Los resultados indican que la demanda de agua en los sectores residencial, agrícola, pecuario, industrial y comercial responde de manera inelástica a cambios en el precio con elasticidades de -0.088, -0.125, -0.066, -0.082 y -0.005,...
Palavras-chave: Agua; Elasticidad; Ecuaciones simultáneas; Sector agrícola y pecuario; Industrial y comercial; Residencial; Economía; Doctorado; Elasticity; Simultaneous equations; Agriculture and livestock; Industrial and commercial; Residential.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1781
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Derived Demand for Cattle Feeding Inputs AgEcon
Mathews, Kenneth H., Jr.; Arnade, Carlos Anthony; Jones, Keithly G..
Derived demand relationships among four weight categories of feeder cattle entering Texas feedlots and their feed consumed are examined using a generalized McFadden dual cost function. Results demonstrate systematic differences in demand relationships among different weight categories. Positive cross-price elasticities among the three heaviest weight categories are consistent with input substitution among weight categories and consistent with objective functions associated with optimal placement weight. Anomalies in the form of negative cross-price elasticities between weight categories provide evidence for an alternative objective function associated with longer term feeding of light-weight feeder cattle. Results also demonstrate seasonality differences...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cattle feeding; Derived demand; Elasticity; Feeder cattle; Generalized McFadden cost function; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90552
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ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE POST-1992 CAP REFORMS ON ALENTEJO ECONOMY OF PORTUGAL AgEcon
Serrao, Amilcar.
This research develops 'Johansen-type' models of agriculture and constructs Input-Output models for assessing the impact of the post-1992 CAP reforms on incomes, employment and the environment in four Alentejo study areas of Portugal. The effects of agricultural output changes on businesses supplying inputs and processing farm output were also assessed by those empirical models.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Common Agricultural Policy; Johansen Model; Input-Output Model; Elasticity; Multiplier and Environmental Indicators; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21020
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Efecto de las importaciones de carne de porcino en el mercado mexicano, 1961-2007 Colegio de Postgraduados
Pérez Vera, Flor del Carmen.
La balanza comercial del sector porcino mexicano ha sido desfavorable a partir de 1988, incrementándose los volúmenes de importación en 515.77% en el periodo 1988-2007. El objetivo de este trabajo es representar el funcionamiento del mercado de carne de porcino, considerando el precio de importación del producto y de los principales granos utilizados en la dieta alimenticia porcina y cuantificar los efectos en el saldo de comercio exterior. Para ello se formuló un modelo econométrico de ecuaciones simultáneas, el cual se estimó con el Método de Mínimos Cuadrados en dos Etapas para el periodo 1961-2007. Los resultados indican que la elasticidad del precio de importación en el saldo de comercio exterior fue inelástico, lo que hizo que las importaciones se...
Palavras-chave: Importaciones de carne porcina; Elasticidad; Modelo econométrico; Pork imports; Elasticity; Econometric model; Economía; Doctorado.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/75
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Efecto de las importaciones de carne de porcino en el mercado mexicano, 1961-2007 Colegio de Postgraduados
Pérez Vera, Flor del Carmen.
La balanza comercial del sector porcino mexicano ha sido desfavorable a partir de 1988, incrementándose los volúmenes de importación en 515.77% en el periodo 1988-2007. El objetivo de este trabajo es representar el funcionamiento del mercado de carne de porcino, considerando el precio de importación del producto y de los principales granos utilizados en la dieta alimenticia porcina y cuantificar los efectos en el saldo de comercio exterior. Para ello se formuló un modelo econométrico de ecuaciones simultáneas, el cual se estimó con el Método de Mínimos Cuadrados en dos Etapas para el periodo 1961-2007. Los resultados indican que la elasticidad del precio de importación en el saldo de comercio exterior fue inelástico, lo que hizo que las importaciones se...
Palavras-chave: Importaciones de carne porcina; Elasticidad; Modelo econométrico; Pork imports; Elasticity; Econometric model; Economía; Doctorado.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/75
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El mercado de la carne bovina en México, 1970-2011. Colegio de Postgraduados
Cruz Jiménez, Joaquín.
La proteína de origen animal es básica en la dieta de los mexicanos y las fuentes principales de ésta son las carnes de ave, bovino y porcino, de las que en 2011 se consumieron 60 kilogramos por persona, correspondiendo a la de bovino 16.5 kilogramos. En este estudio se identifica a las principales variables determinantes del mercado de carne de bovino en México y se estima el efecto de dichas variables considerando los precios de importación de la carne y de maíz y sorgo. Para establecer y cuantificar el efecto sobre el mercado de sus principales variables determinantes se diseñó un modelo econométrico de ecuaciones simultáneas que fue estimado por mínimos cuadrados en dos etapas con información secundaria para el periodo de 1970 a 2011. Los resultados...
Palavras-chave: Bovino; Granos forrajeros; Elasticidad; Saldo de comercio; Oferta; Demanda; Cattle; Feed grains; Elasticity; Balance of trade; Supply; Demand; Economía; Doctorado.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1881
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El mercado del huevo en México, 1965-2010. Colegio de Postgraduados
Cruz Jiménez, Susana.
El consumo de huevo para plato es alto a nivel mundial, debido a que fue de 15.23 Kg/persona en 2010; México es el país de mayor consumo, dado que registró 22.80 Kg/persona en el mismo año. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar el mercado de huevo para plato y los factores que lo determinan. En la caracterización del mercado se utilizó un modelo econométrico de ecuaciones simultáneas alimentado con información secundaria para el periodo 1965-2010. Los resultados mostraron que la función de oferta responde de forma inelástica al precio (0.29) y al precio del alimento balanceado (-0.22) y elástica a la tecnología (1.02); la función de demanda responde de forma inelástica al precio al consumidor de huevo (-0.40), e inelástica, también, al ingreso...
Palavras-chave: Modelo econométrico; Elasticidades; Huevo para plato; Econometric model; Elasticity; Plate egg; Economía; Maestría.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1678
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Enhancing the Profitability of Horticultural Products with Market Based Information AgEcon
Kyei, Prince; Ejimakor, Godfrey.
In addition to regional variations, demand for poinsettias was shown to depend on its price. Based on state-level data for 2005,demand in the Northeast and Midwest regions of the U.S. were found to be inelastic. This suggests that the market for poinsettias in both regions could support higher prices.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Demand structure; Elasticity; Poinsettias; Green industry; S1021; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57077
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ESTIMATING THE IMPORTANCE OF SHELF SPACE CONFIGURATION ON RETAILER'S PROFIT AgEcon
Roucan-Kane, Maud; Martens, Bobby J.; Preckel, Paul V..
Retail shelf space allocation remains a central issue in grocery retailing. A literature review produced many studies on retail shelf space allocation, but none which evaluated shelf space allocation using three major factors at once: space, vertical height, and price. In this study, shelf space allocation was modeled from the perspective of a retailer maximizing profit using space, vertical height, and price. Using benchmarking, the results show how shelf configuration affects consumer demand and retailer profit. Parameters for the model were based on experience-based intuition. Although the initial results are not valuable at this point, the method and results create a rationale and motivation to gather primary data. Once primary data is collected, this...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Shelf space allocation; Retail; Optimization; Grocery; Elasticity; GAMS; Ketchup; Marketing; C61; L81.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7330
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Functional group based marine ecosystem assessment for the Bay of Biscay via elasticity analysis ArchiMer
Hosack, Geoffrey R.; Trenkel, Verena.
The transitory and long-term elasticities of the Bay of Biscay ecosystem to densityindependent and density-dependent influences were estimated within a state space model that accounted for both process and observation uncertainties. A functional group based model for the Bay of Biscay fish ecosystem was fit to time series obtained from scientific survey and commercial catch and effort data. The observation model parameters correspond to the unknown catchabilities and observation error variances that vary across the commercial fisheries and fishery-independent scientific surveys. The process model used a Gompertz form of density dependence, which is commonly used for the analysis of multivariate ecological time series, with unknown time-varying fishing...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Compensatory dynamics; Cumulative impacts; Elasticity; Fox model; Gompertz model; Predictive cross-validation.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00510/62119/66311.pdf
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