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Registros recuperados: 26
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A Review of the Literature on Telecommuting and Its Implications for Vehicle Travel and Emissions AgEcon
Walls, Margaret; Safirova, Elena.
In this paper, we review 20 relatively recent empirical studies of telecommuting, all of which focus on the trip reduction perspective. The studies include earlier ones with smaller datasets, such as some pilot studies of individual employers, and more recent studies based on broader surveys of both telecommuters and nontelecommuters. We focus on the results of the studies with respect to participation and frequency of telecommuting, the effects on vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) and trips, and in some cases, the impacts on emissions and air quality. Although there does not seem to be a consensus, there is a predominant view that certain factors increase both the likelihood of telecommuting and the frequency of telecommuting. These factors are having children...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Telecommuting; Mode choice; Air quality; Emissions; Labor and Human Capital; R4; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10492
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An Assessment of the EPA's SO2 Emission Allowance Tracking System AgEcon
Lile, Ronald D.; Bohi, Douglas R.; Burtraw, Dallas.
On November 8, 1996, various Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officials, scholars and industry representatives gathered at Resources for the Future (RFF) to examine the EPA's method for classifying private SO2 allowance transactions by the Allowance Tracking System (ATS). The one-day workshop at RFF was designed to evaluate how well the EPA's classification scheme within the ATS currently meets the needs of constituencies with a vested interest in the allowance trading system, and to determine if other classifications would be more beneficial. The EPA has limited its collection of information to that which is necessary to ensure compliance with environmental goals. In particular, the EPA has interpreted its mission to be one of minimal interference in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Transaction costs; Regulated industries; Electric utilities; Emissions; Environmental Economics and Policy; D23; D49; H70; K23; L94; Q25.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10890
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Biochar amendment improves degraded pasturelands in Brazil: environmental and cost-benefit analysis. Repositório Alice
LATAWIEC, A. E.; STRASSBURG, B. B. N.; JUNQUEIRA, A. B.; ARAUJO, E. da S.; MORAES, L. F. D. de; PINTO, H. A. N.; CASTRO, A.; RANGEL, M.; MALAGUTI, G. A.; RODRIGUES, A. F.; BARIONI, L. G.; NOVOTNY, E. H.; CORNELISSEN, G.; MENDES, M.; BATISTA, N.; GUERRA, J. G. M.; ZONTA, E.; JAKOVAC, C.; HALE, S. E..
Most deforested lands in Brazil are occupied by low-productivity cattle ranching. Brazil is the second biggest meat producer worldwide and is projected to increase its agricultural output more than any other country. Biochar has been shown to improve soil properties and agricultural productivity when added to degraded soils, but these effects are context-dependent. The impact of biochar, fertilizer and inoculant on the productivity of forage grasses in Brazil (Brachiaria spp. and Panicum spp.) was investigated from environmental and socio-economic perspectives. We showed a 27% average increase in Brachiaria production over two years but no significant effects of amendment on Panicum yield. Biochar addition also increased the contents of macronutrients,...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Biocarvão; Degradação de pastagem; Pastureland; Agricultura Sustentável; Brachiaria Brizantha; Desmatamento; Forragem; Panicum Maximum; Pastagem; Biochar; Deforestation; Ecosystem services; Emissions; Gases; Soil; Yields.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1113523
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Coase and Car Repair: Who Should Be Responsible for Emissions of Vehicles in Use? AgEcon
Harrington, Winston; McConnell, Virginia D..
This paper examines the current assignment of liability for in-use vehicle emissions and suggests some alternative policies that may reduce the cost and increase the effectiveness. We first discuss the cost, performance and incentives under current Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) programs, using the recently implemented Arizona "Enhanced I/M" program as an example. These programs were designed to identify and repair vehicles with malfunctioning emission control systems. Since their inception, however, I/M programs have been plagued by transaction costs that have drastically raised the cost of I/M as well as limited its effectiveness. These transaction costs fall into three categories: emission monitoring, repair avoidance, and non-transferability of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mobile sources; Emissions; Coase; Liability; I/M; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q28; R48.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10911
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Costs, Emissions Reductions, and Vehicle Repair: Evidence from Arizona AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour; McConnell, Virginia D.; Harrington, Winston.
The Arizona I/M program provides one of the first opportunities to examine the costs and effectiveness of vehicle emission repair. This paper examines various aspects of emission reductions, fuel economy improvements, and costs of repair, drawing data from over 80,000 vehicles failing the I/M test in Arizona between 1995 and the first half of 1996. We summarize the wealth of repair data from the Arizona program and highlight its limitations. Because missing or incomplete cost information has been a serious shortcoming for evaluation of I/M programs, we develop a method for estimating the costs of repair when those costs are not reported. We find surprising evidence that almost one quarter of all vehicles that take the I/M test are never observed to pass...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: I/M; Repair; Emissions; Mobile sources; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; R48.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10915
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Drying Temperature - Duration Impacts on Moisture, Carbon, and Nitrogen Losses from Broiler Litter CIGR Journal
Sanjay B. Shah; NC State University.
Drying poultry litter (PL) prior to analysis minimizes nutrient transformations and losses and facilitates sample preparation. Drying also allows comparison among different litters on dry-weight (dw) basis. However, losses of carbon (C) as CO2 and nitrogen (N) as NH3 (NH3) can confound moisture losses. Thus, the apparent moisture content (MC) that does not separately account for C and N losses will be higher than the true MC. Further, use of apparent MC may also result in overestimation of C and N concentrations (dw basis). Broiler litter (BL) MC was determined using FD 50 (flask-dried at 50°C for 24 h), FD 70 (flask-dried at 70°C for 16 h), CT70 (oven-dried at 70°C to constant mass), and CT105 (oven-dried at 105°C to constant mass). Carbon and NH3-N...
Palavras-chave: Waste management; Nutrient cycling; Emissions; Pollution Poultry litter moisture content; Ammonia loss; Carbon dioxide loss; Urea.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2801
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Drying Temperature - Duration Impacts on Moisture, Carbon, and Nitrogen Losses from Broiler Litter CIGR Journal
Shah, Sanjay B..
Drying poultry litter (PL) prior to analysis minimizes nutrient transformations and losses and facilitates sample preparation. Drying also allows comparison among different litters on dry-weight (dw) basis. However, losses of carbon (C) as CO2 and nitrogen (N) as NH3 (NH3) can confound moisture losses. Thus, the apparent moisture content (MC) that does not separately account for C and N losses will be higher than the true MC. Further, use of apparent MC may also result in overestimation of C and N concentrations (dw basis). Broiler litter (BL) MC was determined using FD 50 (flask-dried at 50°C for 24 h), FD 70 (flask-dried at 70°C for 16 h), CT70 (oven-dried at 70°C to constant mass), and CT105 (oven-dried at 105°C to constant mass). Carbon and NH3-N...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Waste management; Nutrient cycling; Emissions; Pollution Poultry litter moisture content; Ammonia loss; Carbon dioxide loss; Urea.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2801
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ECONOMICS OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION/COMBUSTION AT FUEL ETHANOL PLANTS AgEcon
Tiffany, Douglas G.; Morey, R. Vance; De Kam, Matthew J..
Published in Applied Engineering in Agriculture, Vol. 25(3): 391‐400
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Ethanol; Biomass; Economics; CHP; Emissions; Process heat; Electricity production; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93632
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Effect of grazing frequency on enteric methane emissions, output of milk constituents and milk yield. Repositório Alice
CONGIO, G. F. S.; CHIAVEGATO, M. B.; BATALHA, C. D. A.; BERNDT, A.; FRIGHETTO, R. T. S.; SILVA, S. C. da.
Grazing management changes sward structure, affecting forage morphological characteristics and nutritive value, and ultimately animal performance and enteric methane (CH4) emissions. The objective of this study was to evaluate enteric methane emissions and animal performance of lactating dairy cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon). Treatments corresponded to strategies of rotational grazing characterized by two pre-grazing targets; 95% and maximum canopy light interception (LI95% and LIMax, respectively). Post-grazing target corresponded to 50% of the pre-grazing targets. Twenty-two midlactation Holstein × Jersey cows (488 ± 60 kg) were stratified by body weight, days in milk (126 ± 90 days), lactation number (2.3 ± 1.2),...
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Light interception; Vaca Leiteira; Metano; Pennisetum Purpureum; Dairy cows; Pennisetum; Methane; Emissions.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1103344
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Efficacy of a microbial additive in reducing odor, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide emissions from farrowing-gestation swine operation CIGR Journal
Shafiqur Rahman; Thomas DeSutter; North Dakota State University; Qiang Zhang; University of Manitoba.
To mitigate odor and gas emission concern, different management practices and treatment technologies are available. In this study, the effectiveness of the Digest3+3© microbial additive was evaluated for reducing odor and pollutant gas emission from a swine gestation-farrowing operation in North Dakota.  In this experiment, one of the deep pits in the facility was left untreated (GC) and the other deep pit was treated (GT) with the Digest 3+3 (22.68 kg/month).  Similarly, shallow pits in one of the farrowing units were treated (FT) with the microbial additive, while another unit was untreated (FC as the control).  Air samples were collected from exhaust fans using a vacuum chamber and Tedlar bags.  Odor detection threshold values were determined using a...
Palavras-chave: Odor; Ammonia; Hydrogen sulfide; Concentration; Emissions; Farrowing; Gestation; Digest3+3©.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1940
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Emissions mitigation by sustainable intensification in Brazilian livestock production. Repositório Alice
SILVA, R. O.; BARIONI, L. G.; HALL, J. A. J.; MATSUURA, M. I. da S. F.; ALBERTINI, T. Z.; FERNANDES, F. A.; MORAN, D..
Reduced global meat consumption coupled with improved production efficiency is increasingly advanced as part of a sustainable agricultural intensification agenda to reduce harmful external costs, particularly direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. We show that depending on spatial and temporal factors, reduced consumption may not offer the anticipated emission reductions. Ruminant livestock is specifically implicated as a major cause of agricultural externalities in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: direct (CH4 and N2O) and indirect (CO2 from land use change). However a counter-argument suggests that grass-fed beef systems can have significantly lower emissions when accounting for atmospheric CO2 uptake by deep-root grasses promoting soil...
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Mitigation; Emissions.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1037105
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ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC ACCOUNTING FOR THE GERMAN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR AgEcon
Schmidt, Thomas G.; Osterburg, Bernhard.
How can we estimate the negative externalities of agriculture at the national level, and attribute these to specific production activities and outputs? The paper presents a method that calculates the mass flow in the whole agricultural sector including inputs from other sectors, and that allows to analyse resource use and emissions, e.g. of greenhouse gases. Data inputs are the German economic accounts for agriculture, farm structural survey and market statistics, as well as environmental statistics. In the framework of the German agricultural sector model RAUMIS, material flows within the agricultural sector are described, as well as inputs from other German sectors and imports. Through a processanalytical approach, all information is integrated and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: SEEA; Input-Output Analysis; Agriculture; Resource use; Trade; Emissions; Carbon footprint; Livestock Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91268
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Environmental Labeling and Technology Adoption in the Presence of Strategic Interactions AgEcon
Konishi, Yoshifumi.
This manuscript analyzes the effect of binary ecolabeling on the strategic competition of Cournot duopolists in environmental technology and the output market. Under binary labeling, firms' abatement technologies are not directly observable by consumers but are certified if they satisfy preset ecological standards. Given this asymmetry, I set up the regulator's problem as one of choosing a technology standard, or "cutoff," in emissions per unit of output, below which all abatement efficiency levels are certified. The regulatory authority faces a trade-off in choosing the socially optimal cutoff: The regulator would like to raise the standard to reduce emissions but needs to lower it in order to induce technology adoption. There are three important...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ecolabeling; Emissions; Product differentiation; Technology adoption; Environmental Economics and Policy; Industrial Organization; D43; L13; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9949
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Estimated atmospheric emissions from biodiesel and characterization of pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre-RS Anais da ABC (AABC)
Teixeira,Elba C.; Mattiuzi,Camila D.P.; Feltes,Sabrina; Wiegand,Flavio; Santana,Eduardo R.R..
The purpose of the present study was to estimate emissions of some pollutants (CO, NOX, HC, SOX, and PM) in diesel fleet due to the addition of biodiesel in different blends, as well as to assess atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre (MAPA). The methodology was based on inventories from mobile sources based on US EPA's technical report. Regarding air quality the following parameters were determined: PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC and PAHs. The results showed a decrease for emissions PM, CO, and HC, and a slight increase for NOX. The characterization of atmospheric pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre showed that they are influenced by mobile sources, particularly diesel vehicles. The diagnosis of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Air quality; Biodiesel; Diesel; Emissions.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652012000300008
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How Overconfident are Current Projections of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions? AgEcon
Keller, Klaus; Miltich, Louise I.; Robinson, Alexander; Tol, Richard S.J..
Analyzing the risks of anthropogenic climate change requires sound probabilistic projections of CO2 emissions. Previous projections have broken important new ground, but many rely on out-of-range projections, are limited to the 21st century, or provide only implicit probabilistic information. Here we take a step towards resolving these problems by assimilating globally aggregated observations of population size, economic output, and CO2 emissions over the last three centuries into a simple economic model. We use this model to derive probabilistic projections of business-as-usual CO2 emissions to the year 2150. We demonstrate how the common practice to limit the calibration timescale to decades can result in biased and overconfident projections. The range...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon Dioxide; Emissions; Scenarios; Data Assimilation; Markov Chain Monte Carlo; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q540.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9321
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INTEGRATING BIOMASS TO PRODUCE HEAT AND POWER AT ETHANOL PLANTS AgEcon
De Kam, Matthew J.; Morey, R. Vance; Tiffany, Douglas G..
Published in: Applied Engineering in Agriculture, Vol. 25(2): 227‐244
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biomass; Renewable; Sustainable; Model; Gasification; Combustion; Emissions; Ethanol production; Combined heat and power; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93631
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Inventory of Ammonia Emissions from Livestock Production in Los Lagos and Los Ríos Regions, Chile Chilean J. Agric. Res.
Martínez-Lagos,Josué; Salazar,Francisco; Alfaro,Marta; Misselbrook,Tom  H.
This paper presents the first inventory of ammonia emissions from livestock production in Los Lagos and Los Ríos Regions of Chile. The inventory was focused in this area because is where cattle production is concentrated. This study aimed to quantify the amount of N losses due to ammonia volatilization from livestock production in these regions of the country, and to provide its spatial representation identifying their main sources. Calculations have been carried out for 1997 and 2007, and also projections to 2017 and 2027 were obtained. Calculated emissions were 6097 and 6206 t NH3-N for 1997 and 2007, respectively. Major sources of NH3-N emissions were cattle accounting for more than 85%, followed by horses and pigs. Farm management practices as grazing,...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Ammonia; Inventory; Livestock production; Emissions.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-58392010000100010
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Modeling International Trends in Energy Efficiency and Carbon Emissions AgEcon
Stern, David I..
This study uses a stochastic production frontier to model energy efficiency trends, in 85 countries over a 37 year period. No structure is imposed on technological change over time, although differences in technology level across the countries are modelled as a stochastic function of explanatory variables. These variables are selected by a literature survey and a theoretical model of energy-efficient technology choice. An improvement in a country’s energy efficiency is measured as a reduction in energy intensity, while holding constant that economy’s mix of inputs and outputs. All other things remaining constant, the country using the least energy per unit output is on the global best-practice frontier. The model is used to derive decompositions of...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Energy; Efficiency; Carbon; Emissions; Technological change; Between estimator; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; O33; O47; Q43; Q54; Q55; Q56.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94950
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On Ammonia Concentrations in Breeding Environments of Dairy Houses Located in the Iblean Highlands CIGR Journal
Arcidiacono, C..
   In this work, the general objective was to give a contribute to the knowledge of breeding environment conditions as regards issues of great interest which concern the protection of animal welfare, healthiness of the breeding environment, the operators’ safety in the workplace and the environmental protection. The objective of this work was to verify the levels of ammonia concentrations in different functional areas of two naturally ventilated semi-open dairy houses in Sicily (Italy), through the measurement of the concentrations of ammonia at different heights from the floor of the breeding environment, also in relation to the main inside microclimatic variables and outside climate conditions. An experimental protocol for measuring ammonia concentration...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Emissions; Animal welfare; Operators’ safety; Naturally ventilated barns.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3077
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Reducing the environmental footprint of pig finishing barns AgEcon
Jacobson, Larry D.; Schmidt, David R.; Lazarus, William F.; Koehler, Robert.
Written for presentation at the 2011 ASABE Annual International Meeting Sponsored by ASABE Gault House, Louisville, Kentucky August 7 – 10, 2011
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Swine Housing; Energy; Emissions; Environmental Footprint; Economic Viability; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122609
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