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13 + 1: A Comparison of Global Climate Change Policy Architectures AgEcon
Aldy, Joseph E.; Barrett, Scott; Stavins, Robert N..
We critically review the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. We employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The Kyoto Protocol does not fare well on a number of criteria, but none of the alternative proposals fare well along all six dimensions. We identify several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is "too little, too fast"; developing countries should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Policy architecture; Kyoto Protocol; Efficiency; Cost effectiveness; Equity; Participation; Compliance; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10541
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ACHIEVING EFFICIENCY AND EQUITY IN IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT: AN OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF THE EL ANGEL WATERSHED, CARCHI, ECUADOR AgEcon
Evans, Elizabeth M.; Lee, David R.; Boisvert, Richard N..
The objective of this paper is to address the problems of inefficiency and inequity in water allocation in the El Angel watershed, located in Ecuador's Sierra region. Water is captured in a high-altitude region of the watershed and distributed downstream to producers in four elevation-defined zones via a system of canals. Upstream and downstream producers face radically different conditions with respect to climate and terrain. A mathematical programming model was created to study the consequences of addressing chronic water scarcity problems in the watershed by shifting water resources between the four zones. The model captures the nature of water use by humans, crops and dual purpose cattle. Its objective function maximizes producer welfare as...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Mathematical programming; Water allocation; Efficiency; Equity; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19742
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AGRICULTURAL POLICY ANALYSIS: DISCUSSION AgEcon
Schertz, Lyle P..
Agricultural economists are appropriately concerned about their profession's contributions to policy decisions. An examination of alternative approaches to transforming policy analyses is in order. There are opportunities to (a) focus on income and wealth distribution, (b) give attention to the public as a primary client, (c) avoid advocacy, and (d) adjust institutions in ways that encourage participation in policy analyses including the development of data systems.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Equity; Income and wealth distribution; Policy analysis; Public as a primary client; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15250
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Beyond Carbon: Enabling Justice and Equity in REDD+ Across Levels of Governance Ecology and Society
Schroeder, Heike; School of International Development, University of East Anglia; h.schroeder@uea.ac.uk; McDermott, Constance; Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography, University of Oxford; constance.mcdermott@ouce.ox.ac.uk.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Equity; Justice; Multi-level governance; REDD+.
Ano: 2014
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Beyond the ‘Double Dividend’: Modelling the impacts of deep cuts in Australian greenhouse gas emissions AgEcon
Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Adams, Philip D..
Australian economic modelling of policy options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has to date given little attention to (i) crafting policy scenarios that use emissions revenues to target significant existing tax distortions, (ii) quantifying the effects of policy on the price and affordability of energy products, and (iii) communicating policy impacts on living standards relative to current levels, as well as relative to future levels in the reference case. Building on modelling undertaken for the Australian Business Roundtable on Climate Change -– which found that real consumption and income continue to grow strongly with emission reductions -– we find that smart tax reform could significantly reduce the economic impact of emissions reductions,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Greenhouse policy; Double dividend; Equity; Adaptive governance; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10381
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Building resilient pathways to transformation when “no one is in charge”: insights from Australia's Murray-Darling Basin Ecology and Society
Abel, Nick; Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation ; nick.abel@csiro.au; Wise, Russell M.; Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; russell.wise@csiro.au; Colloff, Matthew J.; Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; Matt.Colloff@csiro.au; Walker, Brian H.; Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; brian.walker@csiro.au; Butler, James R. A.; Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; james.butler@csiro.au; Ryan, Paul; Australian Resilience Centre; paulryan@internode.on.net; Norman, Chris; Goulburn Broken Catchment Management Authority; chrisn@gbcma.vic.gov.au; Langston, Art; Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; art.langston@csiro.au; Anderies, John M.; Arizona State University; m.anderies@asu.edu; Gorddard, Russell; Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; Russell.Gorddard@csiro.au; Dunlop, Michael; Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; michael.dunlop@csiro.au; O'Connell, Deborah; Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; deborah.o'connell@csiro.au.
Climate change and its interactions with complex socioeconomic dynamics dictate the need for decision makers to move from incremental adaptation toward transformation as societies try to cope with unprecedented and uncertain change. Developing pathways toward transformation is especially difficult in regions with multiple contested resource uses and rights, with diverse decision makers and rules, and where high uncertainty is generated by differences in stakeholders’ values, understanding of climate change, and ways of adapting. Such a region is the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, from which we provide insights for developing a process to address these constraints. We present criteria for sequencing actions along adaptation pathways: feasibility...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptation pathways; Climate change; Collective action; Domain shift; Equity; Irrigation; Resilience; Social conflict; Transformation; Wetlands.
Ano: 2016
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Credibility of Collective Brand as a Source of Equity: An Empirical Application for Spanish Wine Market AgEcon
Dopico, Domingo Calvo; Blazquez, F.; Tudoran, Alina.
The appearance of consumers groups increasingly concerned about the quality of food products, together with an increasingly competitive environment and domestic saturated markets, has led companies to achieving differentiated quality. The wine sector is immersed in this situation. Valuation of this differentiation by consumers will not happen by complying with certain standards or technical specifications, but rather it has to be perceived by consumers. Unlike experts, consumers cannot easily know which properties are intrinsic to products, which are those that give them their quality. There is, thus, a problem of uncertainty regarding the quality of products. This problem becomes more complex when consumers are faced with many alternatives of a similar...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Collective brand; Quality; Perceived risk; Equity; Consumer Behaviour; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58009
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Desarrollo rural, género y derechos humanos en Jilotepec, Estado de México. Colegio de Postgraduados
Flores Escobar, Alma Delia.
La presente tesis tiene como objetivo señalar la importancia de los derechos humanos con perspectiva de género aplicado al desarrollo rural del municipio de Jilotepec, Estado de México. El estudio es cualitativo-cuantitativo, y se utilizó para la obtención de la información “el cuestionario”, “la entrevista” y un “taller”. Las y los informantes clave fueron autoridades del municipio de Jilotepec, líderes de tres Organizaciones No Gubernamentales y beneficiari@s de éstas. Entre los datos obtenidos encontramos que en l@s beneficiari@s de las organizaciones rurales existe un desconocimiento de las funciones de las dependencias que protegen los derechos humanos. Se reconoce la ardua labor que las organizaciones rurales UNORCA, RED MUJER han hecho en el...
Palavras-chave: Equidad; Mujeres rurales; Organizaciones rurales; Políticas públicas; Equity; Rural women; Public policy; Rural organization; Desarrollo Rural; Maestría.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1853
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DID THE 1995 FARM BILL ADDRESS THE CRITICAL ISSUES? DISCUSSION AgEcon
Salathe, Larry E..
In 1995, for the first time since the 1930s, the United States failed to pass new farm program legislation. The inability to pass farm legislation occurred despite bipartisan agreement that farm programs should continue the trend over the past decade of less government intervention. This paper discusses the sequence of events, the role of agricultural economists, the major issues, and the lessons learned from the 1995 Farm Bill debate. The trend toward declining government intervention in agriculture will require that the profession look increasingly to the private sector for solutions to the problems facing agriculture in the twenty-first century.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Congressional debate; Equity; Farm programs; Policy analysis; Price and income support; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15232
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Distributional effects of flood risk management—a cross-country comparison of preflood compensation Ecology and Society
van Doorn-Hoekveld, Willemijn J.; Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law, The Netherlands; w.j.hoekveld@uu.nl; Suykens, Cathy; KU Leuven, Belgium; cathy.suykens@kuleuven.be; Homewood, Stephen; Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University London, England; stephenhomewood@yahoo.co.uk; Chmielewski, Piotr J.; Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland; piotr.chmielewski1990@gmail.com; Matczak, Piotr; Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland; Institute of Sociology, Adam Mickiewicz University; matczak@amu.edu.pl; van Rijswick, Helena F.M.W; Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law, The Netherlands; H.vanRijswick@uu.nl.
We seek to examine the manner in which either the EU member states of France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden or parts of them, such as the country of England in the UK or the Flemish Region in Belgium, deal with the distributional effects of the flood risk management strategies prevention, defense, and mitigation. Measures carried out in each of these strategies can cause preflood harm, as in the devaluation of property or loss of income. However, different member states and authorities address this harm in different ways. A descriptive overview of the different compensation regimes in the field of flood risk management is followed by an analysis of these differences and an explanation of what may cause them, such as the geographical differences that...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Defense; é Galité Devant les charges publiques; Equity; Flood risk management; Legitimacy; Loss; No-fault liability; Preflood compensation; Prevention; Protection of property rights; Solidarity; Spatial planning.
Ano: 2016
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Effective gender mainstreaming in water management for sustainable livelihoods: From guidelines to practice AgEcon
Zwarteveen, Margreet Z.; Valee, Domitille; Molden, David J.; Muylwijk, Joke; Bilgi, Meena; Udas, Pranita; Douma, Annelieke; Hirsch, Danielle.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Water resource management; Gender; Equity; Policy; Labor and Human Capital; Public Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91945
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Effects of U.S. Farm Programs on Equity and Efficiency AgEcon
Pope, Micah; Keeney, Roman.
This paper analyzes the tradeoffs present between equity and efficiency in farm policy. In terms of equity, we are concerned with the implications of policies on the distribution of income. For efficiency we consider how the profitability of farms is impacted by the same government policies. Specifically of interest will be the relative contributions of direct payments, commodity payments, and conservation payments to each of these measures. Results show that relative to direct payments commodity payments are more efficient (in terms of increasing average farm profitability) but less equitable (large farmers dominate the income gains). Conservation payments are found to be both less equitable and efficient relative to direct payments. We identify...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: U.S. Farm Policy; Equity; Efficiency; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6064
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Engaging Local Communities in Low Emissions Land-Use Planning: a Case Study from Laos Ecology and Society
Hett, Cornelia; Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE); Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Switzerland; Cornelia.hett@cde.unibe.ch; Heinimann, Andreas; Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE); Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Switzerland; Andreas.Heinimann@cde.unibe.ch.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Carbon tenure; Equity; Laos; Participatory land-use planning; REDD+.
Ano: 2013
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Equal Emissions per Capita over Time - A Proposal to Combine Responsibility and Equity of Rights AgEcon
Bode, Sven.
After Future climate policy regimes may be based on the Kyoto-Protocol or on other policy instruments such as carbon-taxes. Any effective regime based on the Protocol requires the determination of the concrete contributions by each Party. This involves namely the time of contribution and the quantification of the contribution itself. By now many proposals exist for the two issues, as for example thresholds like GDP per capita for the question of timing or emissions per capita for an allocation of emission rights. Based on the two justice principle responsibility and equity of rights that form the basis for the so-called Brazilian Proposal and Contraction & Convergence respectively, a new approach is developed: Future emission rights are allocated on...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Allocation of GHG emission entitlements; Brazilian Proposal; CDM; Contraction & Convergence; Equity; Post 2012 climate regime; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26240
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Equity and REDD+ in the Media: a Comparative Analysis of Policy Discourses Ecology and Society
Di Gregorio, Monica; University of Leeds, Sustainability Research Institute; m.digregorio@leeds.ac.uk; Brockhaus, Maria; Center for International Forestry Research; m.brockhaus@cgiar.org; Cronin, Tim; WWF Australia; timpcronin@hotmail.com; Muharrom, Efrian ; Center for International Forestry Research; e.muharrom@cgiar.org; Santoso, Levania; Center for International Forestry Research; l.santoso@cgiar.org; Mardiah, Sofi; Center for International Forestry Research; s.mardiah@cgiar.org.
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is primarily a market-based mechanism for achieving the effective reduction of carbon emissions from forests. Increasingly, however, concerns are being raised about the implications of REDD+ for equity, including the importance of equity for achieving effective carbon emission reductions from forests. Equity is a multifaceted concept that is understood differently by different actors and at different scales, and public discourse helps determine which equity concerns reach the national policy agenda. Results from a comparative media analysis of REDD+ public discourse in four countries show that policy makers focus more on international than national equity concerns, and that they neglect...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Comparative analysis; Discourse; Equity; Media analysis; Mitigation; REDD+.
Ano: 2013
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Equity Basis Selection in Allocation Environments: An Empirical Analysis AgEcon
Aadland, David; Koplin, Van.
Successful formation and long-term stability of cooperative ventures is often linked to the perceived fairness of the cost and resource allocations that these ventures employ. Indeed, the lack of a consensus over what basis should be used for gauging equitable allocation can undermine the prospects for collaboration. We use irrigation cost sharing as a context for examining the equity basis selections of cooperative ventures that successfully form and endure. Our analysis reveals that these selections are explained by features of the cooperative environment and inequities in the derived benefits from the irrigation water.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Irrigation; Cost allocation; Equity; Probit model; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117146
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Equity judgments and context dependence: Knowledge, efficiency and incentives AgEcon
Schilizzi, Steven.
Distributional equity concerns are often at least as important as economic efficiency and ecological sustainability in environmental and natural resource management policies. Until recently, however, economists have shied away from tackling equity issues, primarily because equity appeared as a slippery concept, varying across people and circumstances. This study takes this context-dependence of equity judgments as a starting point and shows that such dependence, far from being random, is systematic. A series of controlled laboratory treatments with University students were designed to investigate the role on distributional equity judgments of such context factors as knowledge of one’s position in society, how the existence of equity-efficiency tradeoffs...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Equity; Fairness; Resource allocation; Environmental policy; Experimental economics; Welfare economics; Public choice; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Public Economics; C92; D03; D63; H23; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100887
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Equity Weighting and the Marginal Damage Costs of Climate Change AgEcon
Anthoff, David; Hepburn, Cameron; Tol, Richard S.J..
Climate change would impact different countries differently, and different countries have different levels of development. Equity-weighted estimates of the (marginal) impact of greenhouse gas emissions reflect these differences. Equity-weighted estimates of the marginal damage cost of carbon dioxide emissions are substantially higher than estimates without equity-weights; equity-weights may also change the sign of the social cost estimates. Equity weights need to be normalised. Our estimates differ by two orders of magnitude depending on the region of normalisation. A discounting error of equity weighted social cost of carbon estimates in earlier work (Tol, Energy Journal, 1999), led to an error of a factor two. Equity-weighted estimates are sensitive to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Marginal Damage Costs; Climate Change; Equity; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q54.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9325
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Experiência de implantação de monitoramento e avaliação da sustentabilidade de subsistemas de criação animal. Repositório Alice
SANTOS, R. D.; OLÍMPIO, Z. S.; SILVA, D. D. R. da; FERNANDES, F. E. P.; FERNANDES, C. de S.; FARIAS, J. L. de S..
Resumo: O objetivo foi implantar com os agricultores familiares um processo de monitoramento e ava-liação da sustentabilidade de seus subsistemas de criação animal em redesenho. Isso ocor-reu num projeto de desenvolvimento rural chamado Sustentare. A estratégia metodológica foi de estudo de indicadores de sustentabilidade com cinco propriedades do agroecossistema através de reuniões mensais com agricultores e equipe do projeto. A experiência favoreceu intervenções para redesenhar os agroecossistemas familiares. Percebemos diferenças de va-lores de escores para as propriedades do agroecossistema entre os subsistemas avaliados. Compreender autonomia, equidade e sustentabilidade ambiental auxilia agricultores e técni-cos na tomada de decisões de redesenho de...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Construção coletiva do Conhecimento; Agroecologia; Autonomia; Equidade; Estabilidade; Sustentare; Sustentabilidade ambiental; Brasil; Região Nordeste; Autonomy; Equity; Stability; Desenvolvimento Sustentável; Desenvolvimento Comunitário; Desenvolvimento Rural; Agricultura Familiar; Comunidade Rural; Produtividade; Agricultura Sustentável; Rural communities; Rural development; Rural and Agricultural Sociology; Environmental sustainability; Primary productivity; Family farms; Small farms; Compost stability; Semiarid zones; Brazil.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1095182
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Food security and sustainable agriculture in India: The water management challenge AgEcon
Kumar, M. Dinesh.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sustainable agriculture; Food security; Water management; Water scarcity; Groundwater depletion; Waterlogging; Salinity; Soil degradation; Water use efficiency; Productivity; Equity; Irrigation water; Pricing; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Productivity Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92666
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