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Registros recuperados: 11
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A CASE AGAINST THE SIMULTANEOUS USE OF MARKET ACCESS RESTRICTIONS, DOMESTIC SUPPORT, AND EXPORT SUBSIDIES AgEcon
Garcia, Roberto J..
The Uruguay Round of GATT introduced market disciplines to international trade in agricultural commodities. However, in cases where countries negotiated the right to limit market access, support domestic production at high levels and subsidize exports, the spirit of the WTO rules have been violated. The Norwegian meat market (beef, pork, lamb and mutton, and chicken) situations are studied in terms of the policy implications and WTO commitments. If Norway's policy objective is to target some level of production that satisfies its non-trade concerns, then semi-decoupled income support could be an improvement over a policy mix that simultaneously restricts market access, provides domestic support and applies export subsidies.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Norway; Meat; Market access limitations; Domestic support; Export subsidies; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25915
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Die Millenniums-Runde der WTO-Verhandlungen und die Zukunft der EU-Agrarpolitik AgEcon
Tangermann, Stefan.
The Uruguay Round has established completely new rules for agricultural trade, but not yet achieved much liberalisation. The current new round of negotiations will, therefore, have to make another big step forward. Countries’ views on what exactly should be agreed in the new round still differ widely. However, it is remarkable that no country has so far doubted the validity of the new WTO rules for agriculture, nor refused to engage in serious negotiations about further reductions. The EU has so far not had major difficulties to honour the new commitments that resulted from the Uruguay Round, though in the area of export subsidies the constraints have already been felt. In the new round of negotiations, EU export subsidies will be a primary target of...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: WTO rules for agriculture; Millennium Round; EU agricultural policy; Export subsidies; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98862
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ECONOMIC COSTS OF THE U.S. WHEAT EXPORT ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM: MANNA FROM HEAVEN OR FROM TAXPAYERS? AgEcon
Peterson, Jeffrey M.; Minten, Bart; de Gorter, Harry.
Traditional models of export bonus programs focus only on the effects of disposing public stocks on the world market. We show that the economic effects of export bonus programs are significantly different when one includes the costs of acquiring these stocks. Including stock acquisition costs has the domestic price always rising, rather than an ambiguous effect of the traditional model of an export bonus program. We also show that including stock acquisition costs results in an export bonus scheme to be equivalent to cash export subsidies. When an export bonus program is combined with an existing target price scheme, government cost may either rise or fall in either model, but for different reasons. In an empirical simulation of the U.S. Export...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Export Enhancement Program; Export subsidies; In-kind; International Relations/Trade; Q17.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14578
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Export Growth In India: Has FDI Played a Role? AgEcon
Sharma, Kishor.
Export growth in India has been much faster than GDP growth over the past few decades. Several factors appear to have contributed to this phenomenon including foreign direct investment (FDI). However, despite increasing inflows of FDI especially in recent years there has not been any attempt to assess its contribution to India's export performanceone of the channels through which FDI influences growth. Using annual data for 1970-98 we investigate the determinants of export performance in India in a simultaneous equation framework. Results suggest that demand for Indian exports increases when its export prices fall in relation to world prices. Furthermore, the real appreciation of the rupee adversely effects India's exports. Export supply is positively...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Exports; Commercial policy; Export subsidies; Foreign direct investment; Exchange rates and India; F21; International Relations/Trade; F1; F13; F14.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28372
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Implications of Trade Liberalization and Domestic Reforms on EU Agricultural Markets AgEcon
Huan-Niemi, Ellen; Kerkela, Leena; Lehtonen, Heikki; Niemi, Jyrki S..
The objective of this paper is to explore the overall effects of further trade liberalization and the implemented CAP reforms on EU agricultural production, imports and exports within different EU regions by using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model. The GTAP model is used to compare a lower tariff reduction formula (EU Proposal) with a higher reduction formula (US Proposal) in order to show how sensitive the examined agricultural commodity/sector is to the different tariff reduction formulae. This analysis reveals that EU imports would escalate and EU exports would plummet with declining EU production because of trade liberalization and domestic policy reforms in the EU agricultural markets and sectors.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: EU; WTO; CAP reforms; Tariff reductions; Export subsidies; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Financial Economics; International Relations/Trade; Q1.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92554
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Modelling the impacts of multilateral agricultural trade liberalization on the EU AgEcon
Niemi, Jyrki S.; Kerkela, Leena; Lehtonen, Heikki.
The objective of this paper is to explore the implications of domestic policy reforms and trade liberalisation on EU and global agricultural markets by utilising the GTAP model. The results suggest that CAP reforms in conjunction with the removal of export subsidies and tariff reductions according to the proposals from the EU and the US in the WTO would decrease EU's production, reduce EU's exports, and increase EU's imports in almost all the examined agricultural products. For countries such as Australia, the US, and the MERCOSUR group, higher world prices stimulate domestic agricultural production, partly offsetting the EU output decline.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: EU; WTO; Tariff reductions; Export subsidies; CAP reforms; GTAP model; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44334
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The Export Enhancement Program: Prospects Under the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 AgEcon
Haley, Stephen L..
According to provisions of the 1990 U.S. farm bill, the export enhancement program (EEP) will continue to be an important instrument in promoting U.S. agricultural exports and in challenging subsidizing competitors, like the European Community (EC), with funding levels set at a minimum of $500 million annually through 1995. This research, whose purpose is to evaluate the likely effectiveness of the wheat EEP through 1995, reaches several conclusions: (1) the EEP will have a significant effect on U.S. wheat exports, but will be subject to diminishing returns at levels higher than the annual minimums; and (2) the EC will only be marginally affected by the EEP, that is, it can effectively counter the effects of the EEP at low cost.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Export subsidies; Export enhancement program; Agricultural trade; Simulation model; Wheat; Coarse grains; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1991 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51142
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The Normative Efficiency Ranking of Output and Export Subsidies under Costly and Imperfect Enforcement AgEcon
Giannakas, Konstantinos.
This paper builds on the literature on agricultural policy analysis under costly and imperfect enforcement by analyzing the effect of enforcement costs and noncompliance on the relative transfer efficiency of output and export subsidies. Analytical results show that, in addition to changing the incidence of output and export subsidies, relaxing the assumption of perfect and costless enforcement found in the traditional analysis of these policy instruments can affect their relative efficiency in transferring income to producers. The effect of enforcement issues is shown to depend on the way export subsidies are being administered and the size of the exporting country.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Export subsidies; Output subsidies; Enforcement; Noncompliance; Transfer efficiency; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58277
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U.S. Agricultural Export Credits after the WTO Cotton Ruling: The Law of Unintended Consequences AgEcon
Benitah, Marc.
The recent WTO cotton ruling has led to a paradoxical result for the United States, a result that seems a textbook illustration of the "law of unintended consequences". Indeed, during the Uruguay Round negotiations of the present WTO agreements, the United States refused to put agricultural export credits in the category of agricultural export subsidies, where they would then have been subject only to reduction commitments. Paradoxically, the United States finds itself now in a position where these same agricultural export credits that it did not condescend to reduce during the Uruguay Round are openly considered as prohibited export subsidies. This article analyses and criticizes the tortuous legal path followed by the cotton panel before arriving at such...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agreement on Agriculture; Brazil; Cotton; Doha Round; Export credits; Export subsidies; SCM; United States; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23893
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Using the Logistic Functional Form for Modelling International Price Transmission in Net Trade Simulation Models AgEcon
Banse, Martin; Grethe, Harald.
Various reasons including cif/fob spread, differing political price protection depending on the net trade situation, and domestic transportation cost contribute to situations in which domestic prices are different in an exporting compared to an importing situation. Net trade models that take these differences into account must somehow deal with the problem of products that are not exported at the export-based price, because it is too low, and are not imported at the import-based price, because it is too high. In such a case, the equilibrium price lies somewhere between the export- and the import-based price. This paper presents the application of the Logistic functional form for depicting price transmission from international to domestic prices in the net...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Price transmission; Net trade models; Tariff rate quotas; Export subsidies; EU beef market; International Relations/Trade; Q17; F13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25344
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Why industrial policies fail: limited commitment AgEcon
Karp, Larry S.; Perloff, Jeffrey M..
The strategic effects of subsidies on output and subsidies on investment differ substantially in dynamic models where a government's commitment ability is limited. Output subsidies remain effective even as the period of commitment vanishes, but investment subsidies may become completely ineffective. This difference has been obscured because most existing models of strategic trade policy are static.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumers; Economics; Equilibrium; Export subsidies; Investments; Trade agreements; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47044
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