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A GERAÇÃO DE EXTERNALIDADES E O PROCESSO DE RECICLAGEM: A APLICAÇÃO DA METODOLOGIA DA ANÁLISE DO CICLO DE VIDA COMO FERRAMENTA GERENCIAL AgEcon
Souza, Roberta Fernanda Da Paz De.
A expansão dos níveis de produção perseguidos atualmente com vistas à elevação dos níveis de emprego e renda gerados pela economia e a manutenção dos padrões de consumo demandados pela sociedade fazem com que haja uma crescente pressão sobre os recursos naturais. A análise dos processos e produtos gerados pelas indústrias tornaria viável adoção de medidas capazes de obter resultados mais eficientes. Para possibilitar tais análises, têm sido desenvolvidos diversos conceitos teóricos e métodos que visam a melhoria do processo produtivo. O conceito de externalidades e o método de Análise do Ciclo de Vida (ACV) fazem parte desse arcabouço. A partir de sua aplicação, tornam-se possíveis a adoção de medidas que busquem a utilização sustentável dos recursos...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Externalidades; Análise do Ciclo de Vida; Reciclagem; Externalities; Life Cycle Analysis; Recycling; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113191
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A hazai húsmarhatartás környezeti értékelése és externáliáinak vizsgálata benchmarking módszerrel AgEcon
Bakosne Borocz, Maria; Fogarassy, Csaba.
Benchmarking alkalmazásával vizsgáltuk a hazánkban alkalmazott marhatartási technológiákat annak érdekében, hogy valamilyen módon az externális hatásokat be lehessen mutatni. A vizsgálataink eredménye, hogy a hagyományos technológia mellett található a legtöbb negatív externália, míg az extenzív, és az ökológiai tartásmód externális, valamint környezeti szempontból is a legjobb megoldást jelenti. ------------------------------ In our study we reviewed the conditions of extensive agricultural farming and its benefits based on environmental criteria. Furthermore we examined its external effects, which may affect the agriculture and the meat cattle breeding. Beef fattening, when done intensively, can cause huge environmental problems which may cause negative...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Húsmarha; Extenzív; Benchmarkig; Környezet; Externália; Beef cattle; Extensive; Benchmarking; Environment; Externalities; Agribusiness; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119900
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A mezőgazdaságban keletkező biomassza energetikai hasznosításának agrárgazdasági megközelítése AgEcon
Molnar, Andras.
A gazdálkodás ökonómiai kérdéseivel foglalkozók számára a piaci csere híján fontos feladat az externáliák minél szélesebb körű számszerűsítése, mivel csak a társadalom számára jelentkező összes költség és haszon figyelembevételével lehet megítélni a mindenkori agrárpolitikát. Egyre fontosabb az, hogy milyen agrárpolitikai eszközökkel oldhatók meg a liberalizált kereskedelemmel szembeni elvárások és a nem-termék jellegű javak társadalmilag optimális kibocsátása. Ebben a kettős elvárásban a földtulajdon és földhasználat szétválása előnytelen. ------------------------------------------- In the absence of exchange in the market, researchers into economic aspects of farming place a high emphasis on quantifying externalities to the maximum extent possible....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Externáliák; Biomassza; Energetikai felhasználás; Földhasználat; Méret-; Skála- és választékgazdaságosság; Externalities; Biomass; Use for energy production; Land use; Economies of scale; Volume and choice; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92533
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A MODEL OF PESTICIDE RESISTANCE AS A COMMON PROPERTY AND EXHAUSTIBLE RESOURCE AgEcon
Secchi, Silvia; Babcock, Bruce A..
A dynamic farm production model analyzes the interaction between the externalities caused by pest mobility and the development of pesticide resistance, a nonrenewable resource, in the context of agricultural biotechnologies. The model measures the effect of farmers' myopic behavior and the impact of pest mobility on the path of resistance.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Common property resource; European Corn Borer; Externalities; Pesticide resistance; Intertemporal optimization; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21664
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A precíziós növénytermelés externális hatásai az Agárdi Farm Kft. esetében AgEcon
Sinka, Anett.
A hagyományos mezőgazdasági termelés negatív hatásainak kiküszöbölése ér¬dekében az Európai Unió országaiban az utóbbi évtizedben egyre fontosabbá vált a multifunkcionális mezőgazdaság. Ahhoz, hogy a vidékfejlesztés, a környezetgazdálkodás az agrárgazdaság integrált részévé váljék, a gazdasági gyakorlatnak szá¬mos területen szükséges változtatni: merőben új módszerek alkalmazása, a koráb¬ban használt vagy meglévő technológiák megújítása, mások által már kipróbált eljá¬rások adaptálása, mind-mind egy-egy lehetőséget kínál a jól működő, többfunkciós mezőgazdasághoz. Mindezen okok mérlegelése után döntött úgy az Agárdi Farm Kft., hogy átáll a ha¬gyományos gazdálkodásról a precíziós növénytermelésre. A precíziós növényterme¬lési technológia nem más, mint a...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Externáliák; Multifunkcionális mezőgazdaság; Precíziós növénytermelés; Versenyképesség; Externalities; Multifunctional agriculture; Precision farming; Competitiveness; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92499
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A Rising Tide of Anti-Animal Consumerism? Issues and Opportunities AgEcon
Rae, Allan N..
The livestock revolution that has occurred over the last few decades has seen a phenomenal increase in demand for livestock products in much of the developing world. This has largely been matched with growth in supplies, driven by government policies, and increased animal numbers and productivity. But this growth has been accompanied by a number of side-effects which in many cases impose negative externalities on society and suggest that current trends in animal product consumption are unsustainable. As a result there is emerging an anti-animal sentiment among some consumer groups. These people are concerned about livestock issues such as human health effects, biodiversity losses, deforestation, emissions to the air and water, diversion of grains from...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Livestock revolution; Diet transformation; Externalities; Opportunities; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Health Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96940
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A Total Social Factor Productivity Index for the UK Food Chain Post-Farm Gate AgEcon
Barnes, Andrew Peter; McVittie, Alistair.
The UK post-farm gate food chain comprises manufacturing, wholesaling , retailing and catering. Current turnover is around £250 billion per annum. Total factor productivity measures the ratio of inputs to outputs. However, most studies have only included the marketable inputs and outputs within the system. Following criticisms of the negative effects of the food chain this paper adopts a n index based approach to measuring Total Social Factor Productivity, which includes the major externalities within the food chain. Generally, whilst TFP growth rates are low over the period 1998-2002, these have reduced even further when negative externalities are included.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Chain; Total Factor Productivity; Total Social Factor Productivity; Externalities; Industrial Organization; Productivity Analysis; Q56.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25374
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Agglomeration Externalities and Technical Efficiency in Pig Production AgEcon
Larue, Solene; Latruffe, Laure.
The objective of the paper is to assess the effects of agglomeration on technical efficiency of French pig farms. We use a two-stage method to evaluate the effects of agglomeration on technical efficiency. The first stage consists in calculating pig activity’s efficiency scores with the non-parametric method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The second stage is a truncated regression of these scores on agglomeration variables. Data are for 899 French pig producers in 2004. Results suggest that these farms were as much affected by positive agglomeration externalities (that are knowledge spillovers due to farms’ density, and also arise from farms’ closeness to downstream market) as any other businesses. There was however no evidence of negative externalities...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agglomeration; Externalities; Data Envelopment Analysis; Industrial Organization; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44272
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Assessing the environmental externalities from biofuels in Australia AgEcon
Cuevas-Cubria, Clara.
In Australia, as in other countries, the environmental costs and benefits of biofuel production and use have been found to vary greatly according to the production method and feedstocks used. In general, the use of biodiesel produced in Australia has been found to provide greater environmental benefits than ethanol, both in terms of reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced air pollutant emissions. In this paper, estimates of GHG and air pollutant emissions arising from biofuels and petroleum fuels production and use are employed to calculate the change in environmental externalities when substituting biofuels for petroleum fuels in Australia. These estimates of externalities highlight the need to better understand the environmental implications...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Environmental policy; Greenhouse gas emissions; Air pollutants; Externalities; Australia; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47624
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Benefit-costs analysis of climate-related agricultural investments in Africa: a case study AgEcon
Branca, Giacomo; Lipper, Leslie; Sorrentino, Alessandro.
Paper removed at the request of the first (corresponding) author.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Food security; Adaptation; Mitigation; Benefit-cost analysis; Externalities; Environmental Economics and Policy; D61; D62; H54; O13; Q55.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124109
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Can Hydro-economic River Basis Models Simulate Water Shadow Prices Under Asymmetric Access? AgEcon
Britz, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Arnim.
Hydro-economic river basin models (HERBM) based on mathematical programming are conventionally formulated as explicit ‘aggregate optimization’ problems with a single, aggregate objective function. Often unintended, this format implicitly assumes that decisions on water allocation are made via central planning or functioning markets such as to maximize social welfare. In the absence of perfect water markets, however, individually optimal decisions by water users will differ from the social optimum. Classical aggregate HERBMs cannot simulate that situation and thus might be unable to describe existing institutions governing access to water and produce biased results for alternative ones. We propose a new solution format for HERBMs, based on Mixed...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Hydro-economic river basin model; Mixed complementarity programming; Water institutions; Externalities; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114272
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Can the lack of coordination between an agricultural authority and a water agency generate inefficiencies? AgEcon
Martin, Elsa; Stahn, Hubert.
The point of departure of this work is the situation occurring in the Crau area (South-East of France). In this region, organic farmers use surface water for irrigation and excess water percolates into an aquifer that is used as a source for local residents. In contrast to the standard framework, agricultural production thus increases groundwater levels. In this paper, using a dynamic model, we derive the myopic and socially optimal food and water consumption paths. The first aim is to bring to the fore that an intervention is needed and that, in such a specific case, the environment can be protected thanks to some "good" production incentives. We then analyze the problem of coordination that can occur when two distinct local authorities - an agricultural...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Externalities; Agricultural policy; Water policy; Coordination of policies; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; Q18; Q28..
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91811
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Comparing the Efficiency of Alternative Policies for Reducing Traffic Congestion AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
This paper compares the efficiency of a single lane toll, a congestion tax applied uniformly across freeway lanes, a gasoline tax, and a transit fare subsidy at reducing traffic congestion. The model incorporates a variety of conditions required to reach an efficient outcome. These include conditions for the efficient allocation of travel among competing modes, travel at peak versus off-peak periods, and drivers with high and low time costs sorted onto faster and slower freeway lanes. Each policy violates some or all of the efficiency conditions. Under wide parameter scenarios, the single lane toll, gasoline tax, and transit subsidy forgo at least two thirds of the efficiency gains under an "ideal" congestion tax that varies across lanes. In contrast, the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Externalities; Efficiency effects; Congestion taxes; Single lane tolls; Rail subsidies; Gasoline taxes; Public Economics; R41; R48; D62.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10517
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Comparing the Marginal Excess Burden of Labor, Petrol, Cigarette, and Alcohol Taxes: An Application to the United Kingdom AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
This paper develops an analytical framework for comparing the marginal excess burden (MEB) of labor taxes and various commodity taxes, allowing for externalities and interactions between the taxes, and applies the analysis to the United Kingdom. Due to parameter uncertainty and model simplifications the results should be viewed with caution, nonetheless there are some useful insights. For example, even though taxes on petrol and cigarettes confer externality benefits, and these goods are relatively weak leisure substitutes, the MEB of these taxes may substantially exceed that of the labor income tax, except under "high" scenarios for externality benefits. In contrast the MEB for alcohol taxes may be smaller than that of the labor tax, though it is still...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Welfare cost; Labor tax; Cigarette tax; Alcohol tax; Petrol tax; Externalities; Political Economy; H21; H23; Q28.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10860
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Contracting with Agents Seeking Status AgEcon
Bontems, Philippe.
We explore in this paper the consequences of status seeking preferences among agents contracting with a private principal in the context of production. We examine in particular the case of envy and we show that in general envy entails augmented distortions due to asymmetric information in optimal contracts. Furthermore if the principal neglects the preferences of the agents with respect to status, then potentially there is under-participation to the contract. We also show that if the principal is free to choose who can participate to the contract, then under some conditions the principal may prefer to contract with only a subset of potentially "profitable" agents (that is where his utility is strictly positive). We then ask whether contracting with agents...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Status; Adverse selection; Contracts; Envy; Externalities; Production Economics; D6; H0; D86.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49507
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Designing Water Markets to Manage Coupled Externalities: An Application to Irrigation-Induced Salinity in Australia AgEcon
Legras, Sophie; Lifran, Robert.
In this paper, the design of water markets for the management of irrigation-induced salinity in Australia is addressed. Indeed, this setting exhibits complex interactions between the different features of the resource water. Quality, quantity of surface and ground-water interact in ways that produce coupled environmental externalities. It is then difficult to design efficient policy instruments to tackle all the issues at stake. This paper provides a preliminary analysis of three types of water market mechanisms, involving diversion rights and recharge rights.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Water markets; Irrigation induced salinity; Australia; Externalities; Policy instruments; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q25; Q53.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25350
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Do Farmers Internalise External Impacts of Pesticides in Production? AgEcon
Skevas, Theodoros; Stefanou, Spiro E.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M..
In modern agriculture, pesticides feature so prominently in growers’ arsenal to reduce crop damage caused by various pests and diseases. But their indiscriminate use can harm human health and the environment and, eventually, impact agricultural productivity negatively. In an era of an increasing public awareness on the external effects of pesticides, the EU is trying to update its pesticide policy by establishing tax and levy schemes. An important question is whether the external impacts of pesticides are also affecting the farmers’ production environment. A damage abatement specification is used consisting of a potential output function and a damage abatement function. The damage abatement function considers both high and low toxicity pesticides, and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pesticides; Externalities; Biodiversity; The Netherlands; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Food Security and Poverty; Land Economics/Use; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109403
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Do Lower Prices For Polluting Goods Make Environmental Externalities Worse? AgEcon
Brennan, Timothy J..
Lower prices for polluting goods will increase their sales and the pollution that results from their production or use. Conventional intuition suggests that this relationship implies a greater need for environmental policy when prices of "dirty" goods fall. But the economic inefficiency resulting overproduction of polluting goods may fall, not rise, as the cost of producing those goods falls. While lower costs exacerbate overproduction, they also reduce the difference between private benefit and the total social cost--the sum of private and external costs--associated with that overproduction. We derive a test, based on readily observed or estimated parameters for conditions in which the latter effect outweighs the former. In such cases, making a dirty good...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environment; Regulatory policy; Externalities; Electricity restructuring; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; L51; L94.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10776
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Environmental Conservation and Food Security in Developing Countries: Bridging the Disconnect AgEcon
Ajayi, Olu Clifford; Matakala, Patrick.
In many developing countries, environmental issues are often sacrificed for immediate food production requirements because of perceived tradeoff between two. Some production systems exist however that offers opportunities for achieving the two seemingly divergent objectives because they have the characteristics to produce joint outputs; food production and environmental conservation, but their adoption in farming communities is socially sub-optimal despite proven technological success. Using natural resource economics framework, this study highlights the reasons for the low adoption of such technologies taking Agroforestry technologies as a case study and, uses externality theory to provide environmental economic logic for developing incentives to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Externalities; Agricultural Policy; Agricultural technology; Sustainability; Ecosystem services; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25636
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EQUITY IN DISTRIBUTION OF BENEFITS FROM WATER HARVESTING AND GROUNDWATER RECHARGE – AN ECONOMIC STUDY IN SUJALA WATERSHED PROJECT IN KARNATAKA AgEcon
Seema, H.M.; Chandrakanth, Mysore G.; Nagaraj, N..
In this study, economic impact of water harvesting and groundwater recharging was analyzed in the context of Sujala watershed equity and efficiency in the distribution of benefits in Chitradurga district, Karnataka. Field data for 2004-05 (drought year) and 2005-06 (normal year) from 30 sample farmers in Sujala watershed form the data base for the study. Another sample of 30 farmers from Non-Sujala (or DPAP) watershed, and 30 from outside watershed area form the control. Farmers were further classified as: (i) those who had bore well irrigation; and (ii) those who had no borewell irrigation in order to assess the impact of watershed. It was found that the amortized cost per functioning well and cost per acre inch of groundwater in Sujala watershed is lower...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Sujala watershed program; Externalities; Drought; ANOVA.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43618
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