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2011 Updated Arkansas Global Rice Model AgEcon
Wailes, Eric J.; Chavez, Eddie C..
The Arkansas Global Rice Model is based on a multi-country statistical simulation and econometric framework. The model is disaggregated by five world regions: Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Each region includes country models which have a supply sector, a demand sector, a trade, stocks and price linkage equations. All equations used in this model are estimated using econometric procedures or identities. Estimates are based upon a set of explanatory variables including exogenous macroeconomic factors such as income, population, inflation rate, technology development, and especially, government determined policy variables which reflect the various mechanisms by which countries intervene in their rice sector economy. Individual country...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Rice; Trade model; Policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; CO2; C61; F11; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102650
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A Demand System Analysis of the U.S. Trout Market AgEcon
Lee, Young-Jae; Kennedy, P. Lynn; Hilbun, Brian M..
The objective of this study is to analyze how imported trout affects the domestic U.S. trout industry.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trout; Demand System; Import; International Relations/Trade; F10; F11; F13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56414
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A Dynamic CGE Model: An Application of R&D- Based Endogenous Growth Model Theory AgEcon
Diao, Xinshen; Elbasha, Elamin H.; Roe, Terry L.; Yeldan, A. Erinc.
An R&D based endogenous growth - applied general equilibrium model is developed from an underlying analytical model which combines Romer's capital variety with Grossman and Helpman's multi-sector open economy model. The transitional dynamics of the analytical model are derived. For numerical implementation, a time discrete empirical model, with an Armington structure, is fit to East Asian data of the social accounting matrix variety. Simulations of trade reform are performed and their static and dynamic effects compared. The transition paths of the state variables are found to have a half-life of five to six periods. A solution of the Social Planner's problem, and interventions which seek to obtain this outcome from the decentralized model are also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Applied General Equilibrium; Trade; Growth; International Relations/Trade; F11; 031; 041.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7461
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A expansão da União Européia em 2004 e seus impactos no agronegócio brasileiro AgEcon
Oliveira, Samuel Jose de Magalhaes; Ferreira Filho, Joaquim Bento de Souza.
International trade has acquired increasing importance for the Brazilian economy, especially for agribusiness. In this way, understanding other countries policies that affects international trade and its impacts in this country is equally important. The European Union (EU) is one of the most important Brazilian trade partners and it is known by strong interference on its agricultural sector. The recent European enlargement and the last Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Reform have been studied at different regions of the World but there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impacts of this on Brazilian rural sectors. This paper aims to assess the impacts of the 2004 EU enlargement on Brazilian agribusiness using the general equilibrium model Global Trade...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International economics; International trade; General equilibrium; Economic integration.; Political Economy; F11; F15; Q17..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61192
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A small nation’s comparative advantage: The case of Latvia AgEcon
Fedotovs, Aleksandrs.
Problem of comparative advantage in international trade is important in theoretical and practical aspect. Theoretical models in this area are periodically re-examined in search for empirical evidence. The aim of the paper is to verify the two fundamental theories in the case of a small European country - Latvia - and disclose problems in the country’s trade specialization. In Latvia’s trade with “old” EU countries, the Ricardian model and the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem can be corroborated. After 2000, however, share of EU-15 countries in Latvia’s exports steadily declines. Instead, share of regional (Baltic) market increases, while the potential of CIS markets remains underexploited. Problem of identifying new areas of comparative advantage has become...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Сomparative advantage; Competitive advantage; Wood exports; EU; Economy of Latvia.; International Development; F11; F14.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95940
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Agricultural Price Distortion and Stabilization: Stylized facts and Hypothesis Tests AgEcon
Masters, William A.; Garcia, Andres F..
This paper describes agricultural policy choices and tests some predictions of political economy theories. It begins with three broad stylized facts: governments tend to tax agriculture in poorer countries, and subsidize it in richer ones, tax both imports and exports more than nontradables, and tax more and subsidize less where there is more land per capita. We test a variety of political-economy explanations, finding results consistent with hypothesized effects of rural and urban constituents’ rational ignorance about small per-person effects, governance institutions’ control of rent-seeking by political leaders, governments’ revenue motive for taxation, and the role of time consistency in policy-making. We also find that larger groups obtain more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural price distortions; Political economy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; D72; D78; F11; H23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50301
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Agricultural Trade and Freshwater Resources AgEcon
Reimer, Jeffrey J..
Approximately 75% of all water used by humans goes towards food production, much of which is traded internationally. This study formally models how this works in the case of crop agriculture, making use of recent advances in international trade theory and new data on the productivity by which countries use water for crop agriculture. The strength of the model lies in its ability to predict, when there is a shock to the system, how trade between pairs of specific countries changes for products that use water intensively. In one application of the model, international trade in final products is shown to be a means for countries to deal with short- and long-run shocks to water resources that are too big for one country to handle by itself in isolation. In...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Simulation; Trade liberalization; Water; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; F11; F18; Q25; Q54.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123944
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Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Strategic Environmental Policy AgEcon
Glebe, Thilo W.; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe.
We use an extended partial equilibrium trade model to derive optimal environmental policy responses to tariff reduction requirements and assess the impact of such policies on the welfare of trading partners. We find that countries which attribute preferential political weights to farmers' welfare have an incentive to implement environmental policies that deviate from the Pigouvian solution - even if production is not de facto linked to environmental externalities. We clarify the conditions under which trading partners do not gain from unilateral trade liberalisation if trade concessions are accompanied by strategic environmental policy changes. We postulate a role for the WTO in overseeing the process of domestic policy formulation.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade liberalisation; Strategic environmental policy; Multifunctionality; Agri-environmental policy; WTO; Environmental Economics and Policy; D60; F11; F18; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24609
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An Empirical Investigation of Interproduct Relationships Between Domestic and Imported Seafood in the U.S. AgEcon
Lee, Young-Jae; Kennedy, P. Lynn.
This study seeks to identify interproduct relationships between domestic catfish and a representative selection of imported seafood. In doing so, this study uses multivariate cointegration and structural analyses. Multivariate cointegration analysis suggests that six imported seafood product groupings form a common market with domestic catfish. Structural analysis reveals that 1) domestic and imported catfish are net and gross quantity substitutes; 2) domestic catfish and imported seafood are normal goods; 3) six imported seafood products are identified as gross quantity substitutes for domestic catfish; and 4) according to the derived Allais coefficients, interaction intensities of imported seafood for domestic catfish (from greatest to least) are as...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Catfish; Multivariate cointegration; Quantity substitutability; Seafood imports; Structural analysis; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Financial Economics; Health Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Political Economy; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Public Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; D12; F10; F11; F13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100516
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An EU-Canada bilateral trade agreement: A DefraTAP application AgEcon
Kitou, Elisavet; Philippidis, George.
The first round of negotiations held in Ottawa on the 19th October, 2009, heralded the opening of bilateral trade talks intent on reaching a Canadian-European Union (EU27) free trade area (FTA) agreement. A second round of negotiations were staged in Brussels in January, whilst further rounds are scheduled for 2010, with the longer term aim of ratifying an agreement within 24-30 months. Although stumbling blocs will be encountered, the divergent political interests of each region are compatible. In Canada, a FTA with its second largest trading partner offers a viable alternative to its current overdependence on the US. Similarly, the EU27 sees an opportunity to regain a competitive foothold in the North American market. This paper re-examines the long run...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: EU27; Canada; Economic integration; Sensitive products; International Relations/Trade; C68; F11; F15; F17.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91679
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Analyzing Drivers of World Food Prices: Weather, Growth, and Biofuels AgEcon
Saunders, Caroline M.; Kaye-Blake, William; Cagatay, Selim.
The recent rise of food cost in world markets has accelerated the research examining the underlying factors for this rise. The present research investigated the separate and combined impacts of three factors thought to contribute to the price rise: adverse weather events, strong and sustained growth in high populated countries, and increased biofuels production. The research further analysed the effects of these price rises on consumption expenditures in Brazil, China and India. Analyses were carried out using a partial equilibrium trade model with a focus on the 2004 to 2007 period. The modelling suggests that the most important factor behind the price rise depends on the commodity, with maize/corn, oilseeds, and sugar most affected by biofuels, while...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food prices; Partial equilibrium model; Biofuel; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F11; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51460
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Atelier sur la transformation de l'agriculture en Afrique: Abidjan, Côte D'Ivoire, September 26-29, 1995 AgEcon
Ba, Moussa Batchily; Staatz, John M.; Farrelly, Laura L.; Camara, Youssouf; Dimithe, Georges.
À l'initiative de l'USAID, la BAD, MSU et l’INSAH, une quarantaine de chercheurs, de décideurs politiques et d’opérateurs-terrain venus de 19 pays et représentants une vingtaine d'institutions Africaines ou internationales se sont retrouvés à Abidjan dans le cadre d'un atelier continental pour débattre sur le thème de la transformation de l'agriculture Africaine. Cet atelier a été parrainé par le Ministre de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique de la Côte d'Ivoire. L'atelier d'Abidjan s'est basé sur les réflexions précédentes portant sur les défis à relever (insécurité alimentaire, pauvreté, et dégradation de l’environnement) au cours du processus de stimulation de la transformation structurelle de l'agriculture en Afrique, notamment...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Agricultural transformation; Africa; International Development; Downloads July 2008 - July 2009: 21; F11.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54669
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Can a Preferential Trade Agreement Benefit Neighbor Countries without Compensating Them? AgEcon
Endoh, Masahiro; Hamada, Koichi; Shimomura, Koji.
PTAs are generally negotiated without any tariff concessions or transfers to non-member countries. Can such a PTA benefit the neighbors’ welfare? In a two-good competitive equilibrium model in the absence of an entrepot, a PTA without concessions to the outsider will hurt the outsider’s welfare when goods are normal. If one of the member countries is an entrepot, however, it definitely improves the neighbors’ welfare. In a multiple-good model, a PTA without concessions deteriorates the neighbors’ welfare, provided that all the goods are normal and substitutes, and that initial tariff levels are small.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: PTA; Neighbor’s Welfare; Kemp-Wan Theorem; WTO; GATT Article 24; Entrepot; International Relations/Trade; F11; F13; F15.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6334
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Comparative Advantage: From an Individual to the Economy AgEcon
Rajsic, Predrag.
This paper identifies an internal inconsistency in the Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) models of international exchange. The inconsistency stems from assuming homogeneity of inputs within a population. This assumption annihilates individual comparative advantage, benefits from exchange and, consequently, existence of autarky prices. In order to remove this inconsistency, I build a two-good multi-individual model by using the microeconomic concept of individual comparative advantage stemming from differences in endowments of qualitatively heterogeneous inputs. The model shows how differences in the distribution of individual production possibilities result in individual specialization, exchange and differences in autarky prices between hypothetically isolated...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Comparative advantage; Heckscher-Ohlin model; Input heterogeneity; Microeconomic foundations; International Relations/Trade; F11; D51.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61299
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Determinants of Argentina’s External Trade AgEcon
Catao, Luis; Falcetti, Elisabetta.
Following the liberalization reforms of the late 80s and early 90s, several emerging market economies have experienced large and persistent trade deficits. This paper focuses on the Argentine experience, examining the extent to which trade imbalances in the 1990s resulted from income and relative price movements, as well as from shifts in foreign trade elasticities associated with structural changes. New estimates of export and import equations are presented using a broader set of variables than previous studies and distinguishing between intra and extra MERCOSUR trade. We find that considerable export sensitivity to world commodity prices, domestic absorption, and economic activity in Brazil, combined with a high income elasticity of imports, are key...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Argentina; Foreign trade elasticities; International competitiveness; MERCOSUR; International Relations/Trade; F11; F14; F31.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44427
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Effects of Price and Quality Differences in Source Differentiated Beef on Market Demand AgEcon
Lee, Young-Jae; Kennedy, P. Lynn.
In order to estimate demand elasticities of source differentiated beef in South Korea, this study used the quantity of an endogenous demand system derived through maximizing the economic welfare of market participants including local beef consumers and local and foreign beef suppliers. The demand system is then weighted with respect to quality adjustment parameters to identify the effects of quality differences in source differentiated beef on market demand. As implied by the high relative price of locally produced ‘‘Hanwoo’’ beef, substitutability between local and imported beef is shown to be very weak and the own price elasticity of South Korean beef is shown to be inelastic. Related to quality differences between source differentiated beef, South...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Beef; Quality complement; Quality difference; Quality substitute; Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Livestock Production/Industries; F10; F11; F13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48752
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Efficient choice among domestic and trade policies in the Grossman-Helpman Interest-Group Model AgEcon
Schleich, Joachim; Orden, David.
This paper generalizes the recent political economy model of Helpman and Grossman in which contributions by producer lobbies and government decisions about trade policies are modeled as a common agency game. We allow the government to choose among domestic as well as trade interventions. When production and trade policies are available, the equilibrium production policies serve the lobbies while the trade policies reflect the country's international market power. When consumption and trade policies are available, tariffs and export subsidies are applied in a small-country model to serve the special interests, and the domestic policies are selected to restore consumer prices to world levels. In a large-country model, the optimal consumption and trade...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political economy; Trade policies; Domestic subsidies and taxes; Efficient policies; Common agency; International Relations/Trade; F11; F13.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7458
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Enlargement of the European Union: A movement towards the optimal trade bloc size? AgEcon
Glebe, Thilo W..
This paper analyses how the enlargement of a trade bloc will affect national welfare. We establish a partial equilibrium model of a trade bloc either operating as a monopoly with a competitive fringe or facing a duopolistic game in production taxes/subsidies. Given this framework, we demonstrate how member countries’ welfare effects depend on their trade flow and the market power of the trade bloc. A numerical estimation of the effects of EU enlargement on the major grain crop markets suggests that welfare effects are negligible. Economic reasons are therefore unlikely to be a motivating force for further enlargement.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Trade bloc; Trade liberalisation; Game theory; European Union; International Relations/Trade; D42; F11; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58061
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Enlargement of Trade Blocs: National Welfare Effects If Trade Is Liberalized AgEcon
Glebe, Thilo W.; Salhofer, Klaus.
Small countries may benefit from the formation of a trade bloc, since their combined market power will enable them to manipulate the terms of trade. The question of interest is whether countries will benefit from the enlargement of a trading bloc, if trade liberalization induces countries to substitute domestic support measures for conventional border protection. The paper deals with this question by analyzing the conditions for positive welfare effects resulting from the enlargement of a trade bloc. Based on a partial equilibrium trade model, we consider a game in production taxes/subsidies between two trade blocs. The tax/subsidy instrument may capture the production effect which can be induced by a combination of environmental, health or safety rules....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade bloc; Trade liberalization; Game theory; European Union; International Relations/Trade; D6; F11; Q17; C7.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25529
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Explaining Agricultural Distortion Patterns : The Roles of Ideology, Inequality, Lobbying and Public Finance AgEcon
Dutt, Pushan; Mitra, Devashish.
In this paper, we examine the political economy drivers of the variation in agricultural protection, both across countries and within countries over time. The paper starts by listing the key insights provided by both the theoretical and empirical literature on the political economy of trade policy formulation. We then set out a basic framework that allows us to put forth various testable hypotheses on the variation and evolution of agricultural protection. We find that both the political ideology of the government and the degree of income inequality are important determinants of agricultural protection. Thus, both the political-support-function approach as well as the median-voter approach can be used in explaining the variation in agricultural protection...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural protection; Political economy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; D72; D78; F11.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50299
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