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Registros recuperados: 298
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A Demand System Analysis of the U.S. Trout Market AgEcon
Lee, Young-Jae; Kennedy, P. Lynn; Hilbun, Brian M..
The objective of this study is to analyze how imported trout affects the domestic U.S. trout industry.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trout; Demand System; Import; International Relations/Trade; F10; F11; F13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56414
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A Framework for Estimating U.S. WTO Domestic Support to 2015 AgEcon
Quiroga, Jose.
The framework allows comprehensive and consistent measurement and classification of U.S. domestic support to 2015 under different assumptions. Projections of future U.S. domestic support patterns are made with estimates published in the USDA Agricultural Baseline Projections. We also use information from the OECD, FAPRI, NASS, and our own estimates. We present key elements and an overview of our analytical framework, assumptions of a baseline scenario, and some analytical results and observations arising from our analysis. The baseline scenario extends the classification of programs in WTO notifications to 2015. The framework consists of 65 spreadsheets, which are grouped into 4 analytical stages: calculation of program estimates by commodity; calculation...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; AMS; De minimis; Domestic support; WTO; Framework; International Relations/Trade; F1; Q1; Q17; Q18; F13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25412
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A Proposal for the Design of the Successor to the Kyoto Protocol AgEcon
Karp, Larry S.; Zhao, Jinhua.
The successor to the Kyoto Protocol should impose national ceilings on rich countries’ greenhouse gas emissions and promote voluntary abatement by developing countries. Our proposal gives signatories the option of exercising an escape clause that relaxes their requirement to abate. This feature helps to solve the participation and compliance problems that have weakened the Protocol. We support the use of carefully circumscribed trade restrictions in order to reduce the real or perceived problem of carbon leakage.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Kyoto protocol; Escape clause; Emissions trade; Clean development mechanism; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q54; Q58; F13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42878
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A Strategic Perspective on the Impact of Food Safety Standards on Developing Countries AgEcon
Henson, Spencer J.; Jaffee, Steven.
This paper explores the competing concepts of 'standards as barriers' and standards as catalysts' in the context of food safety standards in international trade in agricultural and food products. It is suggested that food safety standards can act as both a barrier to trade and the basis of competitive positioning for developing countries in international markets. This suggests that the application of a strategic framework to analyze and assess alternative responses to evolving food safety standards can throw some light on the circumstances under which standards act to prohibit trade or, alternatively, create competitive trade opportunities. The use of such a framework is illustrated through a brief case study of fish and fishery product exports from...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Food; Trade; Food Safety; Standards; Technical barriers to Trade; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q18; K32; F13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25456
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Access to OECD Agricultural Market: A Gravity Border Effect Approach AgEcon
Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina.
This paper uses the border effect estimate from a gravity model to assess the level of trade integration in agricultural markets between 22 OECD countries, over the 1995-2002 period. The empirical analysis shows that using a gravity equation derived from theory, in the estimation of the border effect, matters. A representative estimate of the border effect shows that crossing a national border into the OECD countries induces a trade-reduction effect by a factor of 8. This average value masks substantial differences in market access across the country groups considered, with higher value in trade between EU countries and lower in trade between CEEC countries. However, the trade integration between CEECs and others OECDs increases substantially in the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Border effect; Gravity equation; OECDs; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24543
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Aflatoxin Redux: Does European Aflatoxin Regulation Hurt Groundnut Exporters from Africa? AgEcon
Xiong, Bo; Beghin, John C..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/02/10.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food safety; Standards; Aflatoxin; Maximum Residues Limit; Groundnut; Gravity equation; Africa; Market access; EU; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Q17; F13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61314
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Agricultural Distortion Patterns Since the 1950s: What Needs Explaining? AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Croser, Johanna L.; Sandri, Damiano; Valenzuela, Ernesto.
This paper summarizes a new database that sheds light on the impact of trade-related policy developments over the past half century on distortions to agricultural incentives and thus also to consumer prices for food in 75 countries spanning the per capita income spectrum. Price-support policies of advanced economies hurt not only domestic consumers and exporters of other products but also foreign producers and traders of farm products, and they reduce national and global economic welfare. On the other hand, the governments of many developing countries have directly taxed their farmers over the past half-century, both directly (e.g., export taxes) and also indirectly via overvaluing their currency and restricting imports of manufactures. Thus the price...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Political economy; Agricultural price and trade policies; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; F59; H20; N50; O13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50305
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Agricultural Distortions, Poverty and Inequality in South Africa AgEcon
Herault, Nicolas; Thurlow, James.
South Africa has rapidly reduced trade barriers since the end of Apartheid, yet agricultural production and exports have remained sluggish. Also, poverty and unemployment have risen and become increasingly concentrated in rural areas. This paper examines the extent to which remaining price distortions, both domestic and foreign, are contributing to the underperformance of the agricultural sector vis-à-vis the rest of the economy. We draw on a computable general equilibrium (CGE) and micro-simulation model of South Africa that are linked to the results of a global trade model. This framework is used to examine the effects of eliminating global and domestic price distortions. Model results indicate that South Africa’s agricultural sector currently benefits...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52792
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Agricultural Price Distortion and Stabilization: Stylized facts and Hypothesis Tests AgEcon
Masters, William A.; Garcia, Andres F..
This paper describes agricultural policy choices and tests some predictions of political economy theories. It begins with three broad stylized facts: governments tend to tax agriculture in poorer countries, and subsidize it in richer ones, tax both imports and exports more than nontradables, and tax more and subsidize less where there is more land per capita. We test a variety of political-economy explanations, finding results consistent with hypothesized effects of rural and urban constituents’ rational ignorance about small per-person effects, governance institutions’ control of rent-seeking by political leaders, governments’ revenue motive for taxation, and the role of time consistency in policy-making. We also find that larger groups obtain more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural price distortions; Political economy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; D72; D78; F11; H23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50301
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Agricultural Price Distortions, Poverty and Inequality in the Philippines AgEcon
Cororaton, Caesar B.; Corong, Erwin L.; Cockburn, John.
This paper analyzes the poverty and inequality implications of removing agricultural and non-agricultural price distortions in the domestic market of the Philippines and abroad. Liberalization in the rest of the world is poverty and inequality reducing, whereas full domestic liberalization increases national poverty and inequality. Poverty declines while inequality increases marginally in the combined scenario of both global and domestic agriculture reform. Although the reduction in the national poverty headcount is small in the latter scenario, the poorest of the poor – particularly those living in the rural areas – emerge as “winners”, given their strong reliance on agricultural production and unskilled labor wages.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52790
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Agricultural Protection and Poverty in Indonesia: A General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Warr, Peter G..
A general equilibrium modeling approach is used to estimate the effects within Indonesia of unilateral and global trade liberalization, including effects on poverty incidence. It is concluded that global reform of trade policy in all commodities is a significant potential source of poverty reduction for Indonesia. The poor – rural and urban – have a strong interest in global trade policy reform. If Indonesia were to liberalize unilaterally, poverty incidence also would decline but the effect is small. If liberalization is confined to agricultural products, the effects are similar but the declines in poverty incidence within Indonesia are much smaller.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52788
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Agricultural Protection Growth in Europe, 1870-1969 AgEcon
Swinnen, Johan F.M..
Dramatic changes took place in agricultural policies in Europe in the 19th and 20th century. In the 1860s European nations agreed on a series of trade agreements which spread free trade across the continent. In the 1960s European nations concluded an international agreement which spread heavy government intervention and protection against imports across the continent. This paper offers hypotheses as to the causes of these dramatic changes in agricultural protection.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political economy; Agricultural distortions; High-income countries; Economic development of Europe; F13; N53; O13; Q18; P16.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50296
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Agricultural trade liberalisation in the Doha Round: impacts on Spain AgEcon
Philippidis, George.
Whilst there is a growing literature of computable general equilibrium (CGE) studies examining the impacts of the current Doha Proposals, estimates for the EU are highly aggregated (i.e., EU15). Employing a detailed baseline scenario and a plausible Doha outcome, we examine the long run costs for the European Union, in particular focusing on Spain. Moreover, we implement recent CAP reforms through explicitly modelling of CAP mechanisms to provide greater credibility in assessing the long run asymmetric budgetary and welfare impacts on EU member states. Our estimates forecast resource substitution effects between Spanish agro-food sectors and resource shifts from agro-food activities into manufacturing and services production. In Spain, the impacts of...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Doha Round; Spain; EU; CAP; Computable General Equilibrium.; F1; F13; F17; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28790
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Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Assessing the Consequences for Developing Countries AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Jean, Sebastien; Matthews, Alan.
Recent analyses suggest that the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on developing countries will be very uneven. Simulations suggest that the effects of agricultural trade liberalization will be small, overall, and are likely to be negative for a significant number of developing countries. The Doha Round focuses on tariff issues, but these countries currently have practically duty-free access to European and North American markets under preferential regimes. Multilateral liberalization will erode the benefits of these preferences, which are presently rather well utilized in the agricultural sector. The main obstacles to the exports of the poorest countries appear to be in the non-tariff area (sanitary, phytosanitary standards) which increasingly...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade liberalization; WTO; Developing countries; International Development; International Relations/Trade; F13; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24628
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Agricultural Trade Reform and Poverty in Thailand: A General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Warr, Peter G..
A general equilibrium modeling approach is used to estimate the effects within Thailand of unilateral and global trade liberalization, including effects on poverty incidence. It is concluded that across the board trade liberalization is poverty-reducing within Thailand, whether other countries participate in the liberalization or not. This poverty reduction occurs among both farm and non-farm households and this qualitative outcome is not dependent on the particular poverty line used in the analysis. Liberalization in agricultural products alone raises poverty incidence among farm households, while reducing it slightly among non-farm households.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52791
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Alternative Market Access Scenarios in the Agricultural Trade Negotiations of the Doha Round AgEcon
Antimiani, Alessandro; Conforti, Piero; Salvatici, Luca.
The paper explores an important issue in multilateral agricultural trade negotiations, namely the approach taken to reduce tariffs, simulating possible liberalization scenarios. The analysis is based on the model of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP), and on the related version 6.0 database. Scenarios are run on a 2013 baseline, built by taking into account a number of events that have affected (and will further affect) world agricultural markets up to that period, focusing on the effects that are specifically attributable to further trade liberalization in the Doha Round. The policy strategies analyzed are two hypothetical liberalization scenarios in terms of market access and export competition, plus a free agricultural trade benchmark scenario....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; F13; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18878
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An analysis of the dispute European Communities - Protection of trademarks and geographical indications for agricultural products and foodstuffs AgEcon
Charlier, Christophe; Ngo, Mai-Anh.
The dispute "European Communities - Protection of trademarks and geographical indications for agricultural products and foodstuffs" that opposes the European - Union to the United States and Australia, has been raised by the European regulation concerning the protection of geographical indications. This dispute has two important issues. First, the Panel demonstrated that the European regulation did not comply with national treatment promulgated by the TRIPS and the GATT 1994 Agreements. Second, the Panel affirmed the possibility of coexistence between GIs and identical prior trademarks. This article considers these two issues and depicts the position of the parties at the end of the dispute regarding GIs' protection. The first part of this article presents...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Geographical indications; Intellectual property; National treatment; TRIPS; Dispute settlement.; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; F13; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10032
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An Economy-wide Analysis of Impacts on Taiwan of Reducing Tariff Escalation on Agriculture-Related Products in WTO Doha Round Negotiations AgEcon
Lee, Huey-Lin; Chang, Ching-Cheng; Weng, Yung-Ho; Hsu, Sheng-Ming; Hsu, Shih-Hsun.
Tariff escalation becomes one of the major issues in the new Doha Round negotiation because it is viewed as a stumbling block to the industrialization development for the developing countries. When tariffs on products escalate with the stage of processing, the effective rate of protection, or the tariff expressed as fractions of value-added after deducting intermediate inputs from product value, also increases. Thus, tariff escalation potentially signals high rates of protection for value-added or processed products, and can inhibit international trade in these goods. The major purpose of this study is to examine the degrees of tariff escalations in Taiwan's agriculture -related commodities and the economic consequences to reduce them. A simplified...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Tariff escalation; Tariff wedge; Computable general equilibrium model; International Relations/Trade; F13; C68; Q17.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6170
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An Economy-wide Analysis of Impacts on Taiwan of Reducing Tariff Escalation on Agriculture-Related Products in WTO Doha Round Negotiations AgEcon
Lee, Huey-Lin; Chang, Ching-Cheng; Weng, Yung-Ho; Hsu, Sheng-Ming; Hsu, Shih-Hsun.
Tariff escalation becomes one of the major issues in the new Doha Round negotiation because it is viewed as a stumbling block to the industrialization development for the developing countries. When tariffs on products escalate with the stage of processing, the effective rate of protection, or the tariff expressed as fractions of value-added after deducting intermediate inputs from product value, also increases. Thus, tariff escalation potentially signals high rates of protection for value-added or processed products, and can inhibit international trade in these goods. The major purpose of this study is to examine the degrees of tariff escalations in Taiwan’s agriculture-related commodities and the economic consequences to reduce them. A simplified...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Tariff escalation; Tariff wedge; Computable general equilibrium model; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; C68; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51655
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An Emerging Agricultural Problem in High-Performing Asian Economies AgEcon
Hayami, Yujiro.
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Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48635
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