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Registros recuperados: 222
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2011 Updated Arkansas Global Rice Model AgEcon
Wailes, Eric J.; Chavez, Eddie C..
The Arkansas Global Rice Model is based on a multi-country statistical simulation and econometric framework. The model is disaggregated by five world regions: Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Each region includes country models which have a supply sector, a demand sector, a trade, stocks and price linkage equations. All equations used in this model are estimated using econometric procedures or identities. Estimates are based upon a set of explanatory variables including exogenous macroeconomic factors such as income, population, inflation rate, technology development, and especially, government determined policy variables which reflect the various mechanisms by which countries intervene in their rice sector economy. Individual country...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Rice; Trade model; Policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; CO2; C61; F11; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102650
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A small nation’s comparative advantage: The case of Latvia AgEcon
Fedotovs, Aleksandrs.
Problem of comparative advantage in international trade is important in theoretical and practical aspect. Theoretical models in this area are periodically re-examined in search for empirical evidence. The aim of the paper is to verify the two fundamental theories in the case of a small European country - Latvia - and disclose problems in the country’s trade specialization. In Latvia’s trade with “old” EU countries, the Ricardian model and the Heckscher-Ohlin theorem can be corroborated. After 2000, however, share of EU-15 countries in Latvia’s exports steadily declines. Instead, share of regional (Baltic) market increases, while the potential of CIS markets remains underexploited. Problem of identifying new areas of comparative advantage has become...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Сomparative advantage; Competitive advantage; Wood exports; EU; Economy of Latvia.; International Development; F11; F14.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95940
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Access to OECD Agricultural Market: A Gravity Border Effect Approach AgEcon
Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina.
This paper uses the border effect estimate from a gravity model to assess the level of trade integration in agricultural markets between 22 OECD countries, over the 1995-2002 period. The empirical analysis shows that using a gravity equation derived from theory, in the estimation of the border effect, matters. A representative estimate of the border effect shows that crossing a national border into the OECD countries induces a trade-reduction effect by a factor of 8. This average value masks substantial differences in market access across the country groups considered, with higher value in trade between EU countries and lower in trade between CEEC countries. However, the trade integration between CEECs and others OECDs increases substantially in the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Border effect; Gravity equation; OECDs; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24543
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AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD TRADE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: THE CASE OF SLOVENIAN INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Hartmann, Monika.
One of the striking features in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries is the deterioration of their agricultural and food trade balance during transition to a market economy as imports increased faster than exports or exports even declined. This paper investigates the Slovenian agricultural and food trade in more detail focusing on changes in the geographical distribution of trade and the nature of trade specialization on the basis of the Grubel-Lloyd Intra-Industry Trade index and Marginal Intra-Industry Trade Indices. The results indicate that Slovenian agricultural and food trade largely remains of the inter-industry type with specialisation of exports towards the former Yugoslav markets and imports from the European Union. The proportion of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intra-industry trade; Integration; Agro-food sector; Industrial Organization; F14; F15; P52; Q17.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14940
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AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD TRADE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: THE CASE OF SLOVENIAN INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Hartmann, Monika.
One of the striking features in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries is the deterioration of their agricultural and food trade balance during transition to a market economy as imports increased faster than exports or exports even declined. This paper investigates the Slovenian agricultural and food trade in more detail focusing on changes in the geographical distribution of trade and the nature of trade specialization on the basis of the Grubel-Lloyd Intra-Industry Trade index and Marginal Intra-Industry Trade Indices. The results indicate that Slovenian agricultural and food trade largely remains of the inter-industry type with specialisation of exports towards the former Yugoslav markets and imports from the European Union. The proportion of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intra-industry trade; Integration; Agro-food sector; Intra-industrieller Handel; Integration; Agrar- und Ernährungssektor; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; F14; F15; P52; Q17.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92027
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Agricultural Distortion Patterns Since the 1950s: What Needs Explaining? AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Croser, Johanna L.; Sandri, Damiano; Valenzuela, Ernesto.
This paper summarizes a new database that sheds light on the impact of trade-related policy developments over the past half century on distortions to agricultural incentives and thus also to consumer prices for food in 75 countries spanning the per capita income spectrum. Price-support policies of advanced economies hurt not only domestic consumers and exporters of other products but also foreign producers and traders of farm products, and they reduce national and global economic welfare. On the other hand, the governments of many developing countries have directly taxed their farmers over the past half-century, both directly (e.g., export taxes) and also indirectly via overvaluing their currency and restricting imports of manufactures. Thus the price...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Political economy; Agricultural price and trade policies; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; F59; H20; N50; O13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50305
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Agricultural Distortions, Poverty and Inequality in South Africa AgEcon
Herault, Nicolas; Thurlow, James.
South Africa has rapidly reduced trade barriers since the end of Apartheid, yet agricultural production and exports have remained sluggish. Also, poverty and unemployment have risen and become increasingly concentrated in rural areas. This paper examines the extent to which remaining price distortions, both domestic and foreign, are contributing to the underperformance of the agricultural sector vis-à-vis the rest of the economy. We draw on a computable general equilibrium (CGE) and micro-simulation model of South Africa that are linked to the results of a global trade model. This framework is used to examine the effects of eliminating global and domestic price distortions. Model results indicate that South Africa’s agricultural sector currently benefits...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52792
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Agricultural Price Distortion and Stabilization: Stylized facts and Hypothesis Tests AgEcon
Masters, William A.; Garcia, Andres F..
This paper describes agricultural policy choices and tests some predictions of political economy theories. It begins with three broad stylized facts: governments tend to tax agriculture in poorer countries, and subsidize it in richer ones, tax both imports and exports more than nontradables, and tax more and subsidize less where there is more land per capita. We test a variety of political-economy explanations, finding results consistent with hypothesized effects of rural and urban constituents’ rational ignorance about small per-person effects, governance institutions’ control of rent-seeking by political leaders, governments’ revenue motive for taxation, and the role of time consistency in policy-making. We also find that larger groups obtain more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural price distortions; Political economy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; D72; D78; F11; H23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50301
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Agricultural Price Distortions, Poverty and Inequality in the Philippines AgEcon
Cororaton, Caesar B.; Corong, Erwin L.; Cockburn, John.
This paper analyzes the poverty and inequality implications of removing agricultural and non-agricultural price distortions in the domestic market of the Philippines and abroad. Liberalization in the rest of the world is poverty and inequality reducing, whereas full domestic liberalization increases national poverty and inequality. Poverty declines while inequality increases marginally in the combined scenario of both global and domestic agriculture reform. Although the reduction in the national poverty headcount is small in the latter scenario, the poorest of the poor – particularly those living in the rural areas – emerge as “winners”, given their strong reliance on agricultural production and unskilled labor wages.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52790
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Agricultural Protection and Poverty in Indonesia: A General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Warr, Peter G..
A general equilibrium modeling approach is used to estimate the effects within Indonesia of unilateral and global trade liberalization, including effects on poverty incidence. It is concluded that global reform of trade policy in all commodities is a significant potential source of poverty reduction for Indonesia. The poor – rural and urban – have a strong interest in global trade policy reform. If Indonesia were to liberalize unilaterally, poverty incidence also would decline but the effect is small. If liberalization is confined to agricultural products, the effects are similar but the declines in poverty incidence within Indonesia are much smaller.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52788
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Agricultural Trade Flows among Developing Countries: Do Regional Preferential Trade Agreements make a Difference? AgEcon
Tembo, Gelson; Jayne, Thomas S..
Regional integration through trade is recognized as one way to foster economic growth and poverty reduction. This paper uses the gravity model and 11-year panel data (1996-2006) on Southern African Development Community (SADC) member countries to study Zambia’s regional agricultural trade flows and the impact of the SADC Trade Protocol (SADC-TP). Zambia’s volume of trade is significantly related to most of the standard gravity variables. The results indicate that Zambia has been largely trading below potential, especially with respect to exports. There have been improvements in Zambia’s trade flows during the SADC-TP period but only with a few countries. Further improvements will require re-examining protocol implementation and individual countries’...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Southern Africa; Regional trade; Gravity analysis; Zambia; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C23; C51; F12; F14; F15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51733
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Agricultural Trade Reform and Poverty in Thailand: A General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Warr, Peter G..
A general equilibrium modeling approach is used to estimate the effects within Thailand of unilateral and global trade liberalization, including effects on poverty incidence. It is concluded that across the board trade liberalization is poverty-reducing within Thailand, whether other countries participate in the liberalization or not. This poverty reduction occurs among both farm and non-farm households and this qualitative outcome is not dependent on the particular poverty line used in the analysis. Liberalization in agricultural products alone raises poverty incidence among farm households, while reducing it slightly among non-farm households.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52791
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Agriculture's Terms of Trade: Issues and Implications AgEcon
Colman, David R..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; F14; N50; N60; N70; O13; P45; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53200
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An Economic Analysis of Mountain Pine Beetle Impact in a Global Context AgEcon
Abbott, Brant; Stennes, Brad; van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
The economic effects of the mountain pine beetle outbreak in British Columbia are simulated using a multi-region spatial price equilibrium model coupled with a stochastic dynamic updating procedure. The simulation captures expected changes in the B.C. timber supply, growth of plantation forests in the southern hemisphere and an escalating Russian log export tax. The results indicate lumber and log prices will rise in B.C., offsetting some of the economic loss to timber producers. However, on net producers in the B.C. forest industry will experience a decrease in economic surplus.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mountain pine beetle; Spatial price equilibrium; Trade modeling; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; C67; F14; F17.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37051
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An Emerging Agricultural Problem in High-Performing Asian Economies AgEcon
Hayami, Yujiro.
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Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48635
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Analisi dei flussi commerciali dei prodotti ittici tra l'UE e i suoi partner mediterranei AgEcon
Spagnolo, Massimo.
The purpose of this paper is the analysis of fishery products exchange between the EU and its Mediterranean partners. In order to delineate more clearly the framework of trade in fish products among the Mediterranean countries, EU and non-EU members, countries under analysis (only those with a Mediterranean shore) will be divided into 4 groups:  PMM, EU Mediterranean members (France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Cyprus, Malta and Slovenia);  PCM, candidate Mediterranean countries (Croatia and Turkey);  PPCM, potential candidate Mediterranean countries (Albania and Montenegro);  PTM, third Mediterranean countries (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Palestinian Authority and Tunisia). In addition to the more recent political agreements...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Regional Trade Agreements; Tariff Scheme; Fish Products Exchange; EU Mediterranean Partners; F13; F14.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48197
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Analysis of Import Demand for Wooden Beds in the U.S. AgEcon
Wan, Yang; Sun, Changyou; Grebner, Donald L..
The market of wooden beds in the U.S. has been flooded with imports from China and Vietnam in recent years. Static and dynamic Almost Ideal Demand System models are used to assess the import demand for wooden beds from the top seven supplying countries. The analyses reveal that the antidumping investigation on China has some temporary trade depression effect on China, but trade diversion occur to Vietnam, Indonesia, Canada, and Brazil. The formal implementation of antidumping duties since 2005 has not shown any significant effect on the trade pattern. U.S. consumers spend more on beds from newly industrialized countries and there are moderate degrees of substitution among wooden beds from most countries.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Antidumping; Cointegration; Demand elasticity; Furniture; Trade diversion; Agribusiness; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Financial Economics; Marketing; C32; D12; F14; Q23.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100522
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ANNUAL ESTIMATES OF AFRICAN DISTORTIONS TO AGRICULTURAL INCENTIVES AgEcon
Valenzuela, Ernesto; Kurzweil, Marianne; Croser, Johanna L.; Nelgen, Signe; Anderson, Kym.
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Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48553
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ANNUAL ESTIMATES OF ASIAN DISTORTIONS TO AGRICULTURAL INCENTIVES AgEcon
Valenzuela, Ernesto; Kurzweil, Marianne; Croser, Johanna L.; Nelgen, Signe; Anderson, Kym.
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Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48524
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ANNUAL ESTIMATES OF DISTORTIONS TO AGRICULTURAL INCENTIVES IN EUROPE’S TRANSITION ECONOMIES AgEcon
Valenzuela, Ernesto; Kurzweil, Marianne; Croser, Johanna L.; Nelgen, Signe; Anderson, Kym.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48555
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