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Registros recuperados: 60
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A Strategic Approach to Agricultural Research Program Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa AgEcon
Boughton, Duncan; Crawford, Eric W.; Howard, Julie A.; Oehmke, James F.; Shaffer, James D.; Staatz, John M..
Recent studies have shown that agricultural research can have high payoffs in Africa, but impact depends on how well technology fits with evolving needs and capacity in the agricultural sector and the rest of the economy. Structural adjustment policies (e.g., market liberalization, currency devaluation) and political change are transforming user demands for new technology and the economic environment in which technology must perform. The challenge is how to design agricultural research as a strategic input to promote broad-based economic growth, structural transformation, and food security in the increasingly market-driven, but fragile, economies of Africa.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Agricultural Research; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Downloads May 2008-July 2009: 44; Q18.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54702
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AAMP Proceedings Report: Trade in Food Staples: Promoting Price Stability and Food Security through Intra-Regional Trade AgEcon
African Agricultural Markets Programme Training Workshop and Policy Seminar Nairobi, Kenya December 2008, COMMON MARKET FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Security; Trade; Africa; Agriculture; Marketing; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54704
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Agricultural and Food Security Policy Analysis in Central America: Assessing Local Institutional Capacity, Data Availability, and Outcomes AgEcon
Tschirley, David L.; Flores, Luis; Mather, David.
Performance of the agricultural sector in developing countries is fundamental to ensuring robust and equitable economic growth and broad-based food security. Yet donor support to agricultural development in developing countries has declined continuously for 30 years. This same period saw dramatic deterioration in developing countries’ institutional capacity to provide services to their agricultural sectors. These trends may now be changing, due in part to the global food price crisis of 2007 and 2008 and concerns that it unleashed about the world’s ability to feed its poorest inhabitants. This paper reports on the results of a two week trip to Guatemala and Nicaragua made by Michigan State University’s Food Security Group. The purpose of the trip was to...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Security; Guatemala; Nicaragua; Food policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q12; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90991
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Agricultural Production Incentives: Fertilizer Markets and Insights from Kenya AgEcon
Wanzala, Maria N.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Staatz, John M.; Mugera, Amin W.; Kirimi, Justus; Owuor, Joseph.
The paper has several specific objectives. First, it identifies how fertilizer marketing costs and the types of fertilizers used have changed over the course of the liberalization process in Kenya. A second objective is to examine the fertilizer subsector in Kenya with a view to identifying organizational and institutional changes that could improve its performance. Various types of fertilizer supply chains serving farmers in western Kenya are identified, examine the cost structure of these supply chains, identify potential sources of cost reduction in these supply chains, and last, estimate the impact of illustrative scenarios for reducing fertilizer marketing costs on the profitability of maize production in western Kenya.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Kenya; Fertilizer; Crop Production/Industries; Q18.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55150
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An Illustrated Guide to Research Findings from USDA's Economic Research Service AgEcon
Economic Research Service.
This book contains a sampling of recent ERS research illustrating the breadth of the Agency’s research on current policy issues: from biofuels to food consumption to land conservation to patterns of trade for agricultural products. What you won’t find in this collection is any mention of economists’ favorite analytic tools (regression analyses, for example, and coefficients of variation). We wanted this guide to highlight results, not process. Even so, the findings on display here are all based on rigorous and robust application of such tools as well as use of the latest econometric techniques.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Farm Policy; Risk Management; Food Consumption; Food Nutrition Assistance; Conservation Policy; Food Assistance and Nutrition Programs; Food Security; Agricultural Productivity in the U.S.; Farm Structure; Rural Population; Environmental Interactions; Invasive Species Management; Bioenergy; Global Food Markets; NAFTA; Organic Agriculture; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58341
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Assessing the Feasibility of Implementing the Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP) Through an Electronic Voucher System in Zambia AgEcon
Sitko, Nicholas J.; Bwalya, Richard; Kamwanga, Jolly; Wamulume, Mukata.
A number of problems plague the current Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP), including: late delivery of inputs; distribution of standardized inputs that may not be appropriate for all agro-ecological zones or soil types; crowding out of private sector; poor targeting, and; high cost to the government treasury.
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Poverty; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; Marketing.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123210
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Biofuels, Growth and Agricultural Development AgEcon
Msangi, Siwa.
Global projections for increasing food demand combined with increasing demand for energy from all sources – including crop-based biofuels – point towards greater stress on food systems and their supporting ecosystems. In many parts of the world, increasing household incomes has translated into increasing demands for energy, of which transportation fuel comprises a fast-growing share. Accompanying the world’s steady population growth is an increasing demand for food and the necessary feedstuffs to fuel the requisite increases in livestock production. The combination of these two trends will inevitably lead to greater stresses and demands on the natural resource base and eco-systems that underlie the world’s food and energy production systems – such as land...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Agriculture; Food Security; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51723
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Can the FISP More Effectively Achieve Food Production and Poverty Reduction Goals? AgEcon
Burke, William J.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Sitko, Nicholas J..
Despite being framed as a key component of the nation’s poverty reduction strategy, evidence suggests that inputs distributed under Zambia’s Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP) tend to be targeted to the least poor rural households.
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: Food Policy; Poverty; Food Security; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123208
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Competitiveness of Kenyan and Ugandan Maize Production: Challenges for the Future AgEcon
Nyoro, James K.; Kirimi, Lilian; Jayne, Thomas S..
The purpose of this study is to assess the costs of maize production in Kenya and Uganda, starting from the fact that there is no single “cost of production” for maize. Cost of production varies according to region, the type of technology package employed, farmers’ management practices, and the weather. In light of this, the study disaggregates cost of production into seven region/technology categories, five in Kenya and two in eastern Uganda, in order to compare the relative competitiveness of maize among these regions and technology packages. Variations in cost of production within each region/technology category reflect differences in farmer management practices and micro-variability in soils and rainfall.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Kenya; Uganda; Maize Production; Crop Production/Industries; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55158
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Conflicts, Rural Development and Food Security in West Africa AgEcon
Flores, Margarita.
This paper examines food security in the context of conflict in West Africa. The analysis developed in the paper recognises the importance of defining conflict type and the trends in conflict so that conflict and post-conflict policies may be implemented. The relationship between food security and conflict is analysed. Whilst conflict exacerbates food security, food insecurity can itself fuel conflict. Strategies designed to assist in post-war rehabilitation need to address key dimensions of food security: availability, access and stability. It is argued in this paper, that consideration of these three dimensions are necessary joint conditions in moving towards a reduction in the numbers of hungry. The cases of Sierra Leone and Liberia are examined to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: West Africa; Conflict; Food Security; Crisis; Hunger; Food Security and Poverty; N47; N57; O13; O18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23811
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Determinants and Measurements of Food Insecurity in Nigeria: Some Empirical Policy Guide AgEcon
Amaza, P.S.; Umeh, Joseph Chinedu; Helsen, J.; Adejobi, A.O..
This study aims at identifying and analyzing food security measures in Borno State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was applied on 1,200 households. Cost-of-Calories (COC) method and Logit model are used as analytical techniques for the study. Based on the recommended daily energy levels of 2,250 kcal, food insecurity line (s) for the households is N23, 700.12 or US $176.87 per adult equivalent per year. Over 58% of the sample households are therefore food insecure. Major determinants of this food insecurity factors are, household size, gender, educational level, farm size and type of household farm enterprise. Policy measures directed towards the provision of better family planning should be given adequate attention and priority by the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Determinants; Food Security; Policy Guide; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25357
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Developing Income Proxy Models for USAID Mission in Kenya: A Technical Report AgEcon
Tschirley, David L.; Mathenge, Mary K..
This paper details the specific procedures utilized to develop the income proxy method for the USIAD/Kenya mission, reports on the performance of the method, and brings together in one place each part of the package needed to implement the method. The next section provides general background on income proxy methods; section III reports briefly on the Tegemeo/MSU Tampa full income survey that formed the basis for development of the proxy method; section IV provides details on model development, including definition of income components, the types of proxy variables tested, and the performance of the models; section V assesses model performance, and section VI touches on how the models can be used.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Income Proxy Model; Kenya; Food Security and Poverty; Q18.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55154
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Developing Income Proxy Models for Use by Title II-funded NGOs in Kenya: A Technical Report for NGOs and USAID/Kenya AgEcon
Tschirley, David L.; Mathenge, Mary K..
This paper details the specific procedures utilized to develop the income proxy method for Kenya NGOs, reports on the performance of the method, and brings together in one place each part of the package needed to implement the method. The next section provides general background on income proxy methods; section III reports on the full income survey that formed the basis for development of the proxy method; section IV provides details on model development, including definition of income components, the types of proxy variables tested, and the performance of the models, while section V briefly explains how the models are to be used. Finally, section VI provides an overview of the rural economy in the study zone based on the detailed income data set collected...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Income Proxy Model; Kenya; Food Security and Poverty; Q18.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55153
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Do Farmers Really Benefit from High Food Prices? Balancing Rural Interest in Kenya's Maize Pricing and Marketing Policy AgEcon
Jayne, Thomas S.; Yamano, Takashi; Nyoro, James K.; Awuor, Tom.
This paper uses information from rural household surveys in 24 districts in Kenya to inform current debate on maize pricing policy. Specifically, it sheds light on how rural farm households are being affected by governmental efforts to support maize price levels. Using information on landed import costs of white maize from South Africa with and without the import tariff, it simulates the effects of eliminating the tariff on rural smallholder farmers, large-scale farmers, and urban consumers. It then examines the implications of these findings for the design of strategies to promote agricultural productivity and rural income growth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Kenya; Maize; Marketing; Demand and Price Analysis; Marketing; Q18.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55149
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Effects of Government Maize Marketing and Trade Policies on Maize Market Prices in Kenya AgEcon
Jayne, Thomas S.; Meyers, Robert J.; Nyoro, James K..
The objectives of this paper are to determine the effects of NCPB maize trading activity and the maize import tariff on wholesale maize market price levels and volatility. The analysis uses monthly maize price and trade data covering the period January 1990 to September 2004. Results are based on a vector autoregression (VAR) approach that allows estimation of a counterfactual set of maize prices that would have occurred over the 1990-2004 period had the NCPB not existed and trade restrictions been removed. Assessed are the separate impacts of policy on wholesale prices in Kitale, a major surplus-producing area, and Nairobi, the major urban demand center in the country.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Maize Marketing Trade Policies; Kenya; Crop Production/Industries; Marketing; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55162
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Evolution of Kenya's Maize Marketing Systems in the Post-liberalization Era AgEcon
Nyoro, James K.; Kiiru, M.W.; Jayne, Thomas S..
The objectives of this paper are to: (1) identify the pattern of private sector investment in the maize marketing system since the reforms were initiated and evaluate the extent of private sector response to the reforms; (2) assess how maize prices and marketing margins have changed in response to the market reforms; (3) identify market-oriented mechanisms that have evolved in the current environment to reduce vulnerability of farmers, traders and consumers to price and expenditure instability; and (4) identify strategies that the government and private sector could implement to effectively promote the development of the evolving market oriented food systems.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Kenya; Maize; Crop Production/Industries; Marketing.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55148
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Factors Driving the Growth in Fertilizer Consumption in Kenya, 1990-2005: Sustaining the Momentum in Kenya and Lessons for Broader Replicability in Sub-Saharan Africa AgEcon
Ariga, Joshua; Jayne, Thomas S.; Nyoro, James K..
The objective of this study is to identify the factors responsible for the impressive growth in fertilizer use in Kenya since market liberalization in the early 1990s. Over the past 10 years, fertilizer consumption has risen by 35%. So far, it is unknown whether smallholder farmers are responsible for this growth or whether it is being driven mainly by the large-scale and/or estate sectors. Moreover, it is important for policy makers to know whether the increased fertilizer consumption is being devoted to smallholder food crops or whether industrial crops such as tea and sugarcane are responsible for this growth. This study addresses these questions using nationwide survey data on smallholder fertilizer use patterns between 1996 and 2004. The study also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Fertilizer Consumption; Kenya; Crop Production/Industries; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55167
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Feast and Famine: Financial Services for Rural Kenya AgEcon
Argwings-Kodhek, Gem; Kwamboka, Mary; Karin, Francis.
The paper gives a brief description of the history and main institutional forms in the agricultural and rural financial services sector–commercial banks, the micro-finance industry, savings and credit cooperative societies, village banks, building societies and the Agricultural Finance Corporation. It ends by raising some of the issues that need to be addressed as we begin to deal with the institutional and regulatory framework for the subsector including the cost of funds and the array of existing policy and legislative proposals on the table. The main argument of the paper is that we need to step back and undertake a comprehensive assessment of the sector before government passes new laws, or spends public money in unproductive ways. The paper proposes...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Financial Services; Kenya; Micro-finance; Agricultural Finance; Q18.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55160
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Food Access and Food Security – An Empirical Analysis AgEcon
Bonanno, Alessandro; Li, Jing.
This paper analyzes the effect of access to different types of food outlets on households’ food insecurity levels. Two years (2004 and 2005) of Current Population Survey – Food Security Supplement data are matched with MSA-level data on store counts of Wal-Mart Supercenters, small food stores (small grocery stores and convenience stores), medium and large grocery stores, and convenience stores associated with gas stations. Endogeneity of food stores’ location is accounted for to eliminate spurious correlation between households’ food security status and food access. Preliminary results indicate that, before accounting for endogeneity bias, the presence of Wal-Mart supercenters appears to be associated to higher levels of households’ food insecurity, while...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Access; 2-Stage Residual Inclusion; Wal-Mart; Convenience Stores; Grocery Stores; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty; Industrial Organization; Q18; L81; P46.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103218
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Food Aid, External Trade and Domestic Markets: Implications for Food Security in Darfur AgEcon
Dorosh, Paul A.; Subran, Ludovic.
In the last decade, internal conflict has greatly hindered market transactions across regions of Sudan, especially transactions between Darfur and the Rest of Sudan. Food aid has helped to offset not only the absence of commercial inflows of grain, but also reductions in Darfur’s cereal production. This paper explores the determinants of cereal prices in Sudan utilizing a simple partial equilibrium framework for wheat and sorghum, the country’s two main food staples. We also present econometric evidence on the lack of integration of sorghum markets between Darfur and central Sudan, along with quantitative estimates of the impacts of food aid on market prices in the region. The paper concludes with a discussion of national food policy and the paradox of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Trade; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51453
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