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Registros recuperados: 19
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A co-viability model of grazing and bird community management in farmland Inra
Tichit, M.; Doyen, L.; Lemel, J.Y.; Renault, O.; Durant, D..
In European grasslands, livestock grazing is a key driver of habitat quality. However, the specific grazing regimes that favour habitat quality and ensure biodiversity conservation remain largely unknown. This paper develops a dynamic model to predict how livestock grazing may be used to sustain a bird community without penalizing cattle feeding. The model focuses on a grassland grazed by cattle which is also the breeding habitat of three wader species. It integrates the dynamics of a sward, controlled through grazing, and that of three bird populations. Viability theory and dynamic programming are used to reveal viable grazing strategies that ensure the creation of two levels of habitat quality (homogeneous and heterogeneous) whilst ensuring cattle...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: GRAZING; BIODIVERSITY; HABITAT QUALITY; DYNAMICS; VIABLE CONTROL.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2008e337af77&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/09/
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Categorising farming practices to design sustainable land-use management in mountain areas Inra
Girard-Fourty, N.; Duru, M.; Hazard, L.; Magda, D..
In European mountain areas, shrub encroachment resulting from farmland abandonment is most often managed by mechanical operations such as roller chopping or controlled burning, which have proved to be ineffective and unsustainable. Recent agroecological findings highlight the potential impact of grazing on long-term shrub dynamics. We thus explored the potential contribution of livestock farms to the management of shrub encroachment. We studied the diversity of livestock practices and strategies on the scale of a small mountain valley in France where a land-use management plan was initiated. We interviewed 33 livestock farmers with a comprehensive approach and analysed the data in partnership with local land-use managers. To categorise farming practices,...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: AGROECOLOGIE ; DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE; ORGANISATION SPATIALE; ZONE HERBEUSE; DEVELOPPEMENT TERRITORIAL; AGROSYSTEME CULTIVE; AGROSYSTEME HERBAGER LIVESTOCK FARMING PRACTICES; SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT; LAND USE PRACTICE; LAND USE MANAGEMENT; LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT; FEEDING SYSTEM; FARMLAND UTILISATION; SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT; MOUNTAIN AREA; AGRO-ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT; GRAZING; MODELLING; SHRUB ENCROACHMENT; TYPOLOGY.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2008a0f68edf&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/05/
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Categorising farming practices to design sustainable land-use management in mountain areas Inra
Girard, N.; Duru, M.; Hazard, L.; Magda, D..
In European mountain areas, shrub encroachment resulting from farmland abandonment is most often managed by mechanical operations such as roller chopping or controlled burning, which have proved to be ineffective and unsustainable. Recent agroecological findings highlight the potential impact of grazing on long-term shrub dynamics. We thus explored the potential contribution of livestock farms to the management of shrub encroachment. We studied the diversity of livestock practices and strategies on the scale of a small mountain valley in France where a land-use management plan was initiated. We interviewed 33 livestock farmers with a comprehensive approach and analysed the data in partnership with local land-use managers. To categorise farming practices,...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: AGRO-ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT; LIVESTOCK FARMING PRACTICES; GRAZING; MODELLING; SHRUB ENCROACHMENT; TYPOLOGY.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2008a70dcac0&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/05/
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Characterizing and predicting plant phenology in species-rich grasslands Inra
Ansquer, P.; Al Haj Khaled, R.; Cruz, P.; Theau, J.P.; Therond, O.; Duru, M..
The use of plant phenology for determining the timing of management practices is poorly understood in species-rich grasslands. The objectives were to assess the effect of management practices on the dates at which phenological stages occur and to compare different methods of calculating the growing degreedays in order to predict them. Dates at which phenological stages of plant species occurred were recorded and plant strategy for resource capture and use was assessed through measurements of the dry matter content of leaves in two experiments in regions with contrasting climatic conditions. In Experiment 1, conducted near Toulouse, France, a set of 31 species was sown in pure stands at two levels of N availability. In Experiment 2, a network of 18...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: PHENOLOGY; GRASS; DICOTYLEDON; NITROGEN; CUTTING; GRAZING.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2009357f57dc&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/06/
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Consistency of animal order in spontaneous group movements allows the measurement of leadership in a group of grazing heifers Inra
Dumont, B.; Boissy, A.; Achard, C.; Sibbald, A.M.; Erhard, H.W..
The term ‘leadership’ has been used in several different senses, resulting in very different ways ofidentifying leaders and apparently inconsistent conclusions on how leadership is determined inherbivores. We therefore propose the following definitions: (i) a leader is the individual that isconsistently the one who initiates long-distance, spontaneous group movements toward a new feedingsite and (ii) long-distance spontaneous group movements are movements which happen when ananimal changes activity and location and is immediately followed by a similar change in activity andlocation by other members of the group. Using these definitions, we tested for consistency ofmovement order across time and situation within a group of fifteen 2-year-old heifers.We...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: GENISSE; MOUVEMENT CATTLE; GRAZING; LEADERSHIP; MOVEMENT ORDER; WALKING.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20074b999c46&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2008/01/
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Convergence in plant traits between species within grassland communities simplifies their monitoring Inra
Ansquer, P.; Duru, M.; Theau, J.P.; Cruz, P..
Plant trait measurement is a very powerful and promising method for assessing the effects of land use change on ecosystem behavior in grasslands, but it is very time-consuming. Hence we pose the following questions for simplifying diagnosis and monitoring: (i) are plant traits (PTs) similar between plant life forms (PLF: grasses, rosettes, upright forbs, legumes) within a plant community? (ii) is it possible to define the main plant community characteristics by measuring traits on one PLF or a limited number of dominant species ? Six PTs known for their ability to characterize the capacity of species to exploit resource rich or -poor environments and for their competitive dominance in response to disturbance (specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: MANAGED GRASSLAND; GRAZING; CUTTING; FERTILIZATION; SPECIFIC LEAF AREA; NITROGEN; LEAF DRY MATTER CONTENT; FLOWERING; LAND USE; FIELD INDICATOR.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20117ca581ad&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/04/
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Convergence in plant traits between species within grassland communities simplifies their monitoring Inra
Ansquer, P.; Duru, M.; Theau, J.P.; Cruz, P..
Plant trait measurement is a very powerful and promising method for assessing the effects of land use change on ecosystem behavior in grasslands, but it is very time-consuming. Hence we pose the following questions for simplifying diagnosis and monitoring: (i) are plant traits (PTs) similar between plant life forms (PLF: grasses, rosettes, upright forbs, legumes) within a plant community? (ii) is it possible to define the main plant community characteristics by measuring traits on one PLF or a limited number of dominant species ? Six PTs known for their ability to characterize the capacity of species to exploit resource rich or -poor environments and for their competitive dominance in response to disturbance(specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: MANAGED GRASSLANDS; GRAZING; CUTTING; FERTILIZATION; SPECIFIC LEAF AREA; NITROGEN; LEAF DRY MATTER CONTENT; FLOWERING; LAND USE; FIELD INDICATOR.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2009e5eaa646&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/06/
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Distribution of zooplankton populations in marennes-oleron bay (france), structure and grazing impact of copepod communities ArchiMer
Sautour, B; Castel, Jerome.
Zooplankton distribution in Marennes-Oleron Bay (France) varies during the year and is essentially determined by seasonal rhythms. The whole set of zooplanktonic taxa can be divided into three groups: the first bearing oceanic affinities; the second with estuarine tendencies; and the third more intermediate. Important water flows inhibit the establishment in a specific zone of an autochthonous community (this community is reduced to such species as Acartia discaudata, Acartia grani and Euterpina acutifrons). Zooplanktonic populations reach their maximum abundances at the end of spring and during summer, particularly during spring tide in the inner neritic zone. The estimation of die grazing pressure of copepods (which are the dominant taxa) is variable...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: MARENNES-OLERON; ZOOPLANKTON; COPEPODS; BIOMASS; GRAZING.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00099/21055/18681.pdf
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Field occupancy by breeding lapwings Vanellus vanellus and redshanks Tringa totanus in agricultural wet grasslands Inra
Durant, D.; Tichit, M.; Fritz, H.; Kerneis, E..
This study is based on a comparative approach to explore how two breeding waders, the lapwing Vanellus vanellus and the redshank Tringa tetanus, respond to cattle grazing in terms of timing and intensity of grazing in the Marais Poitevin (French Atlantic coast). Generalised linear mixed models (GLMM) showed that the two main predictors determining suitable grasslands were sward structure (i.e. mean sward height and tussock frequency) and water surface. A grazing index (LU.days/ha) was then monitored to tackle the extent to which the occupancy of fields by waders depended upon the grazing management involved in previous autumn, as well as in spring (early and mid-spring grazing). Species’ biology as well as variations in their sward structure requirements...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: VANELLUS VANELLUS; TRINGA TOTANUS BIRD; BREEDING WADER; GRAZING; SWARD STRUCTURE; WATER SURFACE; WET GRASSLAND.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2008c5ca4b94&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/09/
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Innovations et performances environnementales en production caprine et ovine : Expertise Elevage-Environnement à l’INRA Inra
Bocquier, F.; Benoit, M.; Laignel, G.; Dedieu, B.; Cournut, S.; Fiorelli, C.; Jouven, M.; Moulin, C.H.; Aubron, C.; Lurette, A.; Lapeyronie, P.; Hassoun, P.; Meuret, M.; Agreil, C.; Napoleone, M.; Hoste, H.; Friggens, N.; Tichit, M.; Gonzalez Garcia, E.; Hazard, D.; François, D.; Pellicer Rubio, M.; Guillouet, P.; Boissard, K.; Fabre-Nys, C.; Debus, N.; Teyssier, J.; Tournadre, H.; Migaud, M.; Malpaux, B.; Chemineau, P.; Bodin, L.; Prache, S.; Bouix, J.; Barillet, F.; Boutonnet, J.P.; Chia, E.; Lasseur, J.; Etienne, M.; Gibon, A.; Choisis, J.P.; Labatut, J.; Paoli, J.C.; Santucci, P..
Les systèmes d’élevage ovins et les caprins, comme les autres productions animales, sont confrontés aux multiples défis environnementaux : limiter les nuisances et contribuer positivement à l’entretien ou à l’amélioration du milieu. Les travaux de l’INRA, et de ses partenaires, se sont largement impliqués dans ces questions en considérant ces élevages de petits ruminants comme faisant partie d‘agroécosystèmes complexes. Cette synthèse collective rassemble, en privilégiant les niveaux d’approche, les actions dans lesquels l’INRA intervient. Considérant tout d’abord les grandes tendances sur les effectifs d’animaux et leur répartition géographique, les adaptations ou les disparitions de ces élevages se repèrent par les approches technico-économiques. Dans ce...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: SHEEP; GOAT; SMALL-RUMINANT; MEAT PRODUCTION; DAIRY PRODUCTS; FARMING SYSTEM; ORGANIC FARMING; CONCENTRATE; FERTILIZERS; HORMONES; SEASONAL BREEDING; GRAZING; NATURAL PASTURES; RANGELANDS; PASTORAL RESOURCE; SYLVO-PASTORAL; TRANSHUMANCE; SOIL FERTILITY; BIODIVERSITY; ECOSYSTEMIC SERVICE; GLOBAL EFFICIENCY; GREENHOUSE GAS; TERRITORIES; LANDSCAPE; LABOUR; INNOVATION; INVENTION TRANSFER; ANIMAL SELECTION; PRECISION FARMING; ECOLOGICAL INTENSIFICATION; MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD201176bcaa27&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/04/
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Managing wildfire risk: prevention, suppression Inra
Rigolot, E.; Fernandes, P.; Rego, F..
Tipo: Book Chapter Palavras-chave: GESTION DU RISQUE; ZONE PERIURBAINE; COUPURE DE COMBUSTIBLE FUEL BREAKS; FUEL MANAGEMENT; FIRE BEHAVIOUR; PRESCRIBED BURNING; GRAZING; BIOENERGY; WILDFIRE.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20092d953d3c&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2009/04/
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Modelling small ruminant systems in Mediterranean areas Inra
Jouven, M.; Baumont, R.; Ingrand, S.; Bocquier, F..
This paper examines the issues and requirements of simulation models for small ruminant systems in Mediterranean areas. Due to the absence of published models suited to these systems, we analyze the features of existing models designed for other species and other geographical areas, but focussed on similar issues (adaptive abilities of the females, feed self-sufficiency, sustainable use of rangeland). Flock and land heterogeneity, which are described in these models, should be given high interest, since they are typical of small ruminant systems in Mediterranean areas. Setting precise modelling objectives in relation to the final users, and exploiting complementary sources of information including expert knowledge are basic conditions for building a...
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: MODEL; SIMULATION; FARM; FLOCK; FORAGE RESOURCES; RANGELAND; GRAZING; MEDITERRANEAN.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2009d2898104&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/03/
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Modelling small ruminant systems in Mediterranean areas Inra
Jouven, M.; Baumont, R.; Ingrand, S.; Bocquier, F..
Cet article traite des enjeux et des cahiers des charges pour des modèles de simulation desystèmes d’élevage de petits ruminants en zones méditerranéennes. Comme peu de modèles publiés sontadaptés à ces systèmes, nous analysons les caractéristiques de modèles existants conçus pour d’autresespèces et d’autres régions, mais traitant d’enjeux similaires (capacités adaptatives des femelles,autonomie alimentaire de l’exploitation, utilisation durable des parcours). L’applicabilité de leurs équationset de leurs représentations conceptuelles aux systèmes de petits ruminants est discutée. L’hétérogénéité dutroupeau et des ressources fourragères, mais aussi la variabilité des ressources entre saisons et entreannées, sont des éléments importants, car typiques des...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: MODEL; LIVESTOCK SYSTEM; GRAZING; MEDITERRANEAN; SMALL RUMINANTS.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD201075cf8ba7&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/09/
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Net community production in high nutrient-low chlorophyll waters of the tropical and antarctic oceans - grazing vs iron hypothesis ArchiMer
Minas, Hj; Minas, M.
An analysis of tropical upwelling systems shows a great range in the rate of increase of the standing stock expressed in terms of the water column chlorophyll content. Grazing appears to be the main factor responsible for lowering the rate of increase, especially in moderate and strong High Nutrient-Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. A simple model comparing Net Community Production (NCP) rates with observed chlorophyll increase rates, leads us to conclude that phytoplankton population must present high specific growth rates on a daily rhythm in order to overcome grazing. Maximum specific growth rates (V(max)) calculated for daily total production (TP) are, in the two main upwelling areas, 137 d-1 off NW Africa and 1.04 d-1 off Peru. For extreme HNLC...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: NUTRIENTS; NEW PRODUCTION; GRAZING; TROPICAL OCEAN; ANTARCTIC.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00100/21149/18768.pdf
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PAHs transfer to milk in exposed lactating ruminants Inra
Costera, A.; Feidt, C.; Dziurla, M.A.; Monteau, F.; Toussaint, H.; Rychen, G..
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic pollutants of mainly pyrolytic origin. Dairy cattle may introduce these pollutants in the food chain by grazing on contaminated grasslands. This study was aimed to determine the influence of the matrice (soil, hay, oil as control) on the transfer to milk and urine of three PAHs (phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene) and their major metabolites. The studied matrices were artificially contaminated to ensure 50 mg ingestion for each PAH. Three goats were placed in controlled conditions and the matrice administration was achieved according to a latin square design. After each matrice administration (500 g hay, 25 g soil, 5 mL oil), milk and urine were sampled for the 57 h period following...
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: HYDROCARBURE AROMATIQUE; CHAINE ALIMENTAIRE; POLLUANT; LAIT DE VACHE; TRANSFERT POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; PAH; CARCINOGENIC POLLUTANTS; DAIRY CATTLE; FOOD CHAIN; GRAZING; HAY; SOIL; TRANSFER; MILK; URINE.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20076af05990&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2008/03/
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Reconciling production and conservation in agrolandscapes: does landscape heterogeneity help? Inra
Sabatier, R.; Doyen, C.; Tichit, M..
Réconcilier production et conservation dans les paysages agricoles: importance de l’hétérogénéité.L’homogénéisation des paysages agricoles est une des causes du déclin de la biodiversité en milieux agricoles. Les paysages agricoles peuvent être définis par la proportion des différents usages qui les composent et par l’agencement spatial de ces usages. Si la proportion des différents usages a des impacts forts sur la dimension productive des exploitations agricoles, l’agencement spatial des usages apparaît aujourd’hui comme une voie pour améliorer les performances écologiques de paysages agricoles en limitant les pertes au niveau de la production. L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer les effets relatifs de la proportion des usages agricoles et de la...
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: FAUCHE; PRAIRIE; OISEAUX PRAIRIAUX; HETERIOGENEITE LANDSCAPE; GRAZING; MOWING; GRASSLAND; GRASSLAND BIRDS; HETEROGENEITY; MODEL.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2010c0b22e4b&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/03/
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Simulating grassland utilization in beef suckler systems to investigate the trade-offs between production and floristic diversity Inra
Jouven, M.; Baumont, R..
In order to understand the farm-scale balance between the apparently conflicting objectives of system production and biodiversity conservation in grassland-based beef suckler systems, we constructed the whole-farm simulation model SEBIEN. SEBIEN uses a bio-technical approach focussed on grassland utilization by the herd to predict the daily functioning of suckler systems based on permanent pasture. The farming system is divided into three main components which interact at multiple time scales: (i) management, divided into a strategic component (management plan) and a tactical component (management rules), (ii) herd, divided into a group of cows with calf and a group of heifers, and (iii) feed, comprising grasslands paddocks, conserved forage and purchased...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave:  MODEL; FORAGE SYSTEM; BEEF CATTLE; GRAZING; CUTTING; PRODUCTION; FLORISTIC DIVERSITY.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2009422148c9&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2009/08/
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The effects of grassland management using fire on habitat occupancy and conservation of birds in a mosaic landscape Inra
Pons, P.; Lambert, B.; Rigolot, E.; Prodon, R..
Prescribed burning is routinely used to improve grazing in Pyrenean rangelands affected by an overall trend of land abandonment. This study considers the environmental variables influencing habitat occupancy by birds and the consequences of the use of fire in range management for bird conservation. Bird use and habitat structure of 11 cover types, the result of specific management regimes, were monitored for two breeding seasons in a mosaic landscape. Three main gradients of avian composition, corresponding to tree cover, shrub volume and grazing intensity, were identified from canonical correspondence analysis. The structure of the bird community seemed more intensely affected by species-specific selection of cover types than by the birds' use of multiple...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: BRULAGE CONTROLE; PRAIRIE; GESTION DES PARCOURS PRESCRIBED BURNING; BIRD COMMUNITY; CONSERVATION VALUE; GRAZING; FIRE; HABITAT SELECTION; MOUNTAIN RANGELAND.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD200782a6ecb8&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/11/
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Tour de France with grazing circuits Inra
Meuret, M..
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: FORAGING BEHAVIOR; GRAZING; FLOCK MANAGEMENT; GIS.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD200963dd4108&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/01/
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