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Registros recuperados: 27
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Association between genetic distances in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as estimated by AFLP and morphological markers Genet. Mol. Biol.
Vieira,Eduardo Alano; Carvalho,Fernando Irajá Félix de; Bertan,Ivandro; Kopp,Mauricio Marini; Zimmer,Paulo Dejalma; Benin,Giovani; Silva,José Antônio Gonzalez da; Hartwig,Irineu; Malone,Gaspar; Oliveira,Antônio Costa de.
Molecular and morphological data analyses matrices are very informative tools for the estimation of genetic distances. We used AFLP markers, morphological traits and combined analysis to estimate the genetic distances between wheat genotypes and ascertain any associations between the two techneques. Nineteen wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and field evaluated for two years. The matrices obtained by morphological and molecular marker data analyses revealed a significant but moderate correlation (r = 0.47), indicating that such techniques sample distinct genome regions. The combined analysis was found to be highly correlated with AFLP (r = 0.97) and moderately correlated with...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Reeding; Genetic divergence; Molecular markers; Morphological traits.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572007000300016
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Avaliação da variabilidade das gerações G0 e F1 da linhagem GIFT de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) por RAPD - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4708 Animal Sciences
Lupchinski Junior, Enio; UEM; Vargas, Lauro; UEM; Povh, Jayme Aparecido; UEM; Ribeiro, Ricardo Pereira; UEM; Mangolin, Claudete Aparecida; UEM; Barrero, Nelson Maurício Lopera; UEM.
Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar, pela técnica RAPD, a variabilidade e a divergência genética de duas gerações da linhagem GIFT. Foram estimados parâmetros para os reprodutores (G0) e para a progênie (F1). A variabilidade genética foi determinada pela porcentagem de loci polimórficos e pelo índice de Shannon. As gerações apresentaram 69,6% de loci polimórficos (G0) e 60,0% de polimorfismo (F1). Os valores para o índice de Shannon foram de 0,367 para a geração G0 e de 0,317 para a F1. Os valores de divergência genética, calculados pelo teste de Mantel, foram de 0,213 para a G0 e 0,208 para a geração F1. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que houve perda da variabilidade genética da geração G0 para a F1. No entanto, um fato a ser destacado foi a alta...
Palavras-chave: 5.05.04.00-2 Reprodução Animal índice de Shannon; Gerações de cultivo; Divergência genética; Variabilidade genética. Shannon index; Cultivated generations; Genetic divergence; Genetic variability.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/4708
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Comparison between multivariate methods applied for the evaluation of genetic divergence in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) BABT
Dias,Luiz Antônio dos Santos; Kageyama,Paulo Yoshio.
Several multivariate methods have been used in divergence analyses of populations. Consistency and relative association among four methods were assessed using a 5 x 5 complete-diallel data involving cacao cultivars. Over a 5-year period, five cultivars were analyzed based upon five yield components. In assessing the divergence of parents only the data obtained from five cacao cultivars were analyzed. Four multivariate statistics presented close association when considered in pairs, in this case the Mahalanobis' (D²) with the mean Euclidean distance obtained from canonical variates (d cv), and mean Euclidean distance (d e) with the mean Euclidean distance obtained from principal components (d pc). In both cases, high correlations (r > 0.95) were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cacao cultivars; Canonical variates; Genetic divergence; Mahalanobis' and mean Euclidean distances; Principal components.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89131998000200005
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Comparison of similarity coefficients used for cluster analysis with dominant markers in maize (Zea mays L) Genet. Mol. Biol.
Meyer,Andréia da Silva; Garcia,Antonio Augusto Franco; Souza,Anete Pereira de; Souza Jr.,Cláudio Lopes de.
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether different similarity coefficients used with dominant markers can influence the results of cluster analysis, using eighteen inbred lines of maize from two different populations, BR-105 and BR-106. These were analyzed by AFLP and RAPD markers and eight similarity coefficients were calculated: Jaccard, Sorensen-Dice, Anderberg, Ochiai, Simple-matching, Rogers and Tanimoto, Ochiai II and Russel and Rao. The similarity matrices obtained were compared by the Spearman correlation, cluster analysis with dendrograms (UPGMA, WPGMA, Single Linkage, Complete Linkage and Neighbour-Joining methods), the consensus fork index between all pairs of dendrograms, groups obtained through the Tocher optimization procedure and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Genetic divergence; Heterotic groups; AFLP; RAPD; Multivariate analysis.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572004000100014
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Cytotaxonomy of some species and of interspecific hybrids of Pennisetum (Poaceae, Poales) Genet. Mol. Biol.
Techio,Vânia Helena; Davide,Lisete Chamma; Pereira,Antônio Vander; Bearzoti,Eduardo.
Cytotaxonomic studies were carried out on 26 accessions of Pennisetum spp. originating from the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite-Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.This study presents cytogenetics and reproductive morphological data for each one of these accessions, which allowed groupings and suggest botanical identifications to be established. The metaphases of the accessions characterized as P. purpureum confirmed the presence of 2n = 28 chromosomes that have already been described for this species. For the hybrids between P. purpureum and P. glaucum and for the hexaploids, resulting from the chromosome duplication of these hybrids, 2n = 21 and 2n = 42 chromosomes were confirmed, respectively. The wild accession identified as P. setosum...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Pennisetum; Cytogenetic; Taxonomy; Germplasm; Genetic divergence.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572002000200014
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Disentangling the Influence of Mutation and Migration in Clonal Seagrasses Using the Genetic Diversity Spectrum for Microsatellites ArchiMer
Arnaud-haond, Sophie; Moalic, Yann; Hernandez-garcia, Emilio; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Alberto, Filipe; Serrao, Ester A.; Duarte, Carlos M..
The recurrent lack of isolation by distance reported at regional scale in seagrass species was recently suggested to stem from stochastic events of large-scale dispersal. We explored the usefulness of phylogenetic information contained in microsatellite loci to test this hypothesis by using the Genetic Diversity Spectrum (GDS) on databases containing, respectively, 7 and 9 microsatellites genotypes for 1541 sampling units of Posidonia oceanica and 1647 of Cymodocea nodosa. The simultaneous increase of microsatellite and geographic distances that emerges reveals a coherent pattern of isolation by distance in contrast to the chaotic pattern previously described using allele frequencies, in particular, for the long-lived P. oceanica. These results suggest...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Clonality; Genetic Diversity Spectrum; Genetic divergence; Microsatellites; Seagrass; Stepwise mutation.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00182/29292/27733.pdf
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Divergência genética entre progênies de Pinus caribaea var. caribaea com base em caracteres quantitativos PFB - Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira
Silva, Janete Motta da; Aguiar, Ananda Virgínia de; Mori, Edson Seizo; Moraes, Mario Luiz Teixeira de.
O objetivo desse trabalho foi quantificar a dissimilaridade genética entre progênies de P. caribaea var. caribaea para identificar genitores divergentes, visando gerar genótipos mais produtivos e avaliar a variabilidade total por meio de alguns caracteres fenotípicos de importância comercial. Assim, um teste de progênies de P. caribaea var. caribaea foi implantado em delineamento experimental látice 10 x 10 triplo, com 99 progênies e uma testemunha comercial em Selvíria, MS. Foram avaliados os caracteres quantitativos antes e após desbaste aos 14 anos, tais como: altura total de plantas (m), diâmetro à altura do peito - DAP (cm); volume (m3 árvore-1); forma do fuste das árvores, densidade básica da madeira, na altura do DAP - DBM-1, e na metade da altura...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Parâmetros genéticos; Divergência genética; Pinheiros tropicais; Teste de progênies Genetic parameters; Genetic divergence; Tropical pines; Progeny trial.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://pfb.cnpf.embrapa.br/pfb/index.php/pfb/article/view/194
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Estimates of genetic parameters between and within black oat populations Bragantia
Meira,Daniela; Meier,Carine; Olivoto,Tiago; Nardino,Maicon; Klein,Luís Antônio; Moro,Ederson Duranti; Fassini,Fabrício; Marchioro,Volmir Sergio; Souza,Velci Queiróz de.
ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to characterize black oat populations by estimating between- and within-populations variance components and genetic parameters, as well as to distinguish the populations using multivariable statistics. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks design with three repetitions, with 14 black oat populations collected in several municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul state. Agronomic important traits were assessed at physiological maturation stage. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated considering within-block information. In addition, Mahalanobis distance, relative contribution of traits, and canonical variables were used to distinguish the populations. Selection based on panicle length, number of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Avena strigosa; Genetic divergence; Genotypic variance.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-87052019000100043
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Evaluation of common bean accesses with multi-category variables - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v33i4.6944 Agronomy
Albuquerque, Amanda Nogueira de; Universidade do Estado do Mato Grosso; Barelli, Marco Antônio Aparecido; Universidade do Estado do Mato Grosso; Neves, Leonarda Grillo; Universidade do Estado do Mato Grosso; Arantes, Vinícius Ribeiro; Universidade do Estado do Mato Grosso; Silva, kleberson Luiz Miranda da; Universidade do Estado do Mato Grosso.
The morphologic traits of the common bean genotype (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Cáceres MT, Brazil, are evaluated to optimize genotypes for future improvement breeding cultures. Sixteen genotypes were evaluated through 33 morphological characters. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks with four replicates at the Mato Grosso Company for Research and Extension (EMPAER) in Cáceres, Mato Grosso State. A dendrogram was produced by Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) and Plan projection. Results showed the occurrence of genetic variability among the genotypes and the dendrogram revealed the formation of two main groups, one comprised genotypes of the black group and the other comprised genotypes of the Cores and Carioca group,...
Palavras-chave: 5.01.03.05-9 Phaseolus vulgaris; Morphological description; UPGMA; Genetic divergence Melhoramento Vegetal Phaseolus vulgaris; Morphological description; UPGMA; Genetic divergence.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAgron/article/view/6944
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Genetic characterization of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from citrus and coffee plants Scientia Agricola
Miranda,Vicente Savonitti; Farias,Paulo Roberto Silva; Roberto,Sérgio Rufo; Lacava,Pedro Magalhães.
The Citrus Variegated Chlorosis and the Coffee Leaf Scorch are some of the many destructive diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium limited to the xylem of affected plants. As its genetic characterization is still not well established, different isolates of X. fastidiosa from citrus and coffee were evaluated through RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique to characterize and classify these isolates based on similarity coefficients. Sixteen isolates of X. fastidiosa were used on this trial, obtained from citrus, coffee and almond. The genetic polymorphism evaluation was performed using six arbitrary 10-base primer pairs. It was possible to establish a dendogram in which the isolates were classified into five groups (A, B,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/report Palavras-chave: RAPD; Gram-negative bacterium; Genetic divergence.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162007000500005
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Genetic differentiation, origin and dispersal of Gammarus gauthieri from the Iberian peninsula and North Africa (Crustacea, Amphipoda) Naturalis
Scheepmaker, Maarten.
Genetic differentiation among population samples of G. gauthieri on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar was investigated by enzyme electrophoresis at 20 enzyme loci with reference to G. gauthieri and G. ibericus from different areas in the Iberian peninsula. Levels of divergence resolved suggest that G. gauthieri reached North Africa from the Iberian peninsula, and not vice versa. With reference to geological evidence, this was likely to occur during the Messinian (6—5 My ago). As the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar represents a well dated geological event, an attempt has been made to calibrate the molecular clock for the G. pulex-group. Indirect estimations of gene flow levels were shown to be extremely low. Probably as a consequence of frequently...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Distribution; Genetic divergence; Gene flow; Molecular clock; Gammarus.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/503962
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Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil Genet. Mol. Biol.
Alves-Pereira,Alessandro; Clement,Charles R.; Picanço-Rodrigues,Doriane.
Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H T = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F ST (0.023), G ST' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm -3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Bactris gasipaes; Heart-of-palm; Microsatellites; Genetic divergence; Genetic improvement.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572012000300015
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Genetic divergence between populations of the stingless bee uruçu amarela (Melipona rufiventris group, Hymenoptera, Meliponini): is there a new Melipona species in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais? Genet. Mol. Biol.
Tavares,Mara Garcia; Dias,Luiz Antonio dos Santos; Borges,Andréia Arantes; Lopes,Denilce Meneses; Busse,Angélica Helene Pereira; Costa,Ronaldo Guimarães; Salomão,Tânia Maria Fernandes; Campos,Lucio Antonio de Oliveira.
Allozyme, microsatellite and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers were used to investigate the within and between population genetic variability and between population genetic differentiation of the Brazilian stingless bee uruçu amarela (nominally Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier, 1836) present in savanna and Atlantic forest habitats of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG). We found low levels of within population variability, although there were a large number of private alleles that specifically characterized these populations. The F ST values indicated a high level of genetic diversity between populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a high degree of population differentiation between the savanna and Atlantic...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Endangered species; Genetic divergence; Molecular markers; Stingless bees; Uruçu amarela.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572007000400027
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Genetic divergence in Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Meliponinae, Trigonini) based on rapd markers Genet. Mol. Biol.
Oliveira,Rosana de Cássia; Nunes,Francis de Morais Franco; Campos,Ana Paula Soraggi; Vasconcelos,Soraya Matos de; Roubik,David; Goulart,Luiz Ricardo; Kerr,Warwick Estevam.
One of the commonest neotropical stingless bees is Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811), popularly known in Portuguese as jataí, which occurs in variable nesting sites from Mexico to Argentina. We used 18 primers to generate 218 RAPD markers which we used to determined the genetic distance between T. angustula populations from 25 localities in three different Latin America countries, using Tetragonisca weyrauchi from the Brazilian state of Acre and the common honey bee (Apis mellifera) as outgroups. Genetic distance, calculated as the Percentage of Dissimilarity (14%), based on all markers divided the T. angustula population into eastern (group 1) and western (group 2) groups. However, we were able to separate the two groups by using only two primers...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Tetragonisca angustula; Genetic divergence; Molecular markers; UPGMA.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572004000200009
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Genetic diversity in populations of African mahogany (Khaya grandioliola C. DC.) introduced in Brazil Genet. Mol. Biol.
Soares,Sabrina Delgado; Bandeira,Ludmila Ferreira; Ribeiro,Stela Barros; Telles,Mariana Pires de Campos; Silva,João Augusto da; Borges,Canrobert Tormin; Coelho,Alexandre Siqueira Guedes; Novaes,Evandro.
Abstract Given its high-valued wood, the African mahogany (Khaya grandifoliola) has been envisaged as a renewable source of tropical hardwoods in Brazil. However, there are concerns about the hypothesized low diversity among the few K. grandifoliola germplasm sources introduced in the country. Using eight microsatellite markers, we evaluated the genetic diversity and divergence among 53 superior trees selected from three provenances of K. grandifoliola located in the state of Para. These populations are among the oldest plantations (>15 years) in Brazil and, therefore, the country's main seed sources. The average number of alleles per locus was 5.9, expected heterozygosity was moderate (^=0.56) and lower than the high observed heterozygosity (HO=0.74)....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Microsatellites; SSR; Genetic structure; Genetic divergence; Hardwood.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572020000400301
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Genetic diversity in table grapes based on RAPD and microsatellite markers PAB
Leão,Patrícia Coelho de Souza; Motoike,Sérgio Yoshimitsu.
The objective of this work was to analyze the genetic diversity of 47 table grape accessions, from the grapevine germplasm bank of Embrapa Semiárido, using 20 RAPD and seven microsatellite markers. Genetic distances between pairs of accessions were obtained based on Jaccard's similarity index for RAPD data and on the arithmetic complement of the weighted index for microsatellite data. The groups were formed according to the Tocher's cluster analysis and to the unweighted pair‑group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The microsatellite markers were more efficient than the RAPD ones in the identification of genetic relationships. Information on the genetic distance, based on molecular characteristics and coupled with the cultivar agronomic performance,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Vitis vinifera; Cluster analysis; Genetic divergence; Grapevine; Multivariate analysis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2011000900010
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Genetic similarity among strawberry cultivars assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers Scientia Agricola
Morales,Rafael Gustavo Ferreira; Resende,Juliano Tadeu Vilela; Faria,Marcos Ventura; Andrade,Marcela Carvalho; Resende,Luciane Vilela; Delatorre,Carla Andrea; Silva,Paulo Roberto da.
Most strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) cultivars used in Brazil are developed in other countries, it became clear the need to start the strawberry breeding program in the country. To start a breeding program is necessary the genetic characterization of the germplasm available. Molecular markers are important tools that can be used for this purpose. The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic similarity among 11 strawberry cultivars using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers and to indicate the possible promising crosses. The DNA of the eleven strawberry cultivars was extracted and amplified by PCR with RAPD and ISSR primers. The DNA fragments were separated in agarose gel for the RAPD markers and in polyacrylamide gel for the ISSR...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Fragaria× ananassa; Plant breeding; Genetic divergence; Molecular markers.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-90162011000600010
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Isozyme variation in four species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the Brazilian Amazon Genet. Mol. Biol.
Scarpassa,Vera Margarete; Hamada,Neusa.
Electrophoretic studies of isozymes were done with four closely related species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidade) in the Brazilian Amazon, using last-instar larvae collected in the field. Ten enzymes were studied, which yielded 11 loci. Diagnostic loci were not found between Simulium maroniense cytotype D and Simulium rorotaense. Simulium maroniense and S. rorotaense differed from Simulium trombetense by two diagnostic loci (Me and Xdh), and Simulium perflavum differed from the other three species by four diagnostic loci (Me, Xdh, Mdh, and Got). The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.30 to 2.30, the percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 18.2 to 63.6% and the mean heterozygosity values observed ranged from 0.062...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Simulium perflavum species group; Isozymes; Genetic divergence; Biochemical systematic; Brazilian Amazon.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572003000100007
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Mitochondrial evidence supports a Nearctic origin for the spreading limicolous earthworm Sparganophilus tamesis Benham, 1892 (Clitellata, Sparganophilidae) Naturalis
Rota, E.; Martinsson, S.; Bartoli, M.; Beylich, A.; Graefe, U.; Laini, A.; Wetzel, M.J.; Erséus, C..
We analysed samples of Sparganophilus taken at the corners of its distribution area in Europe (UK, Germany and Italy). No mitochondrial genetic divergence within and amongst them was found, neither in COI nor in 16S. Further, the COI haplotype was also identical to two sequences from Ontario, Canada in the Barcoding of Life Data System (BOLD) database. Our European COI and 16S sequences showed only minimal differentiation (only 1 or 2 substitutions) from specimens newly collected in Illinois and Washington states (USA), as well as from a COI haplotype from Tennessee (USA) in BOLD. An additional COI haplotype from Illinois (found in BOLD) is 2.1% different from the other haplotypes but clearly belongs to the same lineage of Sparganophilus. This...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Aquatic megadriles; Genetic divergence; Oligochaeta; Recent introduction; Sparganophilus eiseni; Synonymy.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/607666
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Molecular characterization of watermelon cultivars using microsatellite markers Horticultura Brasileira
Gama,Renata Natália CS; Santos,Carlos Antônio F; Dias,Rita de Cássia S; Souza,Flávio F.
Allelic patterns and genetic similarity among 17 watermelon cultivars were established using microsatellite markers. For visualization of the genetic similarity, the dendrogram UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Means) was generated by the similarity matrix of the Jacquard coefficient, based on 34 alleles of ten microsatellite loci. Total DNA was extracted by the CTAB 2x method and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) products were analyzed in denaturing polyacrylamide 6% gels, stained with silver nitrate. The number of base pairs was estimated by the method of inverse mobility, based on known size product regression. Similarity ranged from 34 to 100%, reflecting high genetic variability. Analyzed loci were not enough to distinguish all 17...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Citrullus lanatus; Genetic divergence; SSR; Plant variety protection.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-05362013000400003
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