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Change in genetic size of small-closed populations: lessons from a domestic mammal population Genet. Mol. Biol.
Ghafouri-Kesbi,Farhad.
The aim of this study was to monitor changes in genetic size of a small-closed population of Iranian Zandi sheep, by using pedigree information from animals born between 1991 and 2005. The genetic size was assessed by using measures based on the probability of identity-by-descend of genes (coancestry, f, and effective population size, Ne), as well as measures based on probability of gene origin (effective number of founders, f e, effective number of founder genomes, f g, and effective number of non-founder genomes, f ne). Average coancestry, or the degree of genetic similarity of individuals, increased from 0.81% to 1.44% during the period 1993 to 2005, at the same time that Ne decreased from 263 to 93. The observed trend for f e was irregular throughout...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Pedigree; Effective size; Genetic drift; Genetic diversity; Genetic similarity; Sheep.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572010000400011
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Characterization of potato genotypes using molecular markers. Repositório Alice
COLLARES, E.A.S.; CHOER, E.; PEREIRA, A. da S..
The objective of this work was to characterize 27 potato genotypes, using molecular markers. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, RAPD techniques and isozymes of esterase, phosphoglucomutase and soluble proteins were analyzed in tubers, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, phosphoglucomutase and peroxidase, in leaves. Eighteen primers were tested and four were chosen, kits OPX (01, 04 and 09) and OPY (07), to analyze RAPD markers in leaf extracts. Similarity and cluster analysis were conducted using Jaccard coefficient and the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic average. Despite the differences detected in the analysis of proteins and isozymes in the tubers, as well as of isozymes in the leaves, the characterization of all...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Solanum tuberosum; Electrophoresis; Isozymes; Genetic similarity; Eletroforese; Isoenzimas; RAPD; Similaridade genética.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/112526
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Characterization of potato genotypes using molecular markers PAB
Collares,Eliana Antonia Silveira; Choer,Eva; Pereira,Arione da Silva.
The objective of this work was to characterize 27 potato genotypes, using molecular markers. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, RAPD techniques and isozymes of esterase, phosphoglucomutase and soluble proteins were analyzed in tubers, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, phosphoglucomutase and peroxidase, in leaves. Eighteen primers were tested and four were chosen, kits OPX (01, 04 and 09) and OPY (07), to analyze RAPD markers in leaf extracts. Similarity and cluster analysis were conducted using Jaccard coefficient and the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic average. Despite the differences detected in the analysis of proteins and isozymes in the tubers, as well as of isozymes in the leaves, the characterization of all...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Solanum tuberosum; Electrophoresis; Isozymes; RAPD; Genetic similarity.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2004000900006
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Development of microsatellite markers for identifying Brazilian Coffea arabica varieties Genet. Mol. Biol.
Vieira,Elisa S.N.; Von Pinho,Édila V. de R.; Carvalho,Maria G.G.; Esselink,Danny G.; Vosman,Ben.
Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), have proved to be excellent tools for identifying variety and determining genetic relationships. A set of 127 SSR markers was used to analyze genetic similarity in twenty five Coffea arabica varieties. These were composed of nineteen commercially important Brazilians and six interspecific hybrids of Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora and Coffea liberica. The set used comprised 52 newly developed SSR markers derived from microsatellite enriched libraries, 56 designed on the basis of coffee SSR sequences available from public databases, 6 already published, and 13 universal chloroplast microsatellite markers. Only 22 were polymorphic, these detecting 2-7 alleles per marker, an average of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: SSR; Coffee; Genetic similarity; Molecular marker.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572010000300022
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Distância genética e geográfica entre acessos de picão-preto suscetíveis e resistentes a herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase. Repositório Alice
LAMEGO, F.P.; RESENDE, L.V.; DA-SILVA, P.R.; VIDAL, R.A.; NUNES, A.L..
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de similaridade genética entre acessos de picão-preto, suscetíveis e resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS) e a relação entre similaridade genética e distância geográfica desses acessos. Sementes dos acessos foram coletadas no Estado do Paraná e cultivadas em casa de vegetação, na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, em outubro de 2004. Depois da confirmação da resistência ou suscetibilidade dos acessos aos inibidores da enzima ALS, realizou-se a extração de DNA. Por meio da técnica de RAPD, foi possível avaliar a similaridade genética entre os acessos de picão-preto. Na análise conjunta dos acessos, dos 20 iniciadores utilizados, 17 apresentaram-se...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Bidens pilosa; Similaridade genética; Resistência; Picão-preto; RAPD; ALS; Genetic similarity; Resistance; Hairy beggar-ticks.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/118990
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Diversidade genética e estrutura populacional de duas espécies de bambu do gênero Guadua na região sul-ocidental da Amazônia. Repositório Alice
SILVA, S. M. M..
O conhecimento populacional é fundamental para que as espécies sejam conservadas, manejadas e protegidas. Estudos sobre diversidade genética e estrutura populacional de plantas como os bambus amazônicos (Guadua) dão subsídios para a conservação das espécies tanto in situ quanto ex situ. Plantas nativas como os bambus são um importante componente no contexto florestal, formando ecossistemas únicos, pouco estudados, que servem de abrigo para muitas espécies que vivem relacionadas a eles e também podem ser usados economicamente para diversos fins. Este trabalho teve como objetivo, estudar a diversidade genética e estrutura populacional de quatro populações (P1, P2, P3 e P4) de Guadua aff. chaparensis, localizadas nos municípios de Bujari e Sena Madureira, e...
Tipo: Tese/dissertação (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Fitomejoramiento; Guadua aff chaparensis; Guadua aff lynnclarkiae; Variación genética; Similaridade genética; Similitud genética; Sondeo de la Población Actual; Heterozigozidade; Heterocigosidad; Programas de computadores; Análisis por computador; Structure; Bujari (AC); Sena Madureira (AC); Porto Acre (AC); Acre; Amazônia Ocidental; Western Amazon; Amazonia Occidental; Melhoramento Genético Vegetal; Bambu; Variação Genética; Levantamento Populacional; Endogamia; Programa de Computador; Análise Comparativa; Plant breeding; Bamboos; Guadua; Genetic variation; Current Population Survey; Inbreeding; Heterozygosity; Genetic similarity; Computer software; Computer analysis.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1110082
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Diversidade genética entre híbridos de laranja-doce e tangor 'Murcott' avaliada por fAFLP e RAPD. Repositório Alice
BASTIANEL, M.; OLIVEIRA, A.C. de; CRISTOFANI, M.; MACHADO, M.A..
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética em uma população de 148 híbridos de tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. sinensis L. Osbeck) e laranja 'Pêra' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) obtidos por polinização controlada, pelo uso de marcadores fAFLP e RAPD. Marcadores polimórficos (416 marcadores fAFLP e 33 RAPD) foram utilizados para avaliar a similaridade genética entre os híbridos, calculada com o coeficiente Jaccard pelo método UPGMA. A consistência de cada agrupamento foi determinada pelo programa BOOD. Houve alta similaridade genética entre os parentais. A laranja 'Pêra' apresentou maior número (132) de loci em heterozigose em relação ao tangor 'Murcott' (105), corroborando a teoria de origem híbrida para a laranja-doce....
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Citros; Marcadores moleculares; Similaridade genética; Citrus; Molecular markers; Genetic similarity.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/118963
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Evaluation of Genetic Analysis of ESCHERICHIA COLI Isolated from Two Different Environmental Sources: Sewage Water Verses Soiled Bedding Materials of Laboratory Rodents BABT
Kumar,Sharad; Kumar,Mahadeo; Raj,Abhay; Prakash,Jyoti.
ABSTRACT The present investigation details an assessment of genetic relationship of E. coli isolates collected from two different environmental sources viz. sewage water and soiled bedding materials of laboratory rodents. Five sewage water samples were collected from the industrial area of Lucknow city and 5 samples of soiled bedding materials of laboratory animals were collected from Animal facility at CSIR-IITR, Lucknow. For this study Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD) was chosen as the molecular fingerprinting method. In this study, 10 RAPD primers were used to evaluate the genetic similarity of E. coli. isolates. The RAPD-PCR fingerprints were analyzed and data were scored as 1, 0 matrix. The generated data were fed on Popgene software...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Escherichia coli; Genetic similarity; RAPD-PCR and Rodents.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132017000100445
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Genetic analysis of species in the Genus Catasetum (ORCHIDACEAE) using RAPD Markers BABT
Oliveira,Luciana do Valle Rego; Faria,Ricardo Tadeu de; Ruas,Claudete de Fátima; Ruas,Paulo Maurício; Santos,Melissa de Oliveira; Carvalho,Valdemar P..
In this work, RAPD molecular markers were used to access the genetic variability and to study the inter and intraespecifc relationship in a group of 37 species, including 56 individuals. A total of 15 RAPD primers were selected for DNA amplification. From a total of 221 bands analyzed, 209 (95%) were polymorphics. The level of interespecifc genetic similarity ranged from 37% between Catasetum complanatum and Catasetum laminatum to 83% between Catasetum triodon and Catasetum uncatum. The intraspecifc genetic similarity varied 88% for the individuals of Catasetum triodon to 93% between the individuals of Catasetum atratum and Catasetum macrocarpum. These results would contribute to understand the genetic relationship in Catasetum, to define the strategies to...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Catasetum; Molecular marker; Orchid; RAPD; Genetic similarity.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132010000200017
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Genetic characterization of ninety elite soybean cultivars using coefficient of parentage. Repositório Alice
MIRANDA, Z. de F.S.; ARIAS, C.A.A.; PRETE, C.E.C.; KIIHL, R.A. de S.; ALMEIDA, L.A. de; TOLEDO, J.F. de; DESTRO, D..
The objective of this work was to estimate the coefficient of parentage and to understand the genetic structure of 90 elite soybean cultivars, which are adapted to different Brazilian environments. A total of 4,005 coefficients of parentage (f) were obtained and used to group the cultivars by UPGMA method. The constructed dendrogram showed several related cultivar groups which shared similar ancestors and clearly showed the genetic structure of the main Brazilian cultivars. Effective population sizes (Ne) were also estimated for cultivars in different generations. The average f = 0.2124 value, obtained from cultivars classified into four decades according to the release year, suggested effective soybean population sizes of 11 and 13 calculated using...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Glycine max; Effective population size; Genetic similarity; Parentage coefficient; Similaridade genética; Tamanho efetivo populacional.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/123785
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Genetic characterization of ninety elite soybean cultivars using coefficient of parentage PAB
Miranda,Zilda de Fátima Sgobero; Arias,Carlos Alberto Arrabal; Prete,Cássio Egidio Cavenaghi; Kiihl,Romeu Afonso de Souza; Almeida,Leones Alves de; Toledo,José Francisco Ferraz de; Destro,Deonisio.
The objective of this work was to estimate the coefficient of parentage and to understand the genetic structure of 90 elite soybean cultivars, which are adapted to different Brazilian environments. A total of 4,005 coefficients of parentage (f) were obtained and used to group the cultivars by UPGMA method. The constructed dendrogram showed several related cultivar groups which shared similar ancestors and clearly showed the genetic structure of the main Brazilian cultivars. Effective population sizes (Ne) were also estimated for cultivars in different generations. The average f = 0.2124 value, obtained from cultivars classified into four decades according to the release year, suggested effective soybean population sizes of 11 and 13 calculated using...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Glycine max; Effective population size; Genetic similarity; Parentage coefficient.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2007000300009
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Genetic diversity analysis of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) differing in salinity tolerance based on RAPD and SSR markers Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Kanawapee,Nantawan; Sanitchon,Jirawat; Srihaban,Pranee; Theerakulpisut,Piyada.
Thirty rice cultivars were evaluated for salinity tolerance during the seedling stage and were divided into five tolerance groups including tolerant (T), moderately tolerant (MT), moderately susceptible (MS), susceptible (S) and highly susceptible (HS) which comprised 5, 10, 9, 4 and 2 cultivars respectively. Genetic diversity of all rice cultivars was evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. The cultivars were evaluated for polymorphisms after amplification with 20 random decamer primers and 20 SSR primer pairs. A total of 161 RAPD markers and 190 SSR alleles were produced which revealed 68.94% and 89.47% polymorphism respectively. Mean genetic similarity coefficient was 0.82 for RAPD and 0.70 for...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Genetic similarity; RAPD markers; Rice; Salinity tolerance; SSR markers.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582011000600002
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Genetic diversity of a natural population of Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez. in the southern Amazon, Brazil. Repositório Alice
EBERT, A.; BALDONI, A. B.; SKOWRONSKI, L.; CONSTANTINO. M.; BARROS. J. H. de S.; COSTA, R. B. da.
Genetic diversity studies in natural forest species populations have consistently expanded in recent years. Considering that biodiversity is directly related to genetic variation among and within populations, its study has become essential to the knowledge of genetic patterns. The study assessed genetic diversity of a Mezilaurus itauba population, detecting similarity and dissimilarity evaluating distribution intensity of adult and juvenile trees in remnant rain forest fragments in southern Amazon, Brazil. Leaf and cambium samples were randomly collected from 36 reproductive individuals. Eleven RAPD (random-amplified polymorphic DNA) primers were tested for genetic similarity analyses. The obtained data demonstrated that the species presented 79.77%...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Genetic population; Manejo florestal; Genética de população; Similaridade genética; Conservação; Conservation practices; Forest management; Genetic similarity.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1087215
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Genetic similarity among soybean (Glycine max (L) Merrill) cultivars released in Brazil using AFLP markers Genet. Mol. Biol.
Bonato,Ana Lídia V.; Calvo,Eberson S.; Geraldi,Isaias O.; Arias,Carlos Alberto A..
Genetic similarity among soybean genotypes was studied by applying the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique to 317 soybean cultivars released in Brazil from 1962 to 1998. Genetic similarity (GS) coefficients were estimated using the coefficient of Nei and Li (Nei and Li 1979), and the cultivars were clustered using the unweighted pair-group method with averages (UPGMA). The parentage coefficients of 100 cultivars released between 1984 and 1998 were calculated and correlated with the genetic similarity obtained by the markers. The genetic similarity coefficients varied from 0.17 to 0.97 (x = 0.61), with 56.8% of the coefficients being above 0.60 and only 9.7% equal to or less than 0.50. The similarity coefficients have remained constant...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: AFLP; Genetic similarity; Molecular markers; Parentage coefficient; Soybean.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572006000400019
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Genetic similarity of Burkholderia cenocepacia from cystic fibrosis patients BJID
Pretto,Luana; de-Paris,Fernanda; Machado,Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro; Martins,Andreza Francisco; Barth,Afonso Luís.
Burkholderia cenocepacia may cause serious infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, and this microorganism can be highly transmissible. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is widely used to study the dynamics of strain spread in cystic fibrosis patients. The aim of this work was to perform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based molecular typing of B. cenocepacia isolates to evaluate the epidemiology of this species at our hospital. A total of 28 isolates from 23 cystic fibrosis patients were analyzed. Initially, we compared isolates obtained from the same patient at different periods of time. We then compared the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of 15 IIIA isolates, and in a third analysis, evaluated the genetic profile of 8 IIIB isolates from...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Burkholderia cenocepacia; Cystic fibrosis; PFGE; Genetic similarity.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702013000100014
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Genetic similarity of citrus fresh fruit market cultivars Rev. Bras. Frutic.
Oliveira,Roberto Pedroso de; Radmann,Elizete Beatriz.
The objective of this work was to assess the genetic similarity of the following citrus fresh fruit market seedless cultivars: Lane Late, Navelate, Navelina and Salustiana sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), Clemenules and Marisol mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco) and Okitsu satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marcovitch), and the hybrids Nova [C. clementina x (C. paradisi x C. tangerina)] and Ortanique (tangor probably derived from C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck x C. reticulata Blanco), utilizing isoenzymatic markers. Electrophoresis analysis of proteins extracted from leaf tissues was utilized to detect polymorphisms at ten isoenzymatic systems. Out of 30 alleles, 16 were polymorphic. The Jaccard coefficient was utilized to estimate the genetic similarity...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biochemical markers; Genetic similarity; Isozymes.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-29452005000200037
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Marker-assisted backcrossing using microsatellites and validation of SCAR Phs marker for resistance to white mold in common bean Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Carneiro,Flávia Fernandes; Santos,João Bosco dos; Leite,Monik Evelin.
Molecular markers may accelerate selection through the identification of plants with higher proportion of recurrent parent genome, as well as identifying those plants bearing target alleles like quantitative traits loci (QTLs) for white mold resistance. The objectives of this work were: 1) to employ microsatellite markers (SSR) in order to accelerate the recovery of recurrent parent genome 2) to validate sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) Phs associated with a QTL that confers resistance to white mold, as previously identified in bean populations. Lines G122 and M20 were crossed, which generated 267 F1 plants from backcross (BC) BC1 and 113 plants from backcross BC2.SSR polymorphic markers were adopted. The relationship between BC plants and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Backcross; Genetic similarity; Phaseolus vulgaris; SCAR; Sclerotinia sclerotiorum; SSR assisted selection.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582010000600009
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Similaridade genética entre acessos de mangueira com base em marcadores AFLP e microssatélites. Infoteca-e
SANTOS, C. A. F.; LIMA NETO, F. P..
Estimativas de similaridade genética entre 112 acessos de mangueira (Mangifera indica L.), de diferentes origens geográfi cas, estabelecidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Embrapa Semiárido foram obtidas com base em marcadores AFLP e microssatélites de forma a auxiliar atividades de melhoramento e manejo de recursos genéticos dessa espécie. O DNA dos acessos foi extraído de acordo com o protocolo CTAB 2x. Dendrogramas UPGMA foram gerados usando-se o coefi ciente de similaridade de Jaccard, com 50 alelos de 12 microssatélites e 157 amplicons AFLP de 13 combinações de primers EcoRI/ MseI. As correlações cofenéticas foram de 0,81, 0,80 e 0,94 para os dendrogramas de AFLP, microssatélites e AFLP + microssatélites, respectivamente. Quatro possíveis grupos foram...
Tipo: Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Relações entre acessos; Acessos brasileiros; Melhoramento genético; Manga; Melhoramento Vegetal; Método de Melhoramento; Mangifera Indica; Mangoes; Genetic similarity.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/1103574
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Variabilidade genética através de polimorfismos isoenzimáticos em aveias hexaplóides. Repositório Alice
MATIELLO, R.R.; BARBOSA NETO, J.F.; SERENO, M.J.C. de M.; TADERKA, I.; PEGORARO, D.G..
A analise isoenzimatica por eletroforese possui aplicacoes no melhoramento vegetal, principalmente na identificacao de variabilidade genetica - pois as isoenzimas sao produtos diretos da expressao genetica-, e ajuda a entender a relacao evolutiva entre as especies, possibilitando a identificacao de genotipos potenciais a serem utilizados nos programas de melhoramento. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a variabilidade genetica atraves dos polimorfismos do sistema isoenzimatico esterase e estimar a similaridade genetica entre tres grupos hexaploides de aveia. Para a analise foram utilizados nove genotipos cultivados de aveia, tres introducoes silvestres de Avena sterilis L., e de dezesseis introducoes silvestres de A.fatua L.. Ampla...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Isoenzimas; Similaridade genetica; Aveias hexaploides; Melhoramento vegetal; Isozyme; Genetic similarity; Plant breeding; Hexaploid oats.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/100249
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微衛星DNA分子標誌應用於桃栽培種與雜交後代之遺傳相似性分析 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
王昭月; 宋家瑋; 劉明橞; 歐錫坤; Jau-Yeuh Wang; Chia-Wei Song; Min-Huai Liou; Shyi-Kuan Ou.
[[abstract]]The typical fruit characteristics of 34 selected peach cultivars and the hybrid seedlings were selected for genetic similarity analysis and identification by microsatellite DNA markers (including SSR: simple sequence repeat; and ISSR: inter simple sequence repeat). The selected typical fruit characteristics included melting, non-melting and stony hard types, sour versus bitter, sweet versus very sweet and with versus without pubescence. Amplification of SSR locus was screened from 17 primer pairs and 12 polymorphic SSR markers had been selected which had 3 to 9 alleles each. One of the SSR markers UPD-96-005 could be used to distinguish the domestic cultivar of ‘Ying Ge Tao’ and ‘Ba Yue Tao’. Furthermore, combining all of the 87 SSR markers and...
Palavras-chave: 桃 微衞星DNA 遺傳相似性 果實特性 Peach; Microsatellite DNA; Genetic similarity; Fruit characteristics [[classification]]3.
Ano: 2007
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