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A conceptual model to describe heat stress in dairy cows from actual to questionable loops Acta Agron. (Palmira)
Molina Benavides,Raúl Andrés; Sánchez Guerrero,Hugo; Atzori,Alberto Stanislao.
Abstract Thermal environment is recognized to be one the most important ecological factor to determine domestic animal growth, development and productivity for direct and indirect effects on its physiology and behavior. Despite having specific and individual adaptation, is very common, within seasonal or diurnal temperature variations, animals deal with situations outside their thermal comfort zone. Due to heat stress, dairy cows reduce milk production and fertility, and therefore, had achieved an increasing in metabolic disorders incidence, causing low revenues to farm in short and medium periods. Due to world climate change more impact of the meteorological variables on animal responses is expected for the future. This study aimed to describe and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Climate change; Grazing; Livestock production systems; Milk production; System dynamics; Temperature.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0120-28122018000100059
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Aboveground biomass and concentration of nutrients in semiarid rangeland plant species: Influence of grazing and soil moisture Phyton
Gul,B; Islam,M; Ahmad,S; Gul,S.
Spatial and temporal patterns of aboveground biomass and nutritive value of rangeland species with respect to the influence of grazing and soil moisture were investigated. The research was conducted during two years at the Tomagh Research Station, near Sanjawi, Ziarat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. This area is protected from grazing since 1998; however, some of the area is open for grazing. Tree sites were selected for research purposes: a protected plain, a protected hilly, and an unprotected plain grazed area. Sampling was carried out during the spring, summer and autumn seasons. Results revealed that soil moisture was greater at the protected than unprotected sites. The aboveground plant biomass was 66% to 76% lower at unprotected than protected...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Rangeland; Biomass production; Season; Semiarid; Grazing; Grass.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-56572016000100013
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Acúmulo de forragem em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens adubados com nitrogênio. Repositório Alice
FAGUNDES, J.L.; FONSECA, D.M. da; GOMIDE, J.A.; NASCIMENTO JUNIOR, D. do; VITOR, C.M.T.; MORAIS, R.V. de; MISTURA, C.; REIS, G. da C.; MARTUSCELLO, J.A..
A dinâmica de crescimento de plantas forrageiras tem sido foco de estudo nos últimos anos, visando aprimorar o conhecimento do processo de produção de forragem em pastagens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de forragem em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. adubados com nitrogênio e submetidos a uma mesma intensidade de pastejo. Os tratamentos consistiram de 75, 150, 225 e 300 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, aplicados antes do início das avaliações experimentais, as quais foram realizadas durante as estações de verão, outono, inverno e primavera de 2002. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com duas repetições. O capim-braquiária apresentou incremento de produção de matéria seca proporcional às doses de...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Adubação nitrogenada; Capim-braquiária; Eficiência de utilização de nitrogênio; Forragem; Pastejo; Nitrogen fertilization; Brachiaria grass; Nitrogen use efficiency; Forage; Grazing.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/113974
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Adaptação do método de guias fotográficas para determinação da utilização do capim buffel. Repositório Alice
ARAUJO FILHO, J. A. de; VALE, L. V.; SILVA, S. M. S.; KAWAS, F. N.; CRISPIM, S. M. A.; ARRUDA, F. A. V..
1985
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Uso; Guia fotografico; Brasil; Ceará; Photography guide; Brazil; Capim buffel; Cenchrus ciliares; Pastagem; Grazing; Semiarid zones; Cenchrus ciliaris.
Ano: 1985 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/515080
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Agriculture and livestock impacts on river floodplain wetlands: a study case from the lower Uruguay river Boletín de la Sociedad
Bena,María Julia; Sirolli,Horacio; Kalesnik,Fabio.
Even though wetlands are very valuable environments, they suffer heavy exploitation and transformation processes that affect their biodiversity. The main goal of this study was to characterize the herbaceous plant communities associated with the southern Uruguay River flood plain. We focused on lowlands of two farms, one of which is surrounded by an embankment to prevent flooding. A random stratified sampling was performed in 72 plots. To detect distribution patterns and plant species associations we performed a Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and a Two-Way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). We could identify six groups of plots whose ordination patterns are related to the flooding preferences of dominant species. Herbaceous plant groups that...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Uruguay river; Dyking; Grazing; Herbaceous communities; Floodable lowlands.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-23722016000200010
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Analysis of larval oyster grazing by flow cytometry ArchiMer
Chretiennot-dinet, Marie-josèphe; Vaulot, Daniel; Galois, Robert; Spano, Anna-maria; Robert, Rene.
The ingestion of 8 algal species by oyster larvae (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793) was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). In a preliminary experiment, cell size (estimated by light scatter) and chlorophyll fluorescence of 30 algal species were evaluated to select those species which could be mixed together and still be easily discriminated by FCM. Grazing experiments were carried out over 48 h with 6 and 15-day old larvae fed on 3 algal mixtures, each containing 3 different algal species. The concentration of each species was estimated at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h by FCM. Grazing pressure on a given algal species was dependent upon the age of the larvae, the time of the day and the composition of the mixture. Grazing rates of older larvae were about twice...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Oyster larvae; Crassostrea gigas; Grazing; Algae; Selective feeding; Flow cytometry.
Ano: 1991 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00090/20164/17817.pdf
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Aspectos práticos para suplementação de bovinos em pastejo. Infoteca-e
THIAGO, L. R. L. de S.; SILVA, J. M. da..
Para ser competitiva, a bovinocultura de conta tropical precisa explorar melhor o pasto, corrigindo suas possíveis deficiências nutricionais com um suplemento, o que deve ser feito com muito critério e dentro de uma meta de produção bem estabelecida. Isto porque nos trópicos, ao contrário dos países de clima temperado, é possível manter os bovinos em pastejo durante todo o ano , maximizando o conceito de "boi fotossintético". Os elementos que compõem esse sistema são a energia solar (luz e calor), a planta forrageira, componente sinstetizados das substâncias orgânicas (via fotossíntese), os bovinos, componente transformador da matéria vegetal em carne (via fermentação ruminal), o solo, componente sustentador e fornecedor de elementos nutritivos, a umidade,...
Tipo: Comunicado Técnico (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Bovino de corte; Nutrição animal; Suplementação em pasto; Suplemento mineral; Pastejo; Beef cattle; Animal nutrition; Supplements; Mineral nutrients; Grazing.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/326137
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Avaliação de cinco gramíneas tropicais em solo de cerrado, sob condições de pastejo. Infoteca-e
NUNES, S. G.; VIEIRA, J. M.; SOUZA, J. M. de..
Este trabalho foi desenvolvido e teve como objetivo investigar o comportamento de diferentes gramíneas forrageiras, implantadas em solos de cerrado, através do desempenho de novilhos.
Tipo: Comunicado Técnico (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Avaliação; Bovino; Brachiaria decumbens; Capim Colonião; Capim Jaraguá; Capim Kazungula; Capim Pangola; Cerrado; Condição; Digitária decumbens; Evaluation; Forage; Forrageira; Graminea; Gramínea tropical; Gramineas; Gramíneas tropicais; Grasses; Grazing; Hyparrhenia rufa; Melhoramento; Nutrição animal; Panicum maximum; Pastagem; Pastejo; Pasture; Plantas gramíneas forrageiras-Avaliação-Cerrados; Produção; Regiao tropical; Savanna; Setaria anceps; Soil; Solo; Tropical grassland.
Ano: 1979 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1036161
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Avaliação de híbridos de sorgo de corte/pastejo em Passo Fundo, RS, 2000/01. Repositório Alice
FONTANELI, R.S.; FONTANELI, R. S.; RODRIGUES, J. A. S.; SANTOS, F. G. dos; ACOSTA, A.; EMMERIN, A. S.; ORTH, R..
2001
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Sorgo; Forragem; Producao; Corte; Pastejo; Brasil; Passo Fundo; Rio Grande do Sul; Sorghum bicolor; Forage; Production; Grazing.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/485208
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Avaliação de um sistema silvipastoril em região semi-árida envolvendo a consorciação de eucalipto com pastagens. Repositório Alice
RIBASKI, J.; OLIVEIRA, M.C. de; CRUZ, S.C. da..
Verificar a viabilidade tecnico-cientifica de um sistema silvipastoril, envolvendo a consorciacao do eucalipto (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh) com gramineas forrageiras, sob pastejo com bovinos.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Sistema silvipastoril; Eucalipto; Pastagem; Consorciação; Pastejo; Bovino; Eucalyptus camaldulensis; Brasil; Regiao semi-arida; Agroforestry; Pasture; Intercropping; Grazing; Cattle; Brazil; Semiarid region.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/134194
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Bacterivory by benthic organisms in sediment : Quantification using 15N-enriched bacteria ArchiMer
Pascal, P.y.; Dupuy, C; Mallet, C; Richard, P; Niquil, N.
The fate of benthic bacterial biomass in benthic food webs is a topic of major importance but poorly described. This paper describes an alternative method for evaluation of bacterial grazing rate by meiofauna and macrofauna using bacteria pre-enriched with stable isotopes. Natural bacteria from the sediment of an intertidal mudflat were cultured in a liquid medium enriched with 15NH4Cl. Cultured bacteria contained 2.9% of 15N and were enriched sufficiently to be used as tracers during grazing experiments. Cultured bacteria presented a biovolume (0.21 μm3) and a percentage of actively respiring bacteria (10%) similar to those found in natural communities. The number of Operational Taxon Units found in cultures fluctuated between 56 and 75% of that...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Tracer; Stable isotope; Sediment; Grazing; Bacteria.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-4296.pdf
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Bacterivory in the common foraminifer Ammonia tepida: Isotope tracer experiment and the controlling factors ArchiMer
Pascal, P.y.; Dupuy, C; Richard, P; Niquil, N.
The majority of sediment dweller foraminifera are deposit feeders. They use their pseudopodia to gather sediment with associated algae, organic detritus and bacteria. Uptake of bacteria by foraminifera have been observed but rarely quantified. We measured uptake of bacteria by the common foraminifera Ammonia tepida using 15N pre-enriched bacteria as tracers. In intertidal flats, seasonal, tidal and circadian cycles induce strong variations in environmental parameters. Grazing experiments were performed in order to measure effects of abiotic (temperature, salinity and irradiance) and biotic (bacterial and algal abundances) factors on uptake rates of bacteria. In mean conditions, A. tepida grazed 78 pgC ind-1 h-1 during the first eight hours of incubation,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Trophoecology; Prey abundance; Mudflat; Grazing; Foraminifera; Environmental factor; Bacteria.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-4298.pdf
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Bacterivory of a mudflat nematode community under different environmental conditions ArchiMer
Pascal, P.y.; Dupuy, C; Richard, P; Rzeznik-orignac, J; Niquil, Nathalie.
The fate of the benthic bacterial biomass is a topic of major importance in understanding how softbottom environments function. Because of their high abundance, production and nutritional value, benthic bacteria may constitute an important food resource for benthic fauna. The trophic role of bacteria for a nematode community on the Brouage mudflat (Marennes-Ole´ron-France), dominated by three species: Chromadora macrolaima (64% of the abundance), Daptonema oxycerca (15%) and Ptycholaimellus jacobi (8%), was determined in grazing experiments using 15N pre-enriched bacteria. On intertidal flats, seasonal, tidal and circadian cycles induce strong variations in environmental conditions. Grazing experiments were performed in order to measure the effects of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mudflat; Environmental factor; Grazing; Bacteria; Nematode.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-4295.pdf
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Behavior of grazing European wild boar (Sus scrofa) in a semi-extensive production system Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Hodgkinson,Suzanne M; Matus,Felipe; Lopez,Ignacio F.
In the semi-extensive farming systems that are used to raise European wild boar in countries such as Chile, the behavior of the animals in paddocks has not been studied and is important for managing the system. The objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of time that grazing wild boar spent on different activities and the distribution of these activities during the day. The study was conducted in paddocks containing Cynodon dactylon, Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis. A total of 35 purebred European wild boars with a liveweight (average + SEM) of 37.4 + 1.11 kg with noserings were used in the study. The animals were in the paddocks from 08:30 h until 16:30 h, after which they had free access to a commercial diet for one hour and were...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Behavior observations; Behavior patterns; European wild boar; Grazing.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202013000100017
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Biomass flow in massai grass fertilized with nitrogen under intermittent stocking grazing with sheep. Repositório Alice
LOPES, M. N.; CÂNDIDO, M. J. D.; POMPEU, R. C. F. F.; SILVA, R. G. da; CARVALHO, T. C. F. de; SOMBRA, W. A.; MORAIS NETO, L. B. de; PEIXOTO, M. J. A..
Abstract: This study evaluated the biomass flow of massai grass in regrowth subjected to different nitrogen levels (control - no fertilization; 400; 800; and 1200 N kg ha-1year-1) and under rotational stocking with sheep, in a completely randomized design with repeated measures over time. The leaf elongation rate increased with increasing nitrogen levels (N) and the fourth grazing cycle presented a lower value compared with the others. The stem elongation rate responded linearly with increasing levels of N, but it was not influenced by grazing cycles. The senescence rate of leaves remaining before grazing and after grazing were not influenced by the nitrogen fertilization or amended with successive grazing cycles. The phyllochron was influenced only by the...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Panicum infestum; Fluxo de biomassa; Capim massai; Nitrogen fertilization; Ovino; Fixação de nitrogênio; Morfogênese; Panicum maximum; Pastejo; Fertilizante nitrogenado; Sheep; Morphogenesis; Grazing.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/955879
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Biomass flow in Tifton-85 bermudagrass canopy subjected to different management strategies under rotational grazing with dairy goats. Repositório Alice
CUTRIM JÚNIOR, J. A. A.; CAVALCANTE, A. C. R.; CÂNDIDO, M. J. D.; SILVA, G. L.; OLIVEIRA, L. E. V.; VASCONCELOS, E. C. G.; MESQUITA, T. M. O..
Biomass flow characteristics and forage accumulation were evaluated in Bermudagrass (Tifton 85) pasture managed under intermittent stocking with different management strategies. The management levels utilized were conventional (10 cm residual height and unfertilized), light (20 cm residual height and unfertilized), moderate (20 cm residual height with fertilization of 300 kg N/ha.year) and intensive (10 cm residual height with fertilization of 600 kg N/ha.year). A randomized design was used with repeated measurements over time, in two periods of the year, with four replicates. There was significant effect of management × period of the year on the leaf elongation rate (LER). The management levels under fertilization (0.59 and 0.60 cm/tiller.day for the...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Panicum infestum; Nitrogen fertilizers; Acúmulo de forragem; Adubação nitrogenada; Fluxo de biomassa; Biomass; Capim massai; Capim-tifton 85; Cynodon spp; Morfogênese; Fertilizante nitrogenado; Pastejo rotativo; Caprino; Cabra leiteira; Morphogenesis; Grazing; Goats; Grassland management; Rotational grazing.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/956441
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Bloques multinutricionales con follaje de árboles como suplemento alimenticio de ovinos. Colegio de Postgraduados
Martínez Martínez, Ricardo.
Se evaluó la factibilidad técnica y financiera de incorporar follaje de árboles forrajeros en bloques multinutricionales (BMN) para suplementar ovinos en pastoreo. Se elaboraron bloques de 2.5 kg con follaje de Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson, Acacia cochliacantha Humb. & Bonpl. Willd y Brosimum alicastrum Swartz, que se ofrecieron como suplemento a ovinos pelibuey durante el pastoreo. Se evaluó el costo de la manufactura y las características físico-químicas de los BMN, así como la preferencia, el consumo y la ganancia de peso de los animales durante la suplementación. Los bloques alcanzaron 4 kg cm-2 de dureza a los 7 días de su elaboración y contenían en promedio 23.5 % PC, 25 % FDN, 17.5 % FAD y más de 63 % DIVMS, con costo de...
Palavras-chave: Bloques multinutricionales; Suplementación; Arboles forrajeros; Ovinos; Pastoreo; Feed block; Supplementation; Fodder trees; Sheep; Grazing; Maestría; Agroecosistemas Tropicales.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/212
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Bloques multinutricionales con follaje de árboles como suplemento alimenticio de ovinos. Colegio de Postgraduados
Martínez Martínez, Ricardo.
Se evaluó la factibilidad técnica y financiera de incorporar follaje de árboles forrajeros en bloques multinutricionales (BMN) para suplementar ovinos en pastoreo. Se elaboraron bloques de 2.5 kg con follaje de Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson, Acacia cochliacantha Humb. & Bonpl. Willd y Brosimum alicastrum Swartz, que se ofrecieron como suplemento a ovinos pelibuey durante el pastoreo. Se evaluó el costo de la manufactura y las características físico-químicas de los BMN, así como la preferencia, el consumo y la ganancia de peso de los animales durante la suplementación. Los bloques alcanzaron 4 kg cm-2 de dureza a los 7 días de su elaboración y contenían en promedio 23.5 % PC, 25 % FDN, 17.5 % FAD y más de 63 % DIVMS, con costo de...
Palavras-chave: Bloques multinutricionales; Suplementación; Arboles forrajeros; Ovinos; Pastoreo; Feed block; Supplementation; Fodder trees; Sheep; Grazing; Maestría; Agroecosistemas Tropicales.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/212
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Body composition and deposition efficiency of protein and energy in grazing young bulls Animal Sciences
Valente, Eriton Egidio Lisboa; Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Universidade Federal de Viçosa; Dias, Isabela Fernanda Teixeira; Universidade Federal de Viçosa.
The effects of supplementation with different protein: carbohydrate ratios on body composition, carcass characteristics and protein and energy deposition efficiency of young were assessed. Twenty-four Nellorecalves (132.5 ± 5.5 kgand 90-150 days of age) were kept on pasture for a 430 day experimental period. The treatments were: Control = mineral mixture only; HPHC = high-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; HPLC = high-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement; LPHC = low-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; LPLC = low-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement. Four animals at begning and 20 animal at end of experiment were slaughtered to evaluate the carcass composition. Control bulls had the lowest (p < 0.05) intake of ME (9.8 Mcal day-1)...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: 5.04.03.00-1 associative effects; Beef cattle; Calf; Grazing; Multiple supplement; Production.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/21345
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Calculations of results in grazing experiments using the counting method OMA
Tackx, M.L.M.; Van de Vrie, E.M..
Different formulae used in the literature for calculation of ingestion rates are reviewed. Their applicability is discussed in relation to two criteria: the occurrence of saturation of the feeding and/or growth of the food particles. It is shown by simulations that the differences in results obtained by calculating ingestion following a linear or an exponential model are restricted to a few percent. Calculation of ingestion rates by substantial over- or underestimation depending on the growth constant of the food particles and the grazing time.The formula I = Vk(C<sub>zt</sub>C<sub>zo</sub>e<sup>kt</sup>)/N(I-e<sup>kt</sup>) is proposed for the calculation of ingestion rates under saturated circumstances.It...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Food intake; Food intake; Grazing; Ingestion; Mathematical analysis; Measuring devices; Phytoplankton; Zooplankton.
Ano: 1985 URL: http://www.vliz.be/nl/open-marien-archief?module=ref&refid=3212
Registros recuperados: 174
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