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A 2004 Social Accounting Matrix for Israel: Documentation of an Economy-Wide Database with a Focus on Agriculture, the Labour Market, and Income Distribution AgEcon
Siddig, Khalid H.A.; Flaig, Dorothee; Luckmann, Jonas; Grethe, Harald.
This document describes the Israeli Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the year 2004, developed by the Agricultural and Food Policy Group at the University of Hohenheim. The SAM is a part of a larger research project which aims to analyse several economic, trade, and labour policies in the context of economic integration of agriculture between Israel and the West Bank. Data are obtained from various sources in Israel. Sources include the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), the Central Bank of Israel (CBI), and the Israeli Tax Authority (ITA). Data from sources outside of Israel are used to fill-in some gaps in the domestic reports. External sources include the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: SAM; IO Table; CGE; Database; Israel.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital; C6; C8; D1; D3; D5; D6; E2; E6; F1; F2; H2.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/110156
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A REGIONAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF THE WELFARE IMPACT OF CASH TRANSFERS: AN ANALYSIS OF PROGRESA IN MEXICO AgEcon
Coady, David P.; Harris, Rebecca Lee.
Using a regionally disaggregated computable general equilibrium model, we analyze the differential welfare impacts of a cash transfer program targeted at rural areas. The direct effect of the transfers decreases regional income differentials, but the indirect effects depend on how the program is financed. Financing the program with a more efficient tax system is also less regressive and has favorable urban impacts. The less efficient instruments result in relatively higher incomes in all rural regions, but are more regressive. The increasing share of urban poverty highlights the shortcomings of rural targeting and raises the issue of horizontal equity.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: General equilibrium; Targeted transfers; Regional impacts; Tax incidence; Food Security and Poverty; D3; D58; D60; H2; O10; O54; R13.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16303
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Abatement Cost Uncertainty and Policy Instrument Selection under a Stringent Climate Policy. A Dynamic Analysis AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; Golub, Alexander; Markandya, Anil; Massetti, Emanuele; Tavoni, Massimo.
This paper investigates the relative economic and environmental outcomes of price versus quantity mechanisms to control GHG emissions when abatement costs are uncertain. In particular, we evaluate the impacts on policy costs, CO2 emissions and energy R&D for a stringent mitigation target of 550 ppmv CO2 equivalent (i.e. 450 for CO2 only) concentrations. The analysis is performed in an optimal growth framework via Monte Carlo simulations of the integrated assessment model WITCH (World Induced Technical Change Hybrid). Results indicate that the price instrument stochastically dominates the quantity instrument when a stringent stabilization policy is in place.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Abatement Costs; Climate Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; H2; C6; Q5.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6383
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About the Efficiency of Input vs. Output Quotas AgEcon
Merel, Pierre R..
Output quotas are known to be more efficient than input quotas in transferring surplus from consumers to producers. Input quotas, by distorting the shadow prices of inputs, lead to inefficient production and generate larger deadweight losses, for a given amount of surplus transferred. Yet, input quotas have been a ubiquitous tool in agricultural policy. Practicality considerations, as well as the difficulty to control outputs that heavily depend on stochastic weather conditions, are arguments that help understand why policy makers may favor input quotas over output quotas. In this paper, we offer an additional explanation that rests on efficiency considerations. Assuming that the regulator only has limited knowledge about the market fundamentals (supply...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; H2; L2; Q1.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25391
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Agricultural Efficiency Gains and Trade Liberalization in Sudan AgEcon
Siddig, Khalid H.A.; Babiker, Babiker Idris.
The traditional agriculture in Sudan occupies 60% of the total cultivated land and employs 65% of the agricultural population. Nevertheless, it is characterized by its low crop productivity, which is mainly driven by low technical efficiency, while drought and civil conflicts threaten most of its areas countrywide. Therefore, it has contributed only an average of 16% to the total agricultural GDP during the last decade. This paper addresses from an empirical point of view the sectoral and macroeconomic implications of agricultural efficiency improvement in Sudan and assesses the efficiency gains under the assumption of trade liberalization. Efficiency improvement experiments are implemented by augmenting the efficiency parameters of labor, capital, and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural efficiency; Liberalization; Sudan SAM; CGE analysis; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Food Security and Poverty; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; D2; D5; D6; E1; E2; F1; F2; H2.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/112786
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Better Milk than Cola: Soft Drink Taxes and Substitution Effects AgEcon
Runge, C. Ford; Johnson, Justin; Runge, Carlisle Piehl.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Soft Drink Taxes; Obesity; Substitution effects; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; H; H2; H25.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117131
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Caloric Sweetened Beverage Taxes: The Good Food/Bad Food Trap AgEcon
Johnson, Robbin S..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Beverage Taxes; Obesity Prevention; Public Health Strategies; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; H; H2; H25.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117138
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Can Taxes on Calorically Sweetened Beverages Reduce Obesity? AgEcon
Todd, Jessica E.; Zhen, Chen.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Beverage tax; Obesity; Overweight; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D12; H2; I18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95754
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Corruption and Environmental Policy: An Alternative Perspective AgEcon
Lapatinas, Athanasios; Litina, Anastasia; Sartzetakis, Eftichios S..
We construct an overlapping generations model in which agents live through two periods; childhood and adulthood. Each agent makes choices only as an adult, based on her utility that depends on her own consumption and the human capital and environmental quality endowed to her offspring. Entering adulthood, agents choose randomly between two occupations: citizens and politicians. Citizens are the only producers of a single good and choose the proportion of their income to declare to the tax authorities. Politicians decide upon the allocation of the tax revenue between environmental protection and education activities, taking as given the rates of peculation in each activity. In this context, two self-fulfilling stable equilibria can emerge, one associated...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corruption; Environmental Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; H2; H26; H3; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101377
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Devolution and Accountability Effects in the Public Provision of Water Services in Indonesia AgEcon
Meirelles, Patricia; Rodriguez, Catherine.
This paper separately evaluates how devolution and accountability, two distinct aspects of the decentralization reforms implemented in Indonesia in the year 2001, influenced the public provision of water services. Using household level data it is found that the devolution of responsibility does not necessarily affect the provision of public services. Our findings show that the quality of publicly provided water decreased only in cities in which devolution was accompanied by a change in accountability. Robustness checks suggest that these results are driven by changes in the accountability framework rather than trends in the health services.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Indonesia; Decentralization; Accountability; Devolution; Water; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O2; I18; H2; H54.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107395
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Disaster Relief through the Tax Code: Hurricane Katrina and the Gulf Opportunity Zone AgEcon
Williamson, James M.; Pender, John L..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: This project investigates the impact of geo-graphically targeted Federal tax relief enacted in the wake of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. To facilitate administration of relief efforts and define eligibility for the temporary tax law changes; The Gulf Opportunity Zone (GO Zone) was created. We estimate the initial impacts of these tax incentives using propensity score matching (PSM) and Mahalanobis metric matching (MM) methods; Combined with difference-in-difference (DD) estimation; To limit the confounding influences of observable and fixed unobservable differences between counties affected by these incentives and similarly storm-damaged counties in the region that were not included in the GO Zone. Results show that per capita personal income and net earnings increased more rapidly in GO Zone counties that experienced minimal storm damage than in similar non-GO Zone counties in the GO Zone States and neighboring States.; Public Economics; H2; H24; H25.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103578
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Employment and Growth Effects of Tax Reforms AgEcon
Michaelis, Jochen; Birk, Angela.
This paper explores how revenue-neutral tax reforms impact employment and economic growth in a model of endogenous growth and search frictions on the labor market. We analyze how savings and the incentive to create new jobs are affected by tax swaps between wage income taxes, payroll taxes, capital income taxes and taxes levied on capital costs. In our framework, the payroll tax is found to be neutral. If this tax is used to finance a cut in the capital income tax, we will observe an increase in both growth and, via the capitalization effect, employment. Most other tax reforms, however, imply a trade-off between employment and growth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Search unemployment; Growth; Tax reform; Public Economics; E6; H2; J6; O4.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26275
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Employment and Growth Effects of Tax Reforms in a Growth-Matching Model AgEcon
Birk, Angela; Michaelis, Jochen.
This paper explores how revenue-neutral tax reforms impact employment and economic growth in models of exogenous and endogenous growth and search frictions on the labor market. We show that (i) a cut in the payroll tax financed by an increase in the wage tax lowers both equilibrium employment and the equilibrium growth rate, that (ii) a higher energy tax combined with a cut in wage taxes boosts employment but has an ambiguous effect on growth, and that (iii) a higher energy tax combined with a cut in payroll taxes enhances employment but mitigates economic growth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Search unemployment; Growth; Tax reform; Labor and Human Capital; Public Economics; E6; H2; J6; O4.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26324
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Environmental Policy, Spatial Spillovers and the Emergence of Economic Agglomerations AgEcon
Kyriakopoulou, Efthymia; Xepapadeas, Anastasios.
We explain the spatial concentration of economic activity, in a model of economic geography, when the cost of environmental policy - which is increasing in the concentration of emissions - and an immobile production factor act as centrifugal forces, while positive knowledge spillovers and iceberg transportation costs act as centripetal forces. We study the agglomeration effects caused by trade-offs between centripetal and centrifugal forces. The above effects govern firms’ location decisions and as a result, they define the distribution of economic activity across space. We derive the rational expectations equilibrium and the social optimum, compare the outcomes and characterize the optimal spatial policies.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agglomeration; Spatial Economics; Environmental Policy; Knowledge Spillovers; Transportation Cost; Environmental Economics and Policy; R3; Q5; H2.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54289
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Extended Product Responsibility: An Economic Assessment of Alternative Policies AgEcon
Palmer, Karen L.; Walls, Margaret.
Extended Product Responsibility embodies the notion that agents along a product chain should share responsibility for the life-cycle environmental impacts of the product, including those associated with ultimate disposal. Extended Producer Responsibility is a narrower concept which places responsibility on producers and focuses primarily on post-consumer waste disposal. Manufacturer "take-back" requirements are the policy lever most often associated with Extended Producer Responsibility. In this paper, we discuss alternative incentive-based policies that are consistent with the objectives of Extended Product and Producer Responsibility. We argue that an upstream combined product tax and recycling subsidy (UCTS) is generally more cost-effective and imposes...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Solid waste; Extended product responsibility; Recycling; Unit pricing; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; H2.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10830
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International Energy R&D Spillovers and the Economics of Greenhouse Gas Atmospheric Stabilization AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; Massetti, Emanuele; Tavoni, Massimo.
It is widely recognized that technological change has the potential to reduce GHG emissions without compromising economic growth; hence, any better understanding of the process of technological innovation is likely to increase our knowledge of mitigation possibilities and costs. This paper explores how international knowledge flows affect the dynamics of the domestic R&D sector and the main economic and environmental variables. The analysis is performed using WITCH, a dynamic regional model of the world economy, in which energy technical change is endogenous. The focus is on disembodied energy R&D international spillovers. The knowledge pool from which regions draw foreign ideas differs between High Income and Low Income countries. Absorption...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Policy; Energy R&D; International R&D Spillovers; Stabilization; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; H0; H2; H3.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8217
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Is There a Rationale for Rebating Environmental Levies? AgEcon
Bernard, Alain; Fischer, Carolyn; Vielle, Marc.
Political pressure often exists for rebating environmental levies, particularly when incomplete regulatory coverage allegedly creates an“"unlevel playing field" with other, unregulated firms or industries. This paper assesses the conditions under which rebating environmental levies is justified for the regulated sector. It combines a theoretical approach based on second-best modeling with numerical simulations aimed at determining the most sensitive parameters. We find that if an adequate tax on production can be levied in the unregulated sector, no rebate is justified for the regulated sector. Moreover, even in the case of constrained taxation in the unregulated sector, a tax rebate or a subsidy in the regulated sector is not necessarily a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental levy; Tax rebate; Fiscal distortions; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q43; H2; D61.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10512
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Multinational Taxation and International Emissions Trading AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn.
Many studies have shown that the activities of multinational corporations are quite sensitive to differences in income tax rates across countries. In this paper I explore the interaction between multinational taxation and abatement activities under an international emissions permit trading scheme. Four types of plans are considered: (1) a single domestic permit system with international offsets; (2) separate national permit systems without trade; (3) separate national permit systems with limited offsets; and (4) an international permit trading system. For each plan, I model the incentives for the multinational firm to choose abatement activities at home and abroad and to transfer emissions credits between parent and subsidiary. Limits on trading across...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emission permits; Transfer pricing; Taxation; Multinational corporations; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; H2; F2; Q2.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10816
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Optimal Energy Investment and R&D Strategies to Stabilise Greenhouse Gas Atmospheric Concentrations AgEcon
Carraro, Carlo; Bosetti, Valentina; Massetti, Emanuele; Tavoni, Massimo.
The stabilisation of GHG atmospheric concentrations at levels expected to prevent dangerous climate change has become an important, global, long-term objective. It is therefore crucial to identify a cost-effective way to achieve this objective. In this paper we use WITCH, a hybrid climate-energy-economy model, to obtain a quantitative assessment of some cost-effective strategies that stabilise CO2 concentrations at 550 or 450 ppm. In particular, this paper analyses the energy investment and R&D policies that optimally achieve these two GHG stabilisation targets (i.e. the future optimal energy mix consistent with the stabilisation of GHG atmospheric concentrations at 550 and 450 ppm). Given that the model accounts for interdependencies and spillovers...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Policy; Energy R&D; Investments; Stabilisation Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; H0; H2; H3.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7435
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Optimal Investment and Financial Strategies under Tax Rate Uncertainty AgEcon
Fedele, Alessandro; Panteghini, Paolo M.; Vergalli, Sergio.
In this paper we apply a real-option model to study the effects of tax rate uncertainty on a firm's decisions. In doing so, we depart from the relevant literature, which focuses on fully equity-financed investment projects. By letting a representative firm borrow optimally, we show that debt finance not only encourages investment activities but can also substantially mitigate the effect of tax rate uncertainty on investment timing.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Capital Levy; Corporate Taxation; Default Risk; Real Options; Financial Economics; H2.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91001
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