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Registros recuperados: 118
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A proposal to correct external effects in the coffee market: a tax on regular coffee and tea to subsidise the fair trade coffee AgEcon
Galarraga, Ibon; Markandya, Anil.
This paper justifies the need to introduce a tax on regular coffee drinkers in the UK to subsidise the fair trade/organic coffee production. This policy will allow to take full account of the negative external effect of regular coffee production while internalising the positive effect of fair trade initiatives. Designing such a policy is possible and the benefits of it can be calculated. This paper shows how. Propuesta para corregir las externalidades en el mercado de café: un impuesto sobre el te y el café regular y una subvención sobre el café de Comercio Justo. El presente artículo justifica la necesidad de introducir un impuesto sobre los consumidores de café y té en el Reino Unido para subvencionar la producción de café orgánico y de Comercio Justo....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Coffee market; Fair trade; International Relations/Trade; Q18; H23.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7991
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A Tale of Two Market Failures: Technology and Environmental Policy AgEcon
Jaffe, Adam B.; Newell, Richard G.; Stavins, Robert N..
Market failures associated with environmental pollution interact with market failures associated with the innovation and diffusion of new technologies. These combined market failures provide a strong rationale for a portfolio of public policies that foster emissions reduction as well as the development and adoption of environmentally beneficial technology. Both theory and empirical evidence suggest that the rate and direction of technological advance is influenced by market and regulatory incentives, and can be cost-effectively harnessed through the use of economicincentive based policy. In the presence of weak or nonexistent environmental policies, investments in the development and diffusion of new environmentally beneficial technologies are very likely...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Technology; Research and development; Environment; Externality; Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; O38; Q28; H23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10815
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Agricultural Insurance as an Environmental Policy Tool AgEcon
Coble, Keith H.; Hanson, Terrill R.; Miller, J. Corey; Shaik, Saleem.
This paper examines the possibility that insurance for row crops, livestock, and aquaculture can be used effectively to encourage producers to adopt practices that will improve environmental behavior. Examples of agricultural environmental insurance are provided and considered in the context of alternative policy mechanisms. The current state of agricultural insurance and the nonagricultural environmental insurance market are explored. We also lay out the characteristics of an insurable risk along with the theoretical basis of insurance provision. An empirical example of an environmental insurance design is provided, and the behavioral implications of such a design are examined. Finally, we discuss important considerations that should be evaluated...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environment; Insurance; Liability; D81; G22; H23; K13; Q18.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43214
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Agricultural Price Distortion and Stabilization: Stylized facts and Hypothesis Tests AgEcon
Masters, William A.; Garcia, Andres F..
This paper describes agricultural policy choices and tests some predictions of political economy theories. It begins with three broad stylized facts: governments tend to tax agriculture in poorer countries, and subsidize it in richer ones, tax both imports and exports more than nontradables, and tax more and subsidize less where there is more land per capita. We test a variety of political-economy explanations, finding results consistent with hypothesized effects of rural and urban constituents’ rational ignorance about small per-person effects, governance institutions’ control of rent-seeking by political leaders, governments’ revenue motive for taxation, and the role of time consistency in policy-making. We also find that larger groups obtain more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural price distortions; Political economy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; D72; D78; F11; H23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50301
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Agri-Environmental Policies When the Spatial Pattern of Biodiversity Reserves Matters AgEcon
Bamiére, Laure; David, Maia; Vermont, Bruno.
The aim of this paper is to compare different policy instruments for cost-effective habitat conservation on agricultural lands, when the desired spatial pattern of reserves is a random mosaic. We use a spatially explicit mathematical programming model which studies the farmers' behavior as profit maximizers under technical and administrative constraints. Facing different policy measures, each farmer chooses its land-use at the field level, which determines the landscape at the regional level. A spatial pattern index (Ripley L function) is then associated to the obtained landscape, indicating on the degree of dispersion of the reserve. We compare a subsidy per hectare of reserve with an auction scheme and an agglomeration malus. We find that the auction is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-environmental policies; Biodiversity; Mathematical programming; Spatial optimization; Reserve design; Cost-efficiency; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; H23; Q57; Q12; Q28.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114239
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Agri-Environmental Program Compliance in a Heterogeneous Landscape AgEcon
Lankoski, Jussi E.; Lichtenberg, Erik; Ollikainen, Markku.
Heterogeneity of agricultural landscapes may necessitate the use of spatially targeted instrument combinations to implement the social optimum. But compliance with these policies may require costly enforcement. This paper examines the design of agri-environmental policies featuring two of the most commonly used instruments, reductions in fertilizer application rates and installation of riparian buffers. While compliance with buffer strip requirements is verifiable at negligible cost, fertilizer application is only verifiable through costly monitoring. We derive optimal subsidies for fertilizer reduction and buffer strip set-asides and enforcement strategies for the cases of low and excessive monitoring costs. An empirical simulation model suggests...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient runoff; Monitoring; Enforcement; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q15; Q18; H23.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37797
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Alternative Paths toward a Low Carbon World AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; Tavoni, Massimo.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Policy; Stabilization Costs; Environmental Economics and Policy; C72; H23; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90948
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Ancillary Benefits of Reduced Air Pollution in the United States from Moderate Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Policies in the Electricity Sector AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan J.; Palmer, Karen L.; Paul, Anthony; Toman, Michael; Bloyd, Cary.
This paper considers how moderate actions to slow atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel use also could reduce conventional air pollutants in the United States. The benefits that result would be "ancillary" to greenhouse gas abatement. Moreover, the benefits would tend to accrue locally and in the near term, while benefits from reduced climate change mostly accrue globally and over a time frame of several decades or longer. The previous literature suggests that changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx) would be the most important consequence of moderate carbon policies. We calculate these changes in a detailed electricity model linked to an integrated assessment framework to value changes in human health. A tax of $25 per metric ton of carbon...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Greenhouse gas; Ancillary benefits; Air pollution; Co-control benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Particulates; Health; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; I18; Q48.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10664
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Are Emissions Permits Regressive? AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
Grandfathered emissions permits redistribute income to wealthy households by creating firm rents that ultimately accrue to shareholders. Consequently, they can be highly regressive, even if the poor do not have large budget shares for polluting goods. Using an analytical model, this paper estimates the burden borne by different income groups when emissions permits are used to control power plant emissions of carbon, SO2, and NOx. We also compare the burden borne by poor households under permits with that under emissions taxes, performance standards, technology mandates, and input taxes. And we show how the social costs of policies differ from efficiency costs when society has aversion to inequality.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Equity effects; Pollution controls; Emissions permits; Social welfare function; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; H22; H23.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10523
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Banking Permits: Economic Efficiency and Distributional Effects AgEcon
Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; Massetti, Emanuele.
Most analyses of the Kyoto flexibility mechanisms focus on the cost effectiveness of “where” flexibility (e.g. by showing that mitigation costs are lower in a global permit market than in regional markets or in permit markets confined to Annex 1 countries). Less attention has been devoted to “when” flexibility, i.e. to the benefits of allowing emission permit traders to bank their permits for future use. In the model presented in this paper, banking of carbon allowances in a global permit market is fully endogenised, i.e. agents may decide to bank permits by taking into account their present and future needs and the present and future decisions of all the other agents. It is therefore possible to identify under what conditions traders find it optimal to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emission Trading; Banking; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; C72; H23; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6362
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Biological Carbon Sinks: Transaction Costs and Governance AgEcon
van Kooten, G. Cornelis.
Activities that remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in forest and agricultural ecosystems can generate CO2-offset credits that can thus substitute for CO2 emissions reduction. Are biological CO2-uptake activities competitive with CO2 offsets from reduced fossil fuel use? In this paper, it is argued that transaction costs impose a formidable obstacle to direct substitution of carbon uptake offsets for emissions reduction in trading schemes, and that separate caps should be set for emissions reduction and sink-related activities. While a tax/subsidy scheme is preferred to emissions trading for incorporating biologically-generated CO2 offsets, contracts that focus on the activity and not the amount of carbon sequestered are most likely to lead to the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon sequestration; Transaction costs; Climate change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q54; Q23; Q42; H23; D23.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45505
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Can Climate Change Mitigation Policy Benefit the Israeli Economy? A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis AgEcon
Palatnik, Ruslana Rachel; Shechter, Mordechai.
The growing attention to global warming due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the process of fossil fuel--based energy production is expressed in the Kyoto Protocol, which prescribes, on average, a 7 percent reduction in GHG emissions for developed countries. Although Israel was not included in the list of the obligated countries ("Annex A"), it should consider the economic implications of participating in the emission reduction effort, as such a commitment becomes highly feasible following the Bali roadmap which oblige a successor to the Kyoto Protocol to launch negotiations including all parties to the UNFCCC on a future framework, stressing the role of cooperative action and of common though differentiated responsibility. This study aimed to quantify...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Computable General Equilibrium; Climate Change; Environmental Policy; Double Dividend; Israel; Environmental Economics and Policy; Public Economics; D58; H23; Q43; Q48; Q52.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6361
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Can the lack of coordination between an agricultural authority and a water agency generate inefficiencies? AgEcon
Martin, Elsa; Stahn, Hubert.
The point of departure of this work is the situation occurring in the Crau area (South-East of France). In this region, organic farmers use surface water for irrigation and excess water percolates into an aquifer that is used as a source for local residents. In contrast to the standard framework, agricultural production thus increases groundwater levels. In this paper, using a dynamic model, we derive the myopic and socially optimal food and water consumption paths. The first aim is to bring to the fore that an intervention is needed and that, in such a specific case, the environment can be protected thanks to some "good" production incentives. We then analyze the problem of coordination that can occur when two distinct local authorities - an agricultural...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Externalities; Agricultural policy; Water policy; Coordination of policies; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; Q18; Q28..
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91811
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Carbon Abatement in the Fuel Market with Biofuels: Implications for Second-Best Policies AgEcon
Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu.
A carbon tax would penalize carbon intensive fuels like gasoline and shift fuel consumption to less carbon intensive alternatives like biofuels. Since biofuel production competes for land with agriculture, a carbon tax could raise land rents, divert land towards fuel production, and raise agricultural prices. This paper analyzes the welfare effect of a carbon tax on fuel with gasoline and biofuel as available fuel choices, in the presence of a labor tax and biofuel subsidy. The second-best optimal carbon tax is also quantified. Findings show that when biofuels is part of the fuel mix, the carbon tax has a commodity price effect which arises from tax-induced changes in land rent. The commodity price effect could exacerbate or attenuate the tax interaction...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Carbon tax; Optimal fuel tax; Biofuel; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q42; Q48; Q54; H23.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60894
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Climate change policy in a growing economy under catastrophic risks AgEcon
Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos.
Under risk of catastrophic climate change, the occurrence hazard is added to the social discount rate. As a result, the social discount rate (i) increases and (ii) turns endogenous to the global warming policy. The second effect bears profound policy implications that are magnifed by economic growth. In particular, it implies that green- house gases (GHG) emission should gradually be brought to a halt. Due to the public bad nature of the catastrophic risk, the second effect is ignored in a competitive allocation and unregulated economic growth will give rise to excessive emissions. We find that the GHG emission paths under the optimal and competitive growth regimes lie at the extreme ends of the range of feasible emissions. We derive the Pigouvian hazard...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Abrupt climate change; Environmental catastrophes; Economic growth; Emission policy; Hazard rate; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; H41; O13; O40; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7132
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Combining Rate-Based and Cap-and-Trade Emissions Policies AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn.
Rate-based emissions policies (like tradable performance standards) fix average emissions intensity, while cap-and-trade policies fix total emissions. This paper shows that unfettered trade between rate-based and cap-and-trade programs always raises combined emissions, except when product markets are related in particular ways. Gains from trade are fully passed on to consumers in the rate-based sector, resulting in more output and greater emissions allocations. We consider a range of policy options to offset the expansion, including unilateral ones when jurisdictional differences require. The cap-and-trade jurisdiction could impose an "exchange rate" to adjust for relative permit values, but marginal abatement cost equalization is sacrificed. Still, that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Permit allocation; Tradable performance standards; Climate; Greenhouse gases; Environmental Economics and Policy; H23; H3; Q2; Q48.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10713
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Comparing Alternative Policies to Reduce Traffic Accidents AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
This paper derives and implements formulas for the welfare effects of differentiated and uniform mileage taxes, gasoline taxes, and per mile insurance premiums, for reducing the external costs of passenger vehicle accidents. The model distinguishes three driver groups and five vehicle groups, and we obtain estimates of external accident costs per mile for each group from crash data. The (average) external accident cost is estimated at 2.2-6.6 cents per mile. Accidents costs differ substantially across drivers of different ages, but only moderately across different vehicles groups. Annual welfare gains from a mileage tax differentiated across drivers and vehicles according to marginal external costs are $9.4 billion in the benchmark case. The uniform...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Traffic accidents; External costs; Pricing policies; Insurance reform; Public Economics; R48; H22; H23.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10674
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Comparing the Marginal Excess Burden of Labor, Petrol, Cigarette, and Alcohol Taxes: An Application to the United Kingdom AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
This paper develops an analytical framework for comparing the marginal excess burden (MEB) of labor taxes and various commodity taxes, allowing for externalities and interactions between the taxes, and applies the analysis to the United Kingdom. Due to parameter uncertainty and model simplifications the results should be viewed with caution, nonetheless there are some useful insights. For example, even though taxes on petrol and cigarettes confer externality benefits, and these goods are relatively weak leisure substitutes, the MEB of these taxes may substantially exceed that of the labor income tax, except under "high" scenarios for externality benefits. In contrast the MEB for alcohol taxes may be smaller than that of the labor tax, though it is still...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Welfare cost; Labor tax; Cigarette tax; Alcohol tax; Petrol tax; Externalities; Political Economy; H21; H23; Q28.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10860
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Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of the Economic and Land-use Interfaces of Bio-energy Development AgEcon
Abdula, Rahimaisa D..
This paper explores the inter-sectoral and land-use dynamics behind the development of bio-energy as a climate change policy through a computable general equilibrium (CGE) with a land use change (LUC) model. It assesses the economic and social costs of bio-energy development both in terms of the financial investment needed for its market penetration and in terms of the trade-offs its future supply will entail upon the land-use system. It analyzes how policies directed to develop bio-energy alters the pattern of energy mix and land utilization in the economy and how these changes in turn contribute to carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation. Policies analyzed in the study include carbon tax with revenues recycled upon bio-energy subsidy and upon direct tax...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D58; Q4; Q52; H23; O13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25536
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Constitutional Rules and Agricultural Policy Outcomes AgEcon
Olper, Alessandro; Raimondi, Valentina.
This paper deals with the effect of constitutional rules on agricultural policy outcomes in a panel of observations for more than 70 developing and developed countries in the 1955-2005 period. Testable hypotheses are drawn from recent developments in the comparative politics literature that see political institutions as key elements in shaping public policies. Using differences-in-differences regressions we find a positive effect of a transition into democracy on agricultural protection. However, this average effect masks substantial heterogeneities across different forms of democracy. Indeed, what matters are transitions to proportional (as opposed to majoritarian) democracies, as well as to permanent (as opposed to temporary) democracies. Moreover, while...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Comparative Political Economics; Agricultural Distortions; Constitutional Rules; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; D72; H23; O13; P16.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50304
Registros recuperados: 118
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