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An Economic Evaluation of the Hass Avocado Promotion Order’s First Five Years AgEcon
Carman, Hoy F.; Li, Lan; Sexton, Richard J..
The U.S. avocado industry has evolved from an emphasis on seasonal domestic production of a mix of avocado varieties to year-round availability of domestic and imported Hass avocados. California avocado producers, who account for approximately 90% of U.S. avocado production and essentially all U.S. Hass avocado production, have funded promotional programs for avocados since 1961. With few imports of avocados prior to the early 1990s, the benefits from these demand-enhancing programs flowed directly to California producers. Imports of avocados into the United States have increased steadily since then, resulting in a free-rider problem that led ultimately to creation of the Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 2000. This act established...
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: Avocados; Commodity promotion; Marketing order; HAB; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Land Economics/Use; Marketing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121697
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Contribution of several nitrogen sources to growth of Alexandrium catenella during blooms in Thau lagoon, southern France ArchiMer
Collos, Y; Vaquer, A; Laabir, M; Abadie, Eric; Laugier, Thierry; Pastoureaud, Annie; Souchu, Philippe.
A monitoring program with a weekly sampling frequency over a 15-month period indicates that urea concentrations above a certain threshold level may trigger the blooms of Alexandrium catenella in Thau lagoon. However, urea concentrations were also sometimes related to ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations, indicating that the role of urea may not be a direct one. An original approach is used to assess the relative contribution of several nitrogen sources (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, urea) to growth of A. catenella by comparing nitrogen uptake rates to nitrogen-based growth rates estimated from dilution experiments during four blooms over a 4-year period (2001-2004) in Thau lagoon. Nitrate and nitrite contributed 0.1-14% and 0.1-5%...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Uptake kinetics; Ammonium; Urea; Growth; Nitrogen; HAB; Alexandrium catenella.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-6454.pdf
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Global and local factors driving the phenology of Alexandrium minutum (Halim) blooms and its toxicity ArchiMer
Guallar, Carles; Bacher, Cedric; Chapelle, Annie.
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is a toxic bloom-forming species distributed worldwide. The mechanisms driving and promoting the species blooms and their toxicity are studied and presented here. Most previously published work focuses on local and/or short-term scales. In this study, a broad temporal and spatial approach is addressed using time series covering several sites over several years and combining environmental variables and A. minutum abundances from the French English Channel − Atlantic coasts. Data were explored by means of phenology and threshold analysis. The A. minutum bloom characteristics are defined. Only one bloom per year is measured and it may reach more than a million of cells L−1. Bloom period extends from April to October and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Alexandrium minutum; PSP toxicity; HAB; Bloom phenology; Threshold analysis; Monitoring long time-series.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00390/50130/51076.pdf
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Phytochip: Development of a DNA-microarray for rapid and accurate identification of Pseudo-nitzschia spp and other harmful algal species ArchiMer
Noyer, Charlotte; Abot, Anne; Trouilh, Lidwine; Leberre, Veronique Anton; Dreanno, Catherine.
Detection of harmful algal blooms has become a challenging concern because of to the direct impacts on public health and economy. The identification of toxic dinoflagellates and diatoms in monitoring programs requires an extensive taxonomic expertise and is time consuming. Advances in molecular biology have allowed the development of new approaches, more rapid, accurate and cost-effective for detecting these microorganisms. In this context, we developed a new DNA microarray (called, Phytochip) for the simultaneous detection of multiple HAB species with a particular emphasis on Pseudo-nitzschia species. Oligonucleotide probes were designed along the rRNA operon. After DNA extraction, the target rDNA genes were amplified and labeled using an asymmetric PCR;...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: HAB; Pseudo-nitzschia; Microarray; Ribosomal oligonucleotide probes; Environmental monitoring.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00254/36554/42346.pdf
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