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Registros recuperados: 29
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A study of autophagy in hemocytes of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Picot, Sandy; Morga, Benjamin; Faury, Nicole; Chollet, Bruno; Dégremont, Lionel; Travers, Marie-agnes; Renault, Tristan; Arzul, Isabelle.
Macroautophagy is a mechanism that is involved in various cellular processes, including cellular homeostasis and innate immunity. This pathway has been described in organisms ranging in complexity from yeasts to mammals, and recent results indicate that it occurs in the mantle of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. However, the autophagy pathway has never been explored in the hemocytes of C. gigas, which are the main effectors of its immune system and thus play a key role in the defence of the Pacific oyster against pathogens. To investigate autophagy in oyster hemocytes, tools currently used to monitor this mechanism in mammals, including flow cytometry, fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, were adapted and applied to the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Autophagosome; Autophagy; Crassostrea gigas; Flow cytometry; Fluorescence microscopy; Hemocytes; Transmission electron microscopy.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00487/59905/63087.pdf
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Adult somatic progenitor cells and hematopoiesis in oysters ArchiMer
Jemaa, Mohamed; Morin, Nathalie; Cavelier, Patricia; Cau, Julien; Strub, Jean Marc; Delsert, Claude.
Long-lived animals show a non-observable age-related decline in immune defense, which is provided by blood cells that derive from self-renewing stem cells. The oldest living animals are bivalves. Yet, the origin of hemocytes, the cells involved in innate immunity, is unknown in bivalves and current knowledge about mollusk adult somatic stem cells is scarce. Here we identify a population of adult somatic precursor cells and show their differentiation into hemocytes. Oyster gill contains an as yet unreported irregularly folded structure (IFS) with stem-like cells bathing into the hemolymph. BrdU labeling revealed that the stem-like cells in the gill epithelium and in the nearby hemolymph replicate DNA. Proliferation of this cell population was further...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Hematopoiesis; Adult somatic progenitor cells; Hemocytes; Mollusk; Marine invertebrates.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00197/30802/29172.pdf
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Analysis of hemocyte parameters in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, reared in the field — Comparison of hatchery diploids and diploids from natural beds ArchiMer
Gagnaire, Beatrice; Soletchnik, Patrick; Faury, Nicole; Kerdudou, Nolwenn; Le Moine, Olivier; Renault, Tristan.
Internal defence mechanisms of bivalves include the hemocytes which assume several functions. Relationships exist between environmental factors, physiological state of oysters, defence system and pathogens. Hatchery oysters are more and more produced and reared in the field. The characteristics and particularly the defence system of these animals are poorly documented. In this context, two field trials were carried out from May to September 2002 and from April to July 2003 in order to monitor hemocyte parameters of diploid oysters from natural beds and hatchery-produced diploid oysters using flow cytometry. Several hemocyte parameters (cell mortality, granulocyte percentage, phagocytosis, esterase and peroxidase activities) were monitored. For both oyster...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Hatchery; Natural beds; Diploids; Flow cytometry; Peroxidase activity; Esterase activity; Phagocytosis; Hemocytes; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oyster.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-3119.pdf
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Bonamia ostreae, parasite de l'huître plate, Ostrea edulis: sa position taxonomique parmi les parasites du groupe "microcell", analyses des interactions hôte/parasite chez plusieurs populations d'huîtres plates ArchiMer
Besnard-cochennec, Nathalie.
Bonamia ostreae is the causative agent of hemocyte disease. It has been detected first during mortalities occured in Franc in 1979. Bonamiosis spread rapidly among oysters farming in France and Europ. Another species, Bonamia sp. has been detected in New Zealand and Australia. These paasites were both included in the "microcell" group. This group contains 2 others parasites, Mikrocytos mackini affecting Crassostrea gigas in British Columbia (Canada) and M. roughleyi affecing Saccostrea glomerata in Australia. Structural and molecular caracterisation of all these parasites were realised. Results show tha B. ostreae, B. sp., B. exitiosus. Molecular tools are available for genus detection, Bonamia spp. and Mikrocytos and species identification (B. ostreae, B....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bonamia ostreae; Ostrea edulis; Taxonomie; Diagnotic; PCR; In situ hybridation; Hémocytes; Lectines; Phagocytose; Résistance; Bonamia ostreae; Ostrea edulis; Taxonomy; Diagnotic; PCR; In situ hybridization; Hemocytes; Lectins; Phagocytosis; Resistance.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00211/32223/30671.pdf
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Caractérisation de la virulence d'une souche de Vibrio aestuarianus, pathogène de l'huître Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Labreuche, Yannick.
In France. shellfish production is a traditional. well-established industry. mainly based upon commercial farming of the Pacifie oyster. Crassostrea gigas. Since the 1980's, annual mass mortalities of C. gigas have been reported during summer. Several studies on this subject have demonstrated that these mortality outbreaks resulted from complex interactions between the physiologieal andJor genetic status of the oysters. environmental factors, and one or more infectious agents, among which are bacteria of the genus Vibrio.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Huître; Crassostrea gigas; Bactéries; Vibrio aestuarlanus; Pathogénicité; Produits extracellulaires; Métalloprotéase; Hémocytes; Interactions hôte/pathogène; Oyster; Crassostrea gigas; Bacteria; Vibrio aestuarianus; Pathogenicity; Extracellular products; Metalloprotease; Hemocytes; Host/pathogen interactions.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00034/14561/11859.pdf
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Caractérisation morphologique et fonctionnelle des hémocytes chez l'huître plate, Ostrea edulis ArchiMer
Xue, Quiggang.
The mechanism that bivalve molluscs react to infectious agents are important research subjects in the fIeld of disease control studies for these animals. While the selection of disease resistant populations have made decisive progression in some species, the mechanism behinds these resistant phenomena is not yet clear so far. However, hemocytes must represent one of the key factors in the reaction process. Based on this hypothesis, the structure and function of European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, hemocytes have been investigated in aid of different techniques in the present study. ln addition, Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, hemocytes have been analysed in certain aspects so as to provide some results for comparison. European flat oyster and Pacific...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bivalvia; Ostrea edulis; Crassostrea gigas; Mécanismes de défense; Hémocytes; Granulocytes; Hyalinocytes; Séparation; Anticorps monoclonaux; Enzymes; Cytométrie de flux; Bivalvia; Ostrea edulis; Crassostrea gigas; Defence mechanisms; Hemocytes; Granulocytes; Hyalinocytes; Separation; Monoclonal antibodies; Enzymes; Flow cytometry.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00107/21820/19406.pdf
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Changes in biochemical and hemocyte parameters of the pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas fed T-Iso supplemented with lipid emulsions rich in eicosapentaenoic acid ArchiMer
Delaporte, Maryse; Chu, Fu-lin; Langdon, Chris; Moal, Jeanne; Lambert, Christophe; Samain, Jean-francois; Soudant, Philippe.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) on hemocyte parameters such as hemocyte concentration, phagocytosis, and non-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, as well on proximate biochemical and fatty acid compositions. One-year-old oysters (C. gigas) were fed T-Isochrysis aff. galbana(T-Iso), which is low in 20:5n-3, either alone or with supplements of a lipid emulsion rich in 20:5n-3 at 1%, 10% or 50% (dry weight of the algal ration) for up to 7 weeks. Changes in gill fatty acid composition demonstrated that the lipid emulsion was well ingested by oysters during the dietary conditioning. Biochemical analysis indicated that oysters fed supplements of 50%...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Immunology; Hemocytes; Eicosapentaenoic acid 20 : 5n 3; Crassostrea gigas; Bivalves.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2604.pdf
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Comparison of hemocyte parameters in the pericardial cavity and the adductor muscle sinus in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas using two types of flow cytometers ArchiMer
Gagnaire, Beatrice; Duchemin, M; Auffret, Mathieu; Thomas-guyon, Helene; Renault, Tristan.
Parameters of hemocyte populations have been considered as relevant indicators of bivalve health and are currently used in immunotoxicological studies. Hemocytes in hemolymph can be collected by puncturing either the pericardial cavity or the adductor muscle sinus with a syringe. Flow cytometry is a methodological approach that is increasingly being used in laboratories for the study of hemocyte parameters in aquatic invertebrates. However, various protocols for hemocyte processing in laboratories equipped with different types of cytometers have been published. In this context, two flow cytometers ( EPICS XL4 (R), Beckman Coulter and FacsCalibur (R), Becton Dickinson) and two sites of hemocyte collection ( pericardial cavity and adductor muscle sinus) were...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Phagocytosis; Hemocytes; Flow cytometry.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-3898.pdf
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Contribution à l'étude de l'ontogenèse du système immunitaire chez l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Tirape Bajana, Ana.
The interest for the understanding of the immune mechanisms in the oyster, Crassotrea gigas has been considerably increased these last years, mainly because of economie losses due to diseases which affected the continuity of this species. The studies of these mechanisms contributes to a better understanding of the differential susceptibilities observed in this species against various pathogens. In the present study, our  goal was to define the ontogenesis of immune system in C. gigas during the development, by functional genomic approaches. The studies have been focalized on the analyses of expression and localization of effectors previously identified in adult oysters as implicated in immunity. We have shown, in particular, that hemocytes appear in the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Invertébré; Mollusque bivalve; Huître; Cra; Immunité; Hémocytes; Hématopoïèse; Développement; Ontogenèse; Expression des gènes; Q-PCR; SSH; Invertebrate; Bivalve Mollusk; Oyster; Crassostrea gigas; Immunity; Hemocytes; Hematopoiesis; Development; Ontogenesis; Gene expression; Q-PCR; SSH.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00440/55113/56565.pdf
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Defense reactions of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Cuterebridae) larval hemocytes Biocell
Faraldo,Ana Carolina; Lello,Edy.
The defense reactions against biological (Histoplasma capsulatum and Escherichia coli) and non-biological materials (China ink and nylon thread) were tested in vivo in third instar larvae of Dermatobia hominis. The cellular defense performed by larval hemocytes was observed under electron microscopy. China ink particles were phagocytosed by granular cells 5 h after injection. E. coli cells were internalized by granular cells as early as 5 min after injection and totally cleared 180 min post-injection, when many hemocytes appeared disintegrated and others in process of recovering. H. capsulatum yeasts provoked, 24 h after being injected, the beginning of nodule formation. Nylon thread was encapsulated 24 h after the introduction into the hemocoel. Our...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Dermatobia Hominis; Hemocytes; Phagocytosis; Nodule Formation; Encapsulation.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-95452003000200005
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Effects of cadmium on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Bouilly, Karine; Gagnaire, Beatrice; Bonnard, Marc; Thomas-guyon, Helene; Renault, Tristan; Miramand, Pierre; Lapegue, Sylvie.
Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, are commonly reared in estuaries where they are exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Much research has been made on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms because the compound recurrently contaminates their environment. Our study examined the influence of cadmium on aneuploidy level (lowered chromosome number in a percentage of somatic cells) and hemocyte parameters in C. gigas at different stages of life. Adults and juveniles were exposed to two different concentrations of cadmium. The first concentration applied was equivalent to a peak value found in Marennes-Oleron bay (Charente-Maritime, France; 50 ng L-1) and the second was 10 times higher (500 ng L-1). Exposure to 50 ng L-1 cadmium caused a significant...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Phenoloxidase; Flow cytometry; Hemocytes; Aneuploidy; Crassostrea gigas; Cadmium.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/publication-1687.pdf
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Etude de la réponse immunitaire chez l'huître Crassostrea gigas : caractérisation et fonctions de protéines de reconnaissance aux LPS et d'effecteurs antimicrobiens ArchiMer
Gonzalez, Marcelo.
Research on the immune response of oysters is motivated by the problems of infectious diseases potentially found in the farms. Over the course of the last few years, the development of genomic approaches has allowed us to make headway on characterising genes involved in the cup oyster's (Crassostrea gigas) innate immunity, particularly thanks to various programmes for analysing transcriptome, of type EST (Express Sequence Tag) and subtractive banks. Within the context of this work, over the course of which we have used the data from genomic research and we have also developed biochemical approaches, we were particularly interested in studying the proteins involved in reconnaissance reactions to LPS as well as to antimicrobial effectors. In an earlier part,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Defense peptides; Polysaccharides; LPS; Hemocytes; Immune response; Crassostrea gigas; Shellfish culture; LPS; Défensine; Peptides antimicrobiens; LBP; BPI; Superoxide dismutase; Hémocytes; Crassostrea gigas; Huître; Mollusque; Immunité.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/these-2098.pdf
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Etude des effets de polluants sur les paramètres hémocytaires de l'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas - Interactions entre environnement, mécanismes de défense et maladies infectieuses ArchiMer
Gagnaire, Beatrice.
Shellfish industry is mostly realized in estuary zones, which are subjected to pollutions due to anthropic activities. The harmful effects of pollutants on animals inhabiting these estuarine zones are poorly known. Among these animals, Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, may represent a model because they are sedentary and they filter water intensively. Among all physiological functions possibly disturbed by pollutants, defence mechanisms are poorly studied in bivalves. Moreover, animals presenting impaired defence mechanisms may be more sensitive to infectious diseases. In this context, effects of pollutants on hemocyte functions and on sensitiveness to diseases were tested in C. gigas. After adjusting the protocols for the monitoring of hemocyte...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Real time PCR; Flow cytometry; Pesticides; Pollutants; Phagocytosis; Hemocytes; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific oyster; Pathology; Immunotoxicology; PCR en temps réel; Cytométrie de flux; Pesticides; Polluants; Phagocytose; Hémocytes; Crassostrea gigas; Huître creuse; Pathologie; Immunotoxicologie.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/these-730.pdf
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Etude des mouvements calciques dans les hémocytes de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas lors de leur immunostimulation : 1ères approches expérimentales ArchiMer
Aton, Emilie; Cognard, C.; Renault, Tristan; Thomas-guyon, Hélène; Imbert, N..
Bivalve mollusc farms are continuously exposed to variations of factors either natural (variation of salinity and temperature) or from man (heavy metals, HAP, phytosanitary) likely to alter the defence systems of bivalve molluscs. These alterations would explain, in certain cases, their sensitivity vis-à-vis certain marine pathogens and could in part be at the source of the episodes of massive mortalities seen periodically in oyster and mussel larval populations. That is why many studies concerning the contaminants' immunotoxicity are currently in progress.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Polluant; Calicum; Hemocytes; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/acte-2855.pdf
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Expression of immune-related genes in the oyster Crassostrea gigas during ontogenesis ArchiMer
Tirape, Ana; Bacque, Coralie; Brizard, Raphael; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Boulo, Viviane.
The work presented here reports the expression of immune-related genes during ontogenesis in the oyster Crassostrea gigar. Expression patterns of 18 selected genes showed that RNAs detected in oocytes and 2-4 cell embryos are of maternal origin and that gene transcription starts early after fertilization. The expression patterns of 4 genes (Cg-timp, Cg-tal, Cg-EcSOD and Drac3) suggested that hemocytes appear in the gastrula-trochophore stages. The localization of Cg-tal expression suggested that hematopoietic cells were derived from vessels and/or artery endothelia cells. Moreover, a bacterial challenge affected the level of expression of genes. Indeed, a change in expression levels was observed for Cg-LBP/BPI, Cg-timp, Drac3 and Cg-MyD88 genes in larval...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Rel/NF kappa B pathway; Cell proliferation; Hematopoiesis; Mollusk immunity; Hemocytes; Bivalve mollusk.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2612.pdf
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Genetically based resistance to summer mortality in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and its relationship with physiological, immunological characteristics and infection processes ArchiMer
Samain, Jean-francois; Degremont, Lionel; Soletchnik, Patrick; Haure, Joel; Bedier, Edouard; Ropert, Michel; Moal, Jeanne; Huvet, Arnaud; Bacca, Helene; Van Wormhoudt, A; Delaporte, Maryse; Costil, K; Pouvreau, Stephane; Lambert, Christian; Boulo, Viviane; Soudant, Philippe; Nicolas, Jean-louis; Leroux, Frederique; Renault, Tristan; Gagnaire, Beatrice; Geret, Florence; Boutet, Isabelle; Burgeot, Thierry; Boudry, Pierre.
Summer mortality of Pacific oysters is known in several countries. However no specific pathogen has been systematically associated with this phenomenon. A complex combination of environmental and biological parameters has been suggested as the cause and is now starting to be identified. A high genetic basis was found for survival in oysters when a first generation (G1) was tested in three sites during summer. This paper presents a synthesis on physiological characteristics of two selected groups ('R' and 'S', from families selected for resistance and susceptibility to summer mortality respectively), of the second and third generations. R and S showed improvement or reduction of survival compared with the control in both field and laboratory trials...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: ROS; Temperature; Stress; Hemocytes; Reproduction; Genetic selection; Resistant oyster; Crassostrea gigas; Pacific Oyster; Summer mortality.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2809.pdf
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Genomic abnormalities affecting mussels (Mytilus edulis-galloprovincialis) in France are related to ongoing neoplastic processes, evidenced by dual flow cytometry and cell monolayer analyses ArchiMer
Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Saunier, Alice; Ledu, Christophe; Travers, Marie-agnes; Morga, Benjamin.
In the context of the abnormal mass mortality of mussels in France since 2014, Flow CytoMetry (FCM) was used in 2015 and 2016 to study the DNA content and cell cycle characteristics of hemic circulating cells collected from 2000 mussels. The mussels were sampled from 12 wild and cultivated blue mussels stocks distributed along the French Atlantic coast from the south Brittany to Pertuis Charentais areas. During these surveys, various genetic abnormalities were frequently detected, and ploidy characteristics revealed contrasting profiles that corresponded to respective contrasting sanitary status, i.e. healthy mussels with high cytogenetic quality (HCQ) versus diseased mussels with low cytogenetic quality (LCQ). In the present work, FCM and hemocytology...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mussels; Hemocytes; Flow cytometry; Hemocytology; Cytogenetic quality; Neoplasia.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00455/56623/58443.pdf
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In vitro culture of mollusc hemocytes. Functional study of burst respiratory activity and analysis of interactions with protozoan and procaryotic pathogens ArchiMer
Boulo, Viviane; Hervio, Dominique; Morvan, Annie; Bachere, Evelyne; Mialhe, Eric.
The chief importance of hemocytes as immune effectors in molluscs has led to develop researches for in vitro culture. The chemiluminescence technique has been used to estimate the phagocytosis capacity of Crassostrea gigas hemocytes according to different culture media and times. Sea water was used as a basic medium. Additives, such as antibiotics or glucose and buffers, such as Tris or Hepes, were tested as weIl as artificial sea water. Hemocyte chemiluminescence activities were recorded at t=o in relation to the medium composition. The highest values were observed when hemocytes were kept in sea water without any modification. Whichever medium, chemiluminescence activity was substantially decreased when hemocytes were previously kept in vitro for a few...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassotrea gigas; Oyster; Bonamia ostreae; Pathogens; Molluscs; Hemocytes.
Ano: 1991 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1991/acte-4115.PDF
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In vitro modulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediate (ROI/RNI) production in Crassostrea gigas hemocytes ArchiMer
Lambert, Christophe; Soudant, Philippe; Jegaden, Marine; Delaporte, Maryse; Labreuche, Yannick; Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois.
Bivalve hemocyte competence has been measured by quantifying functional characteristics, including reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production after activation with zymosan or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). However, untreated oyster hemocytes also produce ROI and RNI (reactive nitrogen intermediates) after bleeding even if not stimulated by Zymosan or PMA. Extensive investigation of this parameter by flow cytometry showed that, in vitro, ROI/RNI production by untreated hemocytes maintained in seawater appeared to be independent of both bacterial burden in the serum and non-self particle phagocytosis. ROI/ RNI production in granulocytes was higher than in hyalinocytes and could be intensified when activated by zymosan but not by PMA. Both cell types...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: NO synthase; NADPH oxidase; Flow cytometry; Reactive nitrogen intermediate RNI; Reactive oxygen intermediate ROI; Hemocytes; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-3057.pdf
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In vivo effects of metaldehyde on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas: comparing hemocyte parameters in two oyster families. ArchiMer
Moreau, Pierrick; Burgeot, Thierry; Renault, Tristan.
Pollutants via run-off into the ocean represent a potential threat to marine organisms, especially bivalves such as oysters living in coastal environments. These organisms filter large volumes of seawater and may accumulate contaminants within their tissues. Pesticide contamination in water could have a direct or indirect toxic action on tissues or cells and could induce alteration of immune system. Bivalve immunity is mainly supported by hemocytes and participates directly by phagocytosis to eliminate pathogens. Some studies have shown that pesticides can reduce immune defences and/or modify genomes in vertebrates and invertebrates. Metaldehyde is used to kill slugs, snails and other terrestrial gastropods. Although metaldehyde has been detected in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Immunity; Hemocytes; Metaldehyde; Pacific oyster; Flow cytometry; In vivo; Genetic diversity.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00195/30602/29059.pdf
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