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A simple method for the quantification of diclofenac potassium in oral suspension by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection BJPS
Rubim,Alexandre Machado; Rubenick,Jaqueline Bandeira; Laporta,Luciane Varine; Rolim,Clarice Madalena Bueno.
A rapid, simple and low cost method was developed to determine diclofenac potassium (DP) in oral suspension, using a reverse-phase column (C8, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm), mobile phase containing methanol/buffer phosphate (70:30 v/v, pH 2.5), at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, isocratic method, and ultraviolet detection at 275 nm. A linear response (r = 1.0000) was observed in the range of 10.0-50.0 µg/mL. Validation parameters such as linearity, specificity, precision, accuracy and robustness were evaluated. The method presented precision (repeatability: relative standard deviation = 1.21% and intermediate precision: between-analyst = 0.85%). The specificity of the assay was evaluated by exposure of diclofenac potassium under conditions of stress such as...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: High performance liquid chromatography; Diclofenac potassium; Oral suspension.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502013000300021
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Analysis of the composition of Brazilian propolis extracts by chromatography and evaluation of their in vitro activity against gram-positive bacteria BJM
Sawaya,Alexandra C. H. F.; Souza,Kirllian S.; Marcucci,Maria C.; Cunha,Ildenize B.S.; Shimizu,Mario T..
Brazilian propolis from São Paulo state was submitted to extraction using several solvents, resulting in extracts with different composition. These extracts were submitted to Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Bioauthographic analysis of the TLC plates identified fractions with inhibitory activity, which were then analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In vitro assays, commonly used to evaluate the activity of propolis against Gram-positive bacteria, were compared to determine which rendered the most consistent results. The bactericidal activity of these extracts were analysed by Serial Dilution in Tubes and Agar Plate Diffusion. Serial Dilution in Tubes obtained the most consistent results, with the Minimal Bactericidal Concentration of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Propolis; Thin layer chromatography; Bioauthography; High performance liquid chromatography; Extraction methods; Minimal bactericidal concentration.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822004000100017
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Assessment of in vitro methodologies to determine topical and transdermal delivery of the flavonoid quercetin BJPS
Vicentini,Fabiana Testa Moura de Carvalho; Georgetti,Sandra Regina; Bentley,Maria Vitória Lopes Badra; Fonseca,Maria José Vieira.
To be effective against the oxidative damages induced by UVB irradiation in the skin, the drug needs to release from the formulation in which it was incorporated and reach the skin layers where the ROS are generated. Thus, it is very important the development of a robust and sensitive methodology to extract and quantify in different skin layers the antioxidant agent delivered from topical formulations. Therefore, in the present work suitable methods to extract and quantify quercetin in skin samples and receptor phase after in vitro penetration studies were developed. The results demonstrated that the recovery from two different layers of skin, the SC and [E+D], using two different methods of quantification (DPPH• assay and HPLC, respectively), was 93.8 %...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Topical formulations/analysis; Quercetin/quantification; Quercetin/extraction; Quercetin/liberation; Skin penetration in vitro/study; High performance liquid chromatography; DPPH•.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502009000200022
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Caracterização de acessos do banco de germoplasma de café da Epamig em relação ao ácido clorogênico, trigonelina e cafeína. Repositório Alice
SETOTAW, T. A.; NUNES, C. F.; SOUZA, C. S. de; SALGADO, S. L.; CARVALHO, G. R.; REZENDE, J. C. de; PEREIRA, A. A.; CANÇADO, G. M. de A..
O banco de germoplasma de café da EPAMIG contém acessos muito importantes para o programa de melhoramento de Coffea arabica, os quais necessitam de caracterização em relação aos ácidos orgânicos e cafeína. Portanto, esse trabalho objetivou avaliar 64 acessos de C. arabica, C. canephora var. Robusta e Híbrido de Timor mantidos no banco de germaplasma localizado na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG no município de Patrocínio/MG. A avaliação foi baseada na quantificação do ácido clorogênico, trigonelina e cafeína por meio da determinação empregando HPLC Perkins Elmer com ?UV/VIS detector?. Detectou-se variabilidade em relação ao ácido clorogênico, trigonelina e cafeína entre acessos de café arábica e os outros acessos do banco de germoplasma. Isso evidencia a...
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Ácidos orgânicos; Cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência; Cafeína; Caffeine; Organic acids; Coffea arabica; High performance liquid chromatography.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1036538
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Casein breakdown in terrincho ovine cheese: comparison with bovine cheese and with bovine/ovine cheeses IPB - Escola Superior Agrária
Ferreira, Isabel M.P.L.V.O.; Veiros, C.; Pinho, Olívia; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Peres, António M.; Mendonça, Álvaro.
Terrincho cheese is an uncooked, pressed cheese made from raw whole ovine milk from the “Churra da Terra Quente” breed. It requires a minimum ripening time of 30 d. A detailed evaluation of the effect of ripening time on the breakdown of the casein fractions, along with the formation of major breakdown products of casein hydrolysis, was monitored by HPLC to contribute to a more complete characterization of this product. In 30-d-old cheeses, only 20% of αS1-casein remained intact; the β-casein fraction was more resistant to hydrolysis. The ripening time of Terrincho cheese can be predicted using 2 variables of normalized peak areas of αS1-casein and αS1-I peptide, and a constant; the estimation error is 2.5 d. The pH 4.3-insoluble fraction of Terrincho and...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Cheese; Proteolysis; Caseins; High performance liquid chromatography.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10198/3229
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Changes in the isoflavone profile and in the chemical composition of tempeh during processing and refrigeration. Repositório Alice
FERREIRA, M. P.; OLIVEIRA, M. C. N. de; MANDARINO, J. M. G.; SILVA, J. B. da; IDA, E. I.; CARRÃO-PANIZZI, M. C..
The objective of this work was to analyze changes in the isoflavone profile, determined by high performance liquid chromatography, at different processing stages and after refrigeration of tempeh. For tempeh production, clean soybean grains from cultivars BR 36 (low isoflavone content) and IAS 5 (high) were dehulled, and the separated cotyledons were hydrated and then cooked in boiling water for 30 min. Spores of the fungus were inoculated in the cooked and cooled cotyledons, and incubated at 32ºC for 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours in perforated polypropylene bags, for fermentation. The resulting tempeh was stored at 4ºC for 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours. After 24-hour fermentation, isoflavone glucosides were 50% reduced, and the aglycone forms in the tempeh from both...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Fermentation; Functional food; High performance liquid chromatography; Malonyl; Rhizopus microsporus var; Oligosporus; Aglycone.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/916141
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Changes in the isoflavone profile and in the chemical composition of tempeh during processing and refrigeration. Repositório Alice
FERREIRA, M. P.; OLIVEIRA, M. C. N. de; MANDARINO, J. M. G.; SILVA, J. B. da; IDA, E. I.; CARRÃO-PANIZZI, M. C..
2011
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus; Aglycone; Fermentation; Functional food; High performance liquid chromatography.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/920933
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Changes in the isoflavone profile and in the chemical composition of tempeh during processing and refrigeration. Repositório Alice
FERREIRA, M. P.; OLIVEIRA, M. C. N. de; MANDARINO, J. M. G.; SILVA, J. B. da; IDA, E. I.; CARRÃO-PANIZZI, M. C..
The objective of this work was to analyze changes in the isoflavone profile, determined by high performance liquid chromatography, at different processing stages and after refrigeration of tempeh. For tempeh production, clean soybean grains from cultivars BR 36 (low isoflavone content) and IAS 5 (high) were dehulled, and the separated cotyledons were hydrated and then cooked in boiling water for 30 min. Spores of the fungus Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus were inoculated in the cooked and cooled cotyledons, and incubated at 32ºC for 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours in perforated polypropylene bags, for fermentation. The resulting tempeh was stored at 4ºC for 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours. After 24‑hour fermentation, isoflavone glucosides were 50% reduced,...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Soja; Nutrição humana; Alimento fermentado; Fermentação; Análise química; Composição química; Composição de alimento; Cromatografia; Soybeans; Functional foods; High performance liquid chromatography.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/915552
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Changes in the isoflavone profile and in the chemical composition of tempeh during processing and refrigeration PAB
Ferreira,Márcia Pires; Oliveira,Maria Cristina Neves de; Mandarino,José Marcos Gontijo; Silva,Josemeyre Bonifácio da; Ida,Elza Iouko; Carrão-Panizzi,Mercedes Concórdia.
The objective of this work was to analyze changes in the isoflavone profile, determined by high performance liquid chromatography, at different processing stages and after refrigeration of tempeh. For tempeh production, clean soybean grains from cultivars BR 36 (low isoflavone content) and IAS 5 (high) were dehulled, and the separated cotyledons were hydrated and then cooked in boiling water for 30 min. Spores of the fungus Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus were inoculated in the cooked and cooled cotyledons, and incubated at 32ºC for 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours in perforated polypropylene bags, for fermentation. The resulting tempeh was stored at 4ºC for 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours. After 24-hour fermentation, isoflavone glucosides were 50% reduced, and the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus; Aglycone; Fermentation; Functional food; High performance liquid chromatography; Malonyl.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-204X2011001100018
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Chemical composition and bioactivity of methanolic extract obtained from Lepista sordida BJPS
Acharya,Krishnendu; Ghosh,Sandipta; Biswas,Rhituparna.
The present study aimed at the evaluation of chemical composition and bioactive potential of methanolic extract obtained from Lepista sordida in terms of antioxidative and antimicrobial efficacy. The macrofungus is recognized for its high nutritional value and medicinal properties. However, to the best of our knowledge bioactivity of its methanolic extract is yet to be explored. In this investigation, quantitative analysis of mycochemicals revealed the extract contained significant amount of phenolic compounds such as phenols and flavonoids. Ascorbic acid was found in higher amount than β carotene and lycopene which were present in vestigial amounts. A phenolic profile was also determined using high performance liquid chromatography that further confirmed...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Antimicrobial; Free radical scavenger; High performance liquid chromatography; Mycotaxon; Mycochemicals.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502019000100600
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Comparison of microbiological assay and HPLC-UV for determination of fluconazole in capsules BJPS
Queiroz,Kelly Marques; Silva,Maria-Luiza Martins; Prado,Nathália Duque; Lima,Paulo Marcelo Andrade; Diniz,Rosiane Dias Lopes; César,Isabela Costa; Pianetti,Gerson Antônio; Santos,Daniel Assis.
The development of a specific agar diffusion bioassay for the quantitative determination of fluconazole formulated in capsules was carried out using a strain of Candida albicans ATCC 18804 as the test organism. A prospective validation of the method showed adequate linearity (r²=0.9995), precision (R.S.D. = 4.0% for intra-day and 4.5% for inter-day precision) and accuracy (mean recovery = 102.9%). High performance liquid chromatography was chosen as a comparison method for the fluconazole determination. The contents of fluconazole determined by both methods, for four capsule samples, showed a strong correlation, confirmed by Pearson's correlation coefficient value (r = 0.9884). The bioassay is a suitable method for both research and pharmaceutical industry...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Fluconazole/quantitative determination; Microbiological assay/agar diffusion; High performance liquid chromatography.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502009000400012
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Cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of goldenberry extracts obtained with high intensity ultrasound Ciência Rural
Codevilla,Cristiane Franco; Tischer,Bruna; Gindri,Amanda Leitão; Nogueira-Librelotto,Daniele Rubert; Barin,Juliano Smanioto; Silva,Cristiane de Bona da; Rolim,Clarice Madalena Bueno; Zepka,Leila Queiroz; Menezes,Cristiano Ragagnin de.
ABSTRACT: The high intensity ultrasound-assisted extraction (HIU) is one of the most simple, quick and efficient techniques for the extraction of phenolic and other antioxidant compounds from plants. This is the first application of HIU for the extraction of these compounds from goldenberry fruit. The HIU and conventional extraction techniques showed similar results regarding to phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. However, the time required for HIU extraction (5min) was 24 times lower than conventional extraction (120min). Phenolic compounds reported were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were used for evaluation of extracts and the results showed that in a wide range of concentration, the extract maintains...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Goldenberry; Sonication; Antioxidant capacity; Cytotoxicity; High performance liquid chromatography.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782018000200752
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Determinação de agrotóxicos e ocratoxina A em café arábica sob diferentes níveis de torrefação. Infoteca-e
ROSA, J. S. da; FREITAS-SILVA, O.; CAMPOS, R. da S.; CASTRO, I. M. de; TEIXEIRA, A. da S..
O café é a segunda maior commodity do mundo e tamanha importância faz do café uma matriz alimentar muito estudada. A necessidade de incremento na produtividade dessa cultura, porém, pode aumentar o uso de alguns agrotóxicos em sistemas de produção de café. Da mesma forma, as práticas de colheita e processamento pós-colheita do café estão diretamente relacionadas à contaminação dos grãos por fungos micotoxigênicos. Rastrear a presença destes dois tipos de contaminantes em amostras de café Arábica comum (com diferentes teores de grãos defeituosos) e submetidos a diferentes níveis de torra foi o objetivo deste trabalho. Os agrotóxicos foram analisados pelo método multirresíduo, por espectrometria de massas sequencial, e a ocratoxina A, por cromatografia...
Tipo: Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Contaminante; Cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência; Micotoxina; Coffea Arábica; Tecnologia de Alimento; Espectrometria; Cromatografia; Food technology; Vegetable products; High performance liquid chromatography; Mycotoxins; Mass spectrometry; Poisoning; Agrochemicals.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/1112112
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Development and evaluation of an HPLC/DAD method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from olive fruit IPB - Escola Superior Agrária
Vinha, A.F.; Silva, B.M.; Andrade, P.B.; Seabra, R.M.; Pereira, J.A.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P..
A new HPLC/DAD methodology for separating nine phenolic compounds is described. This methodology is applied to the definition of qualitative and quantitative profiles of three Portuguese olive fruit cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal). Two different extraction methods were needed for the complete definition of their profiles, one of them including a Sep-pack C18 cleaning step. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Spherisorb ODS2 (25.0 × 0.46 cm; 5 μm, particle size) column. The solvent system used was a gradient of water-formic acid (19:1) and methanol, with a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The detection limit values for phenolic compounds were between 0.04 and 4.32 μg/mL and the method was precise. As a general rule, the recovery values...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: High performance liquid chromatography; Diodes; Phenols.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10198/723
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Development of a new analytical method for determination of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acids in tablets by reversed phase liquid chromatography BJPS
Aguiar,José Luiz Neves de; Leandro,Katia Christina; Abrantes,Shirley de Mello Pereira; Albert,André Luis Mazzei.
Acetylsalicylic acid (AAS) is a drug utilized as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic medication, available worldwide and commonly used in Brazil. Salicylic acid (AS) is a precursor in AAS synthesis and is also produced during its degradation. The official United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) suggests the determination of these drugs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with ultraviolet detection, but this method has neither a high sensitivity (S AAS=0.12 mAbs/(μg/mL) and S AS=0.48 mAbs/(μg/mL)) nor resolution (Rs=1.61). The purpose of this study was to develop a new more adequate, accurate method by liquid phase chromatography than the current official methodology, and to use this new method in the determination of the tenors of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: High performance liquid chromatography; Acetylsalicylic acid/determination in tablets; Salicylic acid/determination in tablets; Tablets/quantitative analysis.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502009000400016
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DIMBOA levels in hexaploid Brazilian wheat are not associated with antibiosis against the cereal aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae. Repositório Alice
PEREIRA, J. F.; SARRIA, A. L. F.; POWERS, S. J.; ARADOTTIR, G. I.; CAULFIELD, J. C.; MARTIN , J.; SMART, L. E.; PICKETT, J. A.; BIRKETT, M. A.; PEREIRA, P. R. V. da S..
bitstream/item/166734/1/ID44167-2017v29n2p61TheorExpPlantPhysiol.pdf
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Ácidos hidroxâmicos; Trigo; Afídeo; Wheat; Aphidoidea; Hydroxamic acids; High performance liquid chromatography.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1079746
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Diterpenes biochemical profile and transcriptional analysis of cytochrome P450s genes in leaves, roots, flowers, and during Coffea arabica L. fruit development. Repositório Alice
IVAMOTO, S. T.; SAKURAY, L. M.; FERREIRA, L. P.; KITZBERGER, C. S. G.; SCHOLZ, MARIA B. S.; POT, D.; LEROY, T.; VIEIRA, L. G. E.; DOMINGUES, D. S.; PEREIRA, L. F. P..
Lipids are among the major chemical compounds present in coffee beans, and they affect the flavor and aroma of the coffee beverage. Coffee oil is rich in kaurene diterpene compounds, mainly cafestol (CAF) and kahweol (KAH), which are related to plant defense mechanisms and to nutraceutical and sensorial beverage characteristics. Despite their importance, the final steps of coffee diterpenes biosynthesis remain unknown. To understand the molecular basis of coffee diterpenes biosynthesis, we report the content dynamics of CAF and KAH in several Coffea arabica tissues and the transcriptional analysis of cytochrome P450 genes (P450). We measured CAF and KAH concentrations in leaves, roots, flower buds, flowers and fruit tissues at seven developmental stages...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Cafestol; Kahweol; RT-qPCR; Expressão genética; Café; Composto químico; Lipidio; Biossíntese; Coffea arabica; Gene; Gene expression; High performance liquid chromatography; Coffea arabica.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1068512
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Diterpenes biochemical profile and transcriptional analysis of cytochrome P450s genes in leaves, roots, flowers, and during Coffea arabica L. fruit development. Repositório Alice
IVOMOTO, S. T.; SAKURAY, L. M.; FERREIRA, L. P.; KITZBERGER, C. S. G.; SCHOLZ, M. B. S.; POT, D.; LEROY, T.; VIEIRA, L. G. E.; DOMINGUES, D. S.; PEREIRA, L. F. P..
Lipids are among the major chemical compounds present in coffee beans, and they affect the flavor and aroma of the coffee beverage. Coffee oil is rich in kaurene diterpene compounds, mainly cafestol (CAF) and kahweol (KAH), which are related to plant defense mechanisms and to nutraceutical and sensorial beverage characteristics. Despite their importance, the final steps of coffee diterpenes biosynthesis remain unknown. To understand the molecular basis of coffee diterpenes biosynthesis, we report the content dynamics of CAF and KAH in several Coffea arabica tissues and the transcriptional analysis of cytochrome P450 genes (P450). We measured CAF and KAH concentrations in leaves, roots, flower buds, flowers and fruit tissues at seven developmental stages...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Cafestol; Kahweol; RT-qPCR; Café; Gene expression; High performance liquid chromatography.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1083355
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Enantioselective metabolism of hydroxychloroquine employing rats and mice hepatic microsomes BJPS
Cardoso,Carmem Dickow; Bonato,Pierina Sueli.
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an important chiral drug used, mainly, in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and malaria, and whose pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties look to be stereoselective. Respecting the pharmacokinetic properties, some previous studies indicate that the stereoselectivity could express itself in the processes of metabolism, distribution and excretion and that the stereoselective metabolism looks to be a function of the studied species. So, the in vitro metabolism of HCQ was investigated using hepatic microsomes of rats and mice. The microsomal fraction of livers of Wistar rats and Balb-C mice was separated by ultracentrifugation and 500 μL were incubated for 180 minutes with 10 μL of racemic...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Hydroxychloroquine; Stereoselective metabolism/in vitro study; High performance liquid chromatography; Capillary electrophoresis.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502009000400008
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Green method by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and spectral region selection for the quantification of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical formulations Anais da ABC (AABC)
Silva,Fabiana E.B. da; Flores,Érico M.M.; Parisotto,Graciele; Müller,Edson I.; Ferrão,Marco F..
An alternative method for the quantification of sulphametoxazole (SMZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and partial least square regression (PLS) was developed. Interval Partial Least Square (iPLS) and Synergy Partial Least Square (siPLS) were applied to select a spectral range that provided the lowest prediction error in comparison to the full-spectrum model. Fifteen commercial tablet formulations and forty-nine synthetic samples were used. The ranges of concentration considered were 400 to 900 mg g-1SMZ and 80 to 240 mg g-1 TMP. Spectral data were recorded between 600 and 4000 cm-1 with a 4 cm-1 resolution by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The proposed...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Chemometrics; Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy; Green analytical method; High performance liquid chromatography; Interval partial least squares (iPLS); Synergy partial least squares (siPLS).
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652016000100001
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