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Registros recuperados: 127
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Absence de captage de Crassostrea gigas dans le bassin de Marennes-Oléron en 1981 : causes et conséquences ArchiMer
Berthome, Jean-paul; Deslous-paoli, Jean-marc; Heral, Maurice; Razet, Daniel; Garnier, Jacqueline.
The want of C. gigas spat-catching in the Marennes-oleron basin in 1981 can be due to various different reasons which are analysed here. Physico -chemical and trophic factors that can induce variations in the quality of gametogenesis, are successively in comparison with the year 1979 when reproduction was good. The biochemical evolution and a study of gonads slow a lack in maturation in 1981 even during the summer period. Late maturation of gonads bring about physiological consequences which induced mortality of cultivated oysters at the end of winter. A feeble recruit and a decrease of the cultivated stock have economic consequences which here sketched up.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Larvae; Recrutment; Spat; Crassostrea gigas; Oysters; Larves; Recrutement; Captage; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 1982 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1982/acte-2948.PDF
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Activité respiratoire en continu de l'huître Crassostrea gigas : mise au point d'une nouvelle méthodologie ArchiMer
Bougrier, Serge; Geairon, Philippe.
A continuous monitoring system to measure the respiration of Crassostrea gigas has been developped. The metabolic function estimated by oxygen consumption has been monitored during periods of 24 h, without food, at a temperature constant of 15°C. Preliminary results showed that the mean percentage of oyster activities was 50 % with a high variability from 0 to 100 %. The number of activity periods per day (24 h) is function of the oysters with variation between 0 and 7.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Physiology; Respiration; Crassostrea gigas; Oysters; Physiologie; Respiration; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 1991 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1991/acte-3046.pdf
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Anomalies de croissance de la coquille de Crassostrea gigas dans le bassin de Marennes -Oléron. Bilan de toris années d'observation ArchiMer
Heral, Maurice; Berthome, Jean-paul; Polanco Torres, E.; Alzieu, Claude; Deslous-paoli, Jean-marc; Razet, Daniel; Garnier, Jacqueline.
The appearance and changes of the oyster shell's gelatinous bags have been monitored since 1979. The increase in thickness that causes the growth into a "ball" can be explained by an overproduction of gel. The various environmental factors that can intervene in the secretion of gel are successively examined.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Oysters; Shell; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres; Coquille; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 1981 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1981/acte-2943.pdf
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Apport d'un programme de génétique à une filière de production aquacole : l'exemple de l'ostréiculture ArchiMer
Lapegue, Sylvie; Bedier, Edouard; Goyard, Emmanuel; Degremont, Lionel; Baud, Jean-pierre; Gerard, Andre; Goulletquer, Philippe; Boudry, Pierre.
Two oyster species are currently present along the French coasts : the indigenous European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), and the Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas), that has been introduced from Japan since the beginning of the 70ies. The flat oyster successively suffered from two protozoan diseases during the 60ies and its production decreased from 20 000 tons/year by that time to 1 500 tons/year nowadays. Consequently, the oyster production is principally (99%) based upon the Pacific oyster species with approximately 150 000 tons/year among which 90% are grown from the natural spat. However, the hatchery production of this species is developing and was estimated to 400 to 800 millions spat in 2002. Moreover, strengthened relationships between...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Growth; Selection; Genetic breeding; Genetic; Ostrea edulis; Crassostrea gigas; Oysters; Croissance; Sélection; Amélioration génétique; Génétique; Ostrea edulis; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/acte-3491.pdf
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Approche comparative de la variabilité et de la structuration génétique chez deux espèces d'huîtres cultivées (Crassostrea gigas et Ostrea edulis) présentant des stratégies reproductives et des histoires contrastées ArchiMer
Boudry, Pierre; Launey, Sophie; Huvet, Arnaud.
The two common oyster species cultivated in Europe are the flat oyster Ostrea edulis and the cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas. These species have two really different reproduction strategies (oviparity versus larviparity) and histories (natural distribution versus introductions linked to oyster culture). We used microsatellite markers to compare the observed variabilities Europe wide. O. edulis presents a lower rate of alleles per locus than C. gigas. The observed structuration levels (global Fst and by pairs values) are similar for both species, but the spatial organisation of the diversity is different. In O. edulis, appears a differentiation based on the distance (concordance of the results with those obtained with the allozymes) whereas in C. gigas,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Différenciation génétique; Variabilité; Génétique; Crassostrea gigas; Ostrea edulis; Huîtres.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1998/acte-3455.pdf
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Approche de la capacité trophique d'un écosystème conchylicole ArchiMer
Heral, Maurice; Deslous-paoli, Jean-marc; Prou, Jean.
After a short bibliographical study of the different approaches for determination of the trophic capacity of a bay for molluscs culture, the authors, with a global mode, show the relations between the growth performance of the oysters Crassostrea gigas in relation with the cultivated stocks. The volumes of consumed and assimilated food are calculated for the stocks in relation with the incoming volumes of water in the bay and the residence time for neap tide and spring tide. The authors find a decrease of growth rate in relation with the volume of consumed food. When it is above 60% and when the volume of assimilated food is above 20%, there is a large decrease of the growth of oysters.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Oysters; Stock assessment; Models; Food consumption; Growth; Biomass; Stock cultivé; Biomasse; Croissance; Modèle; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres; Capacité trophique.
Ano: 1988 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1988/acte-3834.PDF
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Aquaculture de bivalves en claires dans le bassin de Marennes-Oléron ArchiMer
Gras, Marie-paul; Gras, Paul; Guichard, Claude; Peyre, Roger.
Sheltered by the Isle of Oléron, benefiting from the supply of fresh water from two rivers, the Charente and the Seudre, the Marennes-Oléron basin enjoys, in Charente-Maritime, a privileged topographical situation. Oyster farming, one of the first forms of marine aquafarming, represents the central business activity of this shoreline of the Charente, whose originality is to own more than 90% of the oyster pits currently listed in France. This peculiarity has been described by several authors: Moreau (1970), Gras (1976), Grelon (1978) and Marteil (1979).
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Croissance; Biologie; Claires ostréicoles; Ostréiculture; Huîtres.
Ano: 1981 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1981/publication-2941.pdf
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Aspects biométriques et biochimiques de la croissance de l'huître Crassostrea virginica en élevage suspendu à Solomons (Baie de Chesapeake) ArchiMer
Goulletquer, Philippe; Prou, Jean; Heral, Maurice.
Growth and proximate biochemical composition of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica were studied in the Patuxent river (Maryland), located in the middle reach of the Chesapeake bay (U.S.A.). The effects of stocking densities and environmental variables (depth, temperature) were examined in 1989-1990 on oyster population by using off-bottom culture. No significant density effect was observed on the shell growth, which is described by using a seasonally oscillating function. In contrast, the meat growth and the proximate biochemical composition were bath affected by the stacking density and the depth location. The variability of the resulting effects was observed based on a seasonal trend. Different hypothesis mainly related tO environmental conditions...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: USA; Chesapeake Bay; Oysters; Growth; Biochemical composition; Crassostrea virginica; Croissance; USA; Chesapeake Bay; Huîtres; Biochimie; Biométrie; Crassotrea virginica.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1994/publication-3076.pdf
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BABE : Comparaison des sites de Ronce et Baie de Veys, incidence sur la reproduction et les mortalités : Ecologie côtière, mortalités, croissance, environnement - Physiologie - Immunologie ArchiMer
Soletchnik, Patrick; Le Moine, Olivier; Faury, Nicole; Guilpain, Patrice; Geairon, Philippe; Razet, Daniel; Seugnet, Jean-luc; Robert, Stephane; Ropert, Michel; Simonne, Charlotte; Hugonnet, Virginie; Moal, Jeanne; Pouvreau, Stephane; Huvet, Arnaud; Samain, Jean-francois; Lambert, Christophe; Soudant, Philippe; Frouel, Stephane; Choquet, Gwenaelle; Delaporte, Maryse; Paillard, Christine.
Four laboratories are involved in this multidisciplinary study: the Conchological Laboratory of Normandie (LCN), the Invertebrates Physiology Laboratory (LPI), the Université Bretagne Occidentale (LEMAR IHP) and the Conchological Laboratory of Poitou-Charentes (LCPC). The part of the study which is presented here (thematics "Coastal ecology") was produced in collaboration with the LCN. The data on the Bay of Veys was collected by Michel Ropert. This study aims at observing the "sites" effect on mortality and on the general biology of the animal, as well as measuring some environmental elements (e.g. water temperature, etc.). The geographical sites are Gefosse in the Bay of Veys (East Cotentin) and the Ronce bank in the south of the Marennes Oléron Bay. The...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Immunologie; Physiologie; Paramètres environnementaux; Croissance; Ecologie côtière; Baies des Veys Cotentin; Ronce Charente Maritime; Comparaison sites; Reproduction; Mortalités; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2002/acte-3405.pdf
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Bases génétiques et plasticité de la croissance et de la survie chez l'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Ernande, Bruno; Boudry, Pierre; Heurtebise, Serge; Haure, Joel; Martin, Jean-louis.
Growth and survival are the two most interesting characters for oyster farming as they determine the biomass produced in the farms (growth x survival). Thus, a selection program aiming at improving these two characters could be of a great help. However, the oyster, as a sessile organism, is influenced by environmental variability (spatial and temporal) either natural or caused by the used oyster culture methods. Submitted to this variability, oysters must have evolved so as to adapt (short term) to this environmental variability.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres; Croissance; Plasticité; Génétique.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2001/acte-3279.pdf
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Bilan des actions MOREST 2004 du Laboratoire Envrionnement et Ressources du Poitou-Charentes (LERPC) ArchiMer
Soletchnik, Patrick; Le Moine, Olivier; Geairon, Philippe; Faury, Nicole; Razet, Daniel; Robert, Stephane; Prou, Jean.
The objectives for 2004: - Continuation of the study of the "on-bottom/off-bottom" mortality south of the Marennes Oléron Bay with a study of acute stress (sequel to Dynamo & DynamoR studies) (WP 2.2.8). - Continuation of the laboratory analysis of the dynamoR 2003 samples (biological material) and data (WP 2.2.3). - Analysis of the data on the characterisation of summer mortality (WP 2.2.1) in relation to the environment. Through these tasks, the objectives are: (1) understanding the "on-bottom/off-bottom" mortality model of C. gigas in the Marennes Oléron Bay and underlining the environmental causes of summer mortality, (2) bringing a regional answer to this issue, (3) widening the study of the mortality / environment relationship to all the French...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ecosystèmes conchylicoles; Modélisation; Bassin de Marennes Oléron; MOREST; Mortalités; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/acte-3388.pdf
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Caractérisation de marqueurs génétiques fonctionnels de la nutrition et/ou de l'adaptation (les amylases) chez l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas : intérêts pour la sélection ArchiMer
Prudence, Marie.
Two amylase genes, A and B, from the oyster Crassostrea gigas were characterized. Using PCR-RFLP, 6 and 4 alleles, respectively, were described for the amylase genes A and B. The roles of A and B amylase genes were investigated experimentally. They are expressed during larval and adult stages, and A transcripts are more abundant than B. The A transcript increases significantly with temperature, in high trophic conditions. However, A and B transcript levels do not change when food quantity increases although amylase activity augments. The level of B is correlated with dietary starch quantities, whereas the amount of A appears to remain constant ; simultaneously amylase activity decreases and the KM increases. These results suggest that expression of B is...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Enzymatic analyse; Genetic polymorphism; Genes; Nutrition; Growth; Environmental effects; Oysters; Amylases; Amylases; Analyse enzymatique; Polymorphisme génétique; Gènes; Nutrition; Croissance; Effets de l'environnement; Huîtres; Amylases; Amylases.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/these-1700.pdf
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Caractérisation et diversité des mécanismes du syndrome de mortalité affectant les juvéniles de Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Lucasson, Aude.
nfectious diseases are very often explored using reductionist approaches, despite repeated evidence showing them to be strongly influenced by numerous interacting host and environmental factors. Many diseases with complex etiology therefore remain misunderstood. In this thesis, by developing a holistic approach to tackle the complexity of the interaction, (i) we deciphered the complex intra-host interactions underlying the Pacific oyster mortality syndrome affecting juveniles of Crassostrea gigas, the main oyster species exploited worldwide and (ii) we validated this mechanism in different infectious environments and oyster genotypes. Using ecologically realistic experimental infections combined with thorough molecular (metabarcoding, transcriptomics,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Maladie multifactorielle; Pathosystème; Huîtres; Transcriptome; Structure du microbiote; Séquençage haut débit; Microbiota structure; Ngs; Multifactorial diseases; Pathosystem; Oysters.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00498/60998/64415.pdf
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Caractérisation précoce de la mortalité des lignées divergentes de Crassostrea gigas (G2) ArchiMer
Degremont, Lionel; Soletchnik, Patrick; Doner, Anne.
2001 shows how important the "R" and "S" biological families are for experimentation as well as the need to "preserve" these families from mortality during the first year. The "experimental nursing" conditions do not allow the conservation of dozens of families with many members for 6 to 8 months. Precocious characterisation at around 4-5 months enables a first selection of the biological material, as well as a first answer to the "in lab" genetical selection of the families. After the first results in 2001 (Céline de Ambroggi, LCPC, L. Degremont), two "precocious characterisation of mortality" experiments are carried out in 2002 on the divergent lineage of some genetical families (LGP production). Two 15 day long experiments are conducted in la Tremblade...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mortalités; Sélection; Physiologie; Genetique; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2002/acte-3406.pdf
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Caractérisation sur estran des performances de croissance, maturation et survie des deux-taxons d'huîtres creuses C. gigas et C. angulata, hybrides et "exotiques" ArchiMer
Soletchnik, Patrick; Huvet, Arnaud; Le Moine, Olivier; Razet, Daniel; Geairon, Philippe; Goulletquer, Philippe; Faury, Nicole.
This study presents the zootechnical performances in their natural habitat, the Marennes Oléron Bay, of two Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea angulata taxons of European and Asian origin, as well as those of their "European" hybrids (6 studied strains). Growth performance seems to be a phenotypic characterisation linked with the maternal origin (c. gigas or C. angulata). The Asian "pure gigas" or "pure angulata" strains' growth performances differ more from those of their European "sisters" than the European taxons with their hybrids. The C. angulata strain, of Taiwanese origin, does not survive the second culture week in the Marennes Oléron Bay. The C. angulata strain seems to "carry" a strong mortality potential. After 6 months of off-bottom culture, the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Survie; Performance croissance; Hybrides; Zootechnie; Crassostrea angulata; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2001/acte-3382.pdf
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Causes of decline of oyster production (Crassostrea virginica) in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay : a literature study ArchiMer
Goulletquer, Philippe; Heral, Maurice; Rotschild, Brian.
The historical landings of Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica are described for the Maryland part of the Chesapeake Bay. The different trends are analyzed concurrently with the main events and management strategies which occurred. Three main periods are identified : (1) the great fishery when annual oyster landings from 1840 to 1890 reached 600,000 metric tons. This period was characterized by gross overfishing and the destruction of oyster habitat by the oyster gears; (2) the reduced but stable landings from 1900 to 1980, with failure of the reseeding plan connected to heavy sedimentation and anoxie summer conditions. Landings did not exceed 80,000 metric tons; (3) the large decrease of production (1981-1988), with landings as low as 15,000 metric tons...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Production; Chesapeake Bay; Mortalities; Crassostrea virginica; Oysters; Production; Chesapeake Bay; Mortalités; Crassostrea virginica; Huîtres.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1994/publication-3081.pdf
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Comparaison de trois index de qualité de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Berthome, Jean-paul; Deslous-paoli, Jean-marc; Fernandez-castro, N..
Three indexes of quality of Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas were studied in 3 lots of oysters bred in the r.1arennes-oléron basin from february to july 1979: condition index of MEDCOF &-. NEEDLER, thickness coefficient of IMAI & SAKAI and external quality coefficient of BERTHOME. These different indexes were correlated within each lot of oysters. The external quality coefficient is always significantly correlated with condition index, while thickness coefficient is correlated with other two only for one lot, but seemes useful to rate oyster growth better.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Index de qualité; Croissance organisme; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 1979 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1979/acte-2997.pdf
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Composition de la matière organique particulaire dans les eaux du bassin de Marennes-Oléron : apport énergétique pour la nutrition de l'huître ArchiMer
Heral, Maurice; Razet, Daniel; Maestrini, Serge; Garnier, Jacqueline.
A twice monthly study shows that the major amount of organic material is from detrtic origin, and is brought in winter, when valeus of mineral seston are very high. In the sping time, phytoplancton blooms, do not make up for lack of detritic material where as in the summer, oceanic phytoplancton is composed of important amounts of carbohydrates. Available food is defined as sum of protids, lipids and carbohydrates and mesured in energetic therms. This allows to foretell the amount of food that molluscs ar likely to assimilate.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marennes Oléron; Nutrition; Matière organique; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 1980 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1980/acte-3003.pdf
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Composition en éléments azotés minéraux et orgnaiques dissous de l'eau du bassin conchylicole de Marennes-Oléron ArchiMer
Heral, Maurice; Robert, Jean-michel; Truquet, Isabelle; Barbaroux, Olivier; Garnier, Jacqueline; Razet, Daniel.
Values of nitrogen nutrients (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate) are compared with values of total organic nitrogen and urea. In summer, the consumation by micro and macrophytes is added to less important telluric input of nineral nitroge. However, an important provision of organic nitrogen remains. On the contrary, in winter, organic nitrogen does not represent more than 10% of total nitrogen. The autors postulate that populations of oysters are at the starting point of the organic nitrogen production cycle.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Biochimical composition; Oysters; Crassostrea gigas; Composition biochimique; Huîtres.
Ano: 1981 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1981/acte-2940.pdf
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Contamination du milieu marin par les micropolluants (résultats du RNO de 1979 à 1994). 1 : Les estuaires de la Côte Basque ArchiMer
Cantin, Christian.
After a quick presentation of the observation national network of the marine environment quality (RNO), the different metallic and organic Micropollutants measured in the three Basque coast estuaries (Adour, Nivelle, Bidassoa) are described (origin,eventual toxicity). The results of the contamination measurements in the living tissue (oysters) are presented on graphies, based on a sample every three months from 1979 to 1994, and means are compared to those obtained dming the same period on the others points of the Manche Atlantique coast.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Micropolluants; Estuaires; Côte Basque; Huîtres; Micropollutants; Estuaries; Basque Coast; Oyters.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00422/53308/54146.pdf
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