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A Politico-Economic Model of Aging, Technology Adoption and Growth AgEcon
Lancia, Francesco; Prarolo, Giovanni.
Over the past century, all OECD countries have been characterized by a dramatic increase in economic conditions, life expectancy and educational attainment. This paper provides a positive theory that explains how an economy might evolve when the longevity of its citizens both influences and is influenced by the process of economic development. We propose a three periods OLG model where agents, during their lifetime, cover different economic roles characterized by different incentive schemes and time horizon. Agents’ decisions embrace two dimensions: the private choice about education and the public one upon innovation policy. The theory focuses on the crucial role played by heterogeneous interests in determining innovation policies, which are one of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Growth; Life Expectancy; Human Capital; Systemic Innovation; Majority Voting; International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D70; J10; O14; O31; O43.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9552
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Abatement Technology and the Environment-Growth Nexus with Education AgEcon
Pautrel, Xavier.
This article challenges the conventional result that a tighter environmental tax has no long-run effect on human capital accumulation in the presence of pollution arising from final output production. It demonstrates that the technology used in the abatement sector determines the existence and the direction of the growth-effect. A tighter environmental tax rises (respectively reduces) human capital accumulation in the presence of pollution arising from final production, if the abatement sector is relatively more intensive in human (resp. physical) capital than final sector. That result always holds for finite lifetime but for infinite lifetime it only holds when labor supply is endogenous. The transitional impact of a tighter environmental policy is also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Growth; Environment; Overlapping Generations; Human Capital; Abatement; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q5; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101379
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An empirical analysis of the determinants of the Rural Development policy spending for Human Capital AgEcon
Camaioni, Beatrice; Materia, Valentina Cristiana.
The aim of the paper is twofold: to present a preliminary analysis of the distribution of the Rural Development (RD) expenditure for specific measures related to human capital across EU and to investigate which factors may explain the variation of intensity of spending between the regions. In particular, a descriptive analysis of the budget and of the expenditure for EU 27 will be presented. A linear regression model (OLS) is also presented in order to verify which factors weigh more in determining the spending decisions for the European regions. The analysis is carried out taking into account the EAFRD expenditures for the measures related to human capital for the period 2007-2008 at NUTS2 level.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural Development; Human Capital; Distribution of the Expenditure; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100280
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Biotecnologia: Perfil dos Grupos de Pesquisa no Brasil AgEcon
Mendonca, Marco Aurelio Alves de; Freitas, Rogerio Edivaldo.
O artigo objetiva mapear o perfil do capital humano envolvido com a biotecnologia no Brasil. Empregou-se análise estatística descritiva. A base de dados foi exclusivamente montada para esta pesquisa a partir de informações do Portal de Inovação, do Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia. A investigação constatou a existência de importante incremento dos grupos de pesquisa relacionados ao tema, nos últimos anos. Tal fato resulta dos esforços empreendidos por uma série de agentes, sendo o governo federal o principal. Ademais, os dados indicam que os pesquisadores concentram-se especialmente nas regiões Sul e Sudeste, com significativa participação das ciências Agrárias, Biológicas e da Saúde.--------------------The article aims to map the human capital profile...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotecnologia; Capital Humano; Análise Descritiva; Biotechnology; Human Capital; Descriptive Analysis; Labor and Human Capital; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108141
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Brain Drain in Rural America AgEcon
Waldorf, Brigitte S..
The paper aims at understanding changes in the distribution and accumulation of intellectual capital by analyzing migrants' educational profiles across a sample of 303 U.S. counties. The results suggest that newcomers are better educated than the resident population, and the education gap is most pronounced for newcomers from other states. The results further suggest that the educational status of newcomers "in-migrants" is positively related to the educational status of the resident population "stayers", thus implying a further agglomeration of human capital across space. However, for interstate migrants the effect is context-dependent, playing a greater role in urban than in rural settings.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Human Capital; Migration; Brain Drain; Community/Rural/Urban Development; J24; R23.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9866
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Crime and Education in a Model of Information Transmission AgEcon
Cortes, Darwin; Friebel, Guido; Maldonado, Dario.
We model the decisions of young individuals to stay in school or drop-out and engage in criminal activities. We build on the literature on human capital and crime engagement and use the framework of Banerjee (1993) that assumes that the information needed to engage in crime arrives in the form of a rumor and that individuals update their beliefs about the profitability of crime relative to education. These assumptions allow us to study the effect of social interactions on crime. We first show that a society with fully rational students is less vulnerable to crime than an otherwise identical society with boundedly rational students. We also investigate the spillovers from the actions of talented students to less talented students and show that policies that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Human Capital; The Economics of Rumors; Social Interactions; Urban Economics; Labor and Human Capital; D82; D83; I28.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96845
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Environmental Policy, Education and Growth: A Reappraisal when Lifetime Is Finite AgEcon
Pautrel, Xavier.
This article demonstrates that when finite lifetime is introduced in a Lucas (1988) growth model, the environmental policy may enhance growth both in the short- and the long-run, while pollution does not influence educational activities, labor supply is not elastic and human capital does not enter the utility function. This is because finite lifetime and the appearance of newborns at each date creates a turnover of generations which disconnects the aggregate consumption growth to the interest rate. We show that the shorter is the horizon, the greater the effect of the environmental policy on growth, because the higher the “generational turnover effect”. We also demonstrate that when time is not the single production factor in education, the environmental...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Growth; Environment; Overlapping Generations; Human Capital; C; O.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42146
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HIV/AIDS and Adolescent's School-Work Choices in Malawi AgEcon
Nankhuni, Flora J..
Malawi is facing a severe HIV/AIDS Pandemic. With an estimated prevalence rate of 14.2%, it ranks eight in the world. About 900,000 Malawians were infected by 2003 and there were110,000 new infections and 87,000 deaths due to HIV/AIDS in 2003. The disease has poten tially devastating impacts. For example, 'taking children out of school' is mentioned as one of the coping mechanisms (Garbus 2003) but evidence is mixed. Doctor (2004) found no statistically significant difference between enrollment of orphans and non-orphans and mentioned an effective extended family structure as explanation. However, HIV/AIDS, poverty, macroeconomic policies, and food shortages are reported to render informal safety networks of the extended family systems irrelevant (Garbus...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Demographic Economics; Time Allocation; Malawi; Labor and Human Capital; 01; J1; J2; Human Capital; 05.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25540
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Impact of Land Reforms on Human Capital Formation: Household Level Evidence from West Bengal AgEcon
Deininger, Klaus W.; Jin, Songqing; Yadav, Vandana.
Land reforms in India were aimed at securing access to land for poor rural households. We use data from West Bengal to highlight the impact of the state’s 1978 land reform program on human capital accumulation within the beneficiary households. The results from the study indicate that reform positively impacted the decision to invest in education. We ascertain a highly significant positive effect on long-term accumulation of human capital, and find that the size of benefit was modest in first generation and much larger for second generation beneficiaries. The second generation also does not have a gender bias, allowing women to catch up in their levels of education.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Human Capital; Impact Evaluation; Land Reforms; International Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49969
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Improving Education as Key to Enhancing Adaptive Capacity in Developing Countries AgEcon
Lutz, Wolfgang.
This paper summarizes new scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis that among the many factors contributing to international development, the combination of education and health stands out as a root cause on which other dimensions of development depend. Much of this recent analysis is based on new reconstructions and projections of populations by age, sex and four levels of educational attainment for more than 120 countries using the demographic method of multi-state population dynamics. It also refers to a series of systems analytical population–development–environment case studies that comprehensively assess the role of population and education factors relative to other factors in the struggle for sustainable development. The paper also claims that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Human Capital; Education; Health; Root cause of development; ‘Quality’ dimension in population analysis; Labor and Human Capital; I18; I28.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92710
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Investing in People for the 21st Century AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E..
The paper draws upon the work of T.W. Schultz to show that human capital theory and labor market adjustments have important implications for investing in people for the 21st Century.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Human Capital; Education; Twenty-first century; Global labor markets; Labor and Human Capital; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55937
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LIVING THE AMERICAN DREAM? WAGE OUTCOMES OF ALBANIAN IMMIGRANTS IN THE UNITED STATES AgEcon
Mane, Kate M.; Waldorf, Brigitte S..
Immigrants’ human capital and human capital potential is not fully transferrable into wage levels in the host county. Albania is a recent case in point that offers an opportunity for study. Since the collapse of the totalitarian regime in 1990, Albania has undergone drastic demographic changes, fueled by unprecedented levels of emigration and disproportionately large shares of those who are leaving are highly skilled individuals. Albania’s brain drain has received a large amount of research attention over the years, but little is known about the possible brain gain for the host country, or brain waste resulting from the over education of the immigrant labor force. This paper investigates the issue of human capital transferability by examining the labor...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labor; Human Capital; Labor and Human Capital; J24-J31.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90844
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MIGRATION AND HUMAN CAPITAL IN ITALIAN AGRICULTURAL LABOUR MARKET: A CASE STUDY ANALYSIS AgEcon
Ghelfi, Rino; Rivaroli, Sergio.
During the last years Italy, a country characterized by a long history of emigration, has seen a quickly growth of the phenomenon of immigration. Our Nation seems to be a “docking point” for new and substantial flow of immigrants mainly from Eastern Europe looking for new work opportunities. The profile of these people is usually characterized by high level of education as well as flexibility and adaptability. For the national economy in general, and for the agricultural sector in particular, this new migration flows represent an effective answer to the aversion for the agricultural job expressed by many potential autochthon workers. Which are the characteristics of extra-community agricultural labour? Which are the characteristics of migration flows...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural Labour Markets; Immigrant Workers; Human Capital; Skills; Agribusiness; Labor and Human Capital; J43; J61; J24.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57508
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On‐Farm and Off‐Farm Returns to Education among Farm Operators in Northern Ireland AgEcon
Wallace, Michael T.; Jack, Claire G..
This paper estimates returns to education for a sample of farm operators in Northern Ireland. The analysis examines the relationship between education and on-farm and off-farm labour incomes. Human capital earnings functions are estimated to identify the marginal return to education measured as years of schooling as well as the qualification level attained. Extending to a structural model, the methodology controls for the endogeneity of education in the earnings function and potential selection bias associated with off-farm labour market participation. In off-farm employment, the analysis shows that returns to education are of the order of between 6% and 9% for each additional year of schooling. However, on-farm earnings were not found to be significantly...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Human Capital; Time Allocation and Labor Supply; Agricultural Labor Markets; Wage Level; Labor and Human Capital; J24; J22; J43; J31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108786
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Remittances and economic growth in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Impact of the human capital development AgEcon
Garcia-Fuentes, Pablo A.; Kennedy, P. Lynn.
Remittances are one source of external financing for developing countries that have been increasing in both size and importance as of late. However, the issue about the impact on economic growth from remittances is still opened for discussion. This paper adds to this discussion by investigating the impact of remittances on growth through human capital using a panel data analysis for a sample of 14 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries during the period 1975-2000. The results indicate that remittances have a positive impact on economic growth in the representative countries from the LAC region; however, the realization of this impact holds only when the remittance receiving country has a minimum threshold of human capital stock.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Remittances; Human Capital; Growth; Latin America and the Caribbean; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46751
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Subsidizing Education in the Economic Periphery: Another Pitfall of Regional Policies? AgEcon
Sudekum, Jens.
One of the most prominent instruments of regional policy is to foster education and human capital formation in economically lagging regions. However, regional policy of this type can actually hurt instead of help the poor areas. The reason is that individual geographical mobility increases with the personal skill level. Through education subsidies, particularly if targeted on relatively high skilled workers, individuals can cross some threshold level of qualification beyond which emigration accrues. Regional policies then result in a human capital flight harmful to individuals remaining in the economic periphery. This fatal result does not hold for such policies that foster basic education and focus on the relatively low skilled.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regional Policy; Education Subsidies; Human Capital; Labour Mobility; European Union; Labor and Human Capital; H3; F4; R1.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26130
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THE MYSTERY OF MONOGAMY AgEcon
Gould, Eric D.; Moav, Omer; Simhon, Avi.
This paper examines why developed countries are monogamous while rich men throughout history have tended to practice polygyny (multiple wives). Wealth inequality naturally produces multiple wives for rich men in a standard model of the marriage market. This paper argues that the sources of inequality, not just the level of inequality, determine the equilibrium degree of monogamy or polygamy. In particular, when inequality is determined more by disparities in human capital versus non-labor income (such as land, capital, corruption), the outcome is more monogamous. This explains why developed countries, where human capital is the main source of income and inequality, are monogamous while less-developed economies tend to be polygynous. The results are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Marriage; Monogamy; Polygyny; Human Capital; Inequality; J12; J24; O10; O40; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14992
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Threshold Effects and Regional Economic Growth - Evidence from West Germany AgEcon
Funke, Michael; Niebuhr, Annekatrin.
We study an overlapping generations model of human capital accumulation with threshold effects using regional data for West Germany. Our basic goal is to shed light on the growth of West German regions. The paper finds that the relative income distribution appears to be stratifying into a trimodal distribution. Thus, application of the threshold model to a real world case, here West Germany, shows that the model might help to explain regional growth patterns. Ausgangspunkt der Analyse ist ein Modell überlappender Generationen der Humankapitalakkumulation mit Schwellenwert-Effekten. Die empirische Überprüfung des Modells basiert auf einem regionalen Datensatz für Westdeutschland. Das zentrale Ziel der Untersuchung ist es, Erkenntnisse zum Wachstum...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regional Economic Growth; Human Capital; Germany; Labor and Human Capital; J24; O40; R11; C31.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26141
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Time-separable Utility, Leisure and Human Capital Accumulation: What New Implications for the Environment-Growth Nexus? AgEcon
Pautrel, Xavier.
Using a time-separable utility function where leisure is introduced through the disutility of working time and is adjusted for quality, as measured by human capital to capture home production, we demonstrate that the environmental policy is harmful for growth. A tighter environmental tax reduces the incentives to educate by increasing leisure time and lowers the steady-state growth rate and lifetime welfare, whatever the source of pollution. We also demonstrate that the intertemporal elasticity of substitution in labor supply plays a crucial role in the marginal impact of the environmental tax on growth and welfare. When the positive influence of human capital is added into preferences (by explicitly modelling the home production sector), we find that the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Leisure; Human Capital; Environmental Tax; Labor and Human Capital; C; Q56.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55331
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Trade and Geography in the Economic Origins of Islam: Theory and Evidence AgEcon
Michalopoulos, Stelios; Naghavi, Alireza; Prarolo, Giovanni.
This research examines the economic origins of Islam and uncovers two empirical regularities. First, Muslim countries, virtual countries and ethnic groups, exhibit highly unequal regional agricultural endowments. Second, Muslim adherence is systematically larger along the pre-Islamic trade routes in the Old World. The theory argues that this particular type of geography (i) determined the economic aspects of the religious doctrine upon which Islam was formed, and (ii) shaped its subsequent economic performance. It suggests that the unequal distribution of land endowments conferred differential gains from trade across regions, fostering predatory behavior from the poorly endowed ones. In such an environment it was mutually beneficial to institute a system...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Religion; Islam; Geography; Physical Capital; Human Capital; Land Inequality; Wealth Inequality; Trade; Labor and Human Capital; O10; O13; O16; O17; O18; F10; Z12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91008
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