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Registros recuperados: 54
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A decomposition of China's productivity through calibration of an endogenous growth model AgEcon
Luckstead, Jeff; Choi, Seung Mo; Devadoss, Stephen; Mittelhammer, Ronald C..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: China; IST; Human capital; International Development; O30.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103072
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AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE AgEcon
Davis, Carlton George; Langham, Max R..
Agricultural industrialization and sustainable development issues are important contemporary areas of debate. This paper argues that the two processes are a consequence of a set of forces operating in our global system. It outlines a number of conceptual interactions between the two phenomena and examines economic development and sustainable development policy implications that appear to be logical extensions of the arguments presented.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural industrialization; Sustainable agricultural development; Development assistance; Human capital; Market and policy failures; Public policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15341
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Agricultural Production Organization in Transition Economies and the Role of Human Capital: Evidence from Romania AgEcon
Rizov, Marian.
This paper examines the production mode choices of rural households with an emphasis on the role of human capital in the agricultural transformation process. Farm restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe has resulted in a broad range of farm types, such as co-operatives, partnerships, individual farms and combinations of those. The fact that resources are allocated into different production organization modes is attributed to the utility maximization strategy of heterogeneous agents deriving income from uncertain sources in the face of absent or imperfect factor markets. Empirical results from a multinomial logit model estimated with data from two-year nation-wide survey of Romanian farm households support the hypothesis that the outcome of the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Human capital; Production organization; Agricultural transition; Romania; Production Economics.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24925
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Agricultural Productivity Convergence: Myth or Reality? AgEcon
Poudel, Biswo N.; Paudel, Krishna P.; Zilberman, David.
We tested agricultural productivity convergence in the United States using the state level total factor productivity data and utilizing new estimation and cluster identification methods to identify convergence in the data. The empirical investigation did not indicate any evidence of agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) convergence at the state level. However, we found the evidence of TFP convergence at the regional level for some regions/clusters.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural total factor productivity; Convergence; Human capital; U.S. states; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Q10; O47.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100654
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Análisis del impacto del crecimiento económico en función del capital humano, internet y empleo en México. Colegio de Postgraduados
Jiménez García, Martha.
Tomando como referencia al Banco Mundial que indica la necesidad de fomentar las habilidades de las Tecnologías de la Información y la comunicación (TIC) en todos los sectores, especialmente porque un aumento de las conexiones de internet impulsa el crecimiento del PIB. El propósito de esta investigación es impulsar el crecimiento económico en función del capital humano, del internet y del empleo. Se trabajó con la serie de datos de los años 1991 – 2010, con un modelo econométrico que se resolvió con ecuaciones simultáneas, con el método de mínimos cuadrados en tres etapas. Dicho modelo se basó en la función Cobb-Douglas bajo el modelo Solow. Como resultado se encontró un impacto positivo en el crecimiento económico con las variables estudiadas (capital...
Palavras-chave: Crecimiento económico; Capital humano; Internet; Empleo; Tecnologías de la información y la comunicación; Economic growth; Human capital; Labor; Information and communication technologies; Economía; Doctorado.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/2280
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Biotechnology research in Venezuela: Five case studies Electron. J. Biotechnol.
Morales,Rosa.
The organization of biotechnology differs across countries. The structure of the industry, the academia, and the links between these two sectors vary according to which country is studied. Biotechnology is organized in Venezuela mainly around the research done by special research and development units at national universities. The paper describes some of these units in order to shed light about their performance. Two economic approaches are used to explain the academic production of these biotech research organizations: the technological and organizational approaches. A case study methodology is used in this research. The results can be summarized as: The percentage of researchers who are doctors is less than seventy percent in each research and...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Human capital; Latin American biotechnology; Research and development units; Organization of biotechnology.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-34582006000500001
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Changes in Returns to Education in India, 1983-94: By Gender, Age-Cohort and Location AgEcon
Duraisamy, P..
There is hardly any estimate of the returns to schooling in India based on a national level representative data for the recent period. This paper provides estimates of the returns to education in India by gender, age cohort and location (by rural-urban) for the most recent period 1993/4, and also evaluates the changes in returns over a period of time from 1983-94 using a large national level household survey data. The data show that the returns to education increases up to the secondary level and declines thereafter. There is evidence of substantial gender and rural-urban differences in the returns to schooling. The returns to women's education for the primary and middle levels have declined while those for secondary and college levels have increased...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rate of return; Human capital; India; Labor and Human Capital; J31; I21.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28505
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Child Labor AgEcon
Udry, Christopher R..
Child labor exists because it is the best response people can find in intolerable circumstances. Poverty and child labor are mutually reinforcing: because their parents are poor, children must work and not attend school, and then grow up poor. Child labor has two important special features. First, when financial markets are imperfect, the separation in time between the immediate benefits and long-delayed costs of sending children to work lead to too much child labor. Second, the costs and benefits of child labor are borne by different people. Targeted subsidies for school attendance are very effective in reducing child labor because they successfully address both of these problems.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Child labor; Human capital; Household economics; Labor and Human Capital; J24; O15.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28393
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Collapse and Reorganization in Social-Ecological Systems: Questions, Some Ideas, and Policy Implications Ecology and Society
Abel, Nick; CSIRO; nick.abel@csiro.au; Cumming, David H. M.; University of Zimbabwe; dcumming@science.uz.ac.zw; Anderies, John M; Arizona State University; m.anderies@asu.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Key words: resilience collapse; Recovery; Social-ecological systems; Adaptive cycle; Natural capital; Social capital; Human capital; Zimbabwe; Australia.
Ano: 2006
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Community, Inequality, and Local Public Goods: Evidence From School Financing in South Africa AgEcon
Yamauchi, Futoshi; Mishiyama, Shinichi.
To examine how local income distribution affects both a community’s ability to pay for schooling and the quality of that schooling, this research merges household and school census data from South Africa. Empirical results are twofold. First, while the median income and the average household income increase school fees, inequality in household income (standard deviation) decreases school fees, which indicates that the lower tail of income distribution pulls down school fees. Second, an increase in school fees significantly improves school quality, decreasing the learner-educator ratio and increasing the number of nonsubsidized educators. The result is consistent with (1) strategic behavior of the low-income group and (2) optimal school fee determination...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Local public goods; School finance; Willingness to pay; Human capital; South Africa; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59286
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Comparing the evolution of spatial inequality in China and India: a fifty-year perspective AgEcon
Gajwani, Kiran; Kanbur, Ravi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
In the second half of the last century, both India and China have undergone major transitions and have moved to more liberalized economies. This paper relates the observed patterns in regional inequality to major events during this period. Because of China’s institutional barriers to migration, regional inequality is much higher than in India. Also, China’s decentralization and opening up are closely related to the observed regional inequality - particularly the inland-coastal disparity - since the reform period. From the Green Revolution age to the period of economic liberalization in India, the evolution of regional comparative advantage has shifted from the quality of land to the level of human capital as India integrates with the international market....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Liberalization; Liberalized economics; Regional inequality; Migration; Decentralization; Green revolution; Economic conditions; International economic relations; Human capital; Spatial inequality; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55409
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Corruption and economic growth in Lebanon AgEcon
Farida, Moe; Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z..
This paper seeks to examine the impact of corruption on economic growth in Lebanon. Using a neoclassical model, we hypothesise that corruption reduces the country's standard of living as measured by real per capita GDP. We show that corruption deters growth indirectly through reducing the factor input productivity in a Cobb-Douglas production function. We provide empirical evidence suggesting that corruption increases inefficiencies in government expenditure and reduces investment and human capital productivity, leading to a negative impact on output. The implications of the analysis are explored.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Corruption; Economic growth; Investment; Human capital; Government expenditure; Foreign aid; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Public Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6043
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Determinants of Fertiliser Use by Smallholder Maize Farmers in the Chinyanja Triangle in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia AgEcon
Mapila, Mariam A.T.J.; Njuki, Jemimah M.; Delve, Robert J.; Zingore, Shamie; Matibini, Josephine.
Farm surveys in Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique were carried out to assess the determinants of fertiliser use given continued low yields, low organic matter and general poor soil health in Southern African soils. Regression modelling showed that fertiliser use was influenced by household and farm characteristics. In addition, it was also influenced by social and human capital and farmers’ perceptions of the effect of fertilisers on soil fertility. Farmers who perceived fertilisers as bad for their soil were less likely to adopt their use. This is a key result, as the emerging discussions on a green revolution for Africa, as well as the continued food crisis discussion, are prompting increased fertiliser use as an immediate intervention for increasing...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: African green revolution; Farmer perceptions; Fertiliser subsidies; Fertiliser use; Human capital; Social capital; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123354
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DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY OF AGRICULTURAL SECTOR – CASE OF SERBIA AgEcon
Zubovic, Jovan; Domazet, Ivana; Stosic, Ivan.
New trends in global economy require greater capacity of the agricultural workforce. In order improve agricultural productivity it is needed to increase the level of human capital of the agrarian population. Human capital is accumulated knowledge, created in the long term process of human resources development, which begins in early stages and last all through the life, which is especially true for agricultural business. During transition Serbian economy went through major changes, with agriculture trailing to other sectors of the economy. Each farmer is producing only around 3,000 € gross added value per year, which is substantially lower than in other sectors. This paper will analyze what innovative activities are used worldwide in agriculture and give...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural sector; Productivity; Human capital; Education; Reform; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Labor and Human Capital; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57491
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Economic Theories of the Family and Discrimination in a Social Context: Entitlements of Kondh Tribal Females in India AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A.; Roy, Kartik C.; Ghose, Ananda.
Economic theories of the family and gender discrimination within the family are examined in the context of Kondh dominated tribal villages in rural western Orissa, India, drawing on results from a survey of 106 wives. The survey involved direct interviews using a structured questionnaire. This article examines the relevance of economic unitary and bargaining theories of the family in this social context, drawing on background literature. Using the survey results, socioeconomic influences on the status of wives within their families are analysed and the entitlements of female and male children are compared and analysed. Because of cultural embedding, it is suggested that the relevance of economic theories of the family depend significantly on cultural...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic theories of family; Gender inequality; Human capital; Poverty; Resource endowments; Consumer/Household Economics; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100214
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Educação, concentração fundiária e desigualdade de rendimentos no meio rural brasileiro AgEcon
Ney, Marlon Gomes; Hoffmann, Rodolfo.
The paper analyses the effects of rural income determinants, in particular of human capital and physical capital. Besides the earnings equation estimated for persons occupied in agriculture, the paper also analyzes earnings regressions for persons occupied in the industry and service sectors. The results show that physical capital is the main determinant of earnings in Brazilian agriculture, but schooling is the most important determinant of earnings for persons occupied in rural non-farm activities and for all persons living in rural areas.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Income; Human capital; Physical capital; Rural; Brazil.; Agribusiness; Q15; D31.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60818
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EDUCATING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCHERS: A REVIEW OF THE ROLE OF AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES AgEcon
Beintema, Nienke M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Roseboom, Johannes.
The number of higher-education institutions and the students enrolled in them has grown rapidly throughout Africa since the early 1960s. The number of universities increased from less than 20 in 1960 to nearly 160 by 1996; student numbers grew from 119,000 to almost two million over the same period, yet enrollment ratios in Africa continue to lag well behind developed and other-developing country norms. Funding for higher-education in Africa kept pace with the expanding institutional base during the 1960s and 1970s, but has fallen well behind the growth in student numbers since 1980. The pattern of the development of the agricultural sciences has matched the general pattern of development of the higher-education sector. Three quarters of the countries in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: University education; Agriculture; R&D; Human capital; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; Africa.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16046
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Educating for resilience in the North: building a toolbox for teachers Ecology and Society
Spellman, Katie V.; Resilience and Adaptation Program, University of Alaska Fairbanks; katie.spellman@alaska.edu.
Communities at far northern latitudes must respond rapidly to the many complex problems that are arising from changing climate. An emerging body of theoretical and empirical work has explored the role that education plays in enhancing the resilience and adaptability of social-ecological systems. To foster effective, local, and timely responses of high-latitude communities to climate-driven social-ecological change, educators need access to successful and efficient teaching tools to foster resilience-promoting feedbacks. The potential for existing teaching practices to address this need, however, must be investigated and communicated to teachers. Here, I review the education and sustainability science literature for attributes of resilience to which formal...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Alaska; Citizen science; Human capital; Metacognition; Pedagogy; Scenarios thinking; Sense of place; Social capital; Social-ecological resilience; Systems thinking.
Ano: 2015
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Environmental Policy, Education and Growth with Finite Lifetime: the Role of Abatement Technology AgEcon
Pautrel, Xavier.
This note shows that the assumptions about the abatement technology modify the impact of the environmental taxation (both the size and the “direction”) on the long-run growth driven by human capital accumulation à la Lucas (1988), when the source of pollution is private consumption and lifetime is finite. When the human capital’s share in the abatement services production is higher (respectively lower) than in the final output production, a higher environmental tax reduces (resp. increases) the allocation of human capital in production sectors (abatement service and final output) and boostes (resp. decreases) the BGP rate of growth. When abatement services are produced with the final output, the environmental taxation does not influence growth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Growth; Environment; Overlapping Generations; Human capital; Finite Lifetime; Abatement; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q5.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91003
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Equity, quality and relevance in higher education in Brazil Anais da ABC (AABC)
Schwartzman,Simon.
Brazilian higher education has doubled its size in the 1990s, going from 1.5 million to more than 3 million students in the period. This expansion was mostly due to the growth of private education, which, in 2002, accounted for about two thirds of the enrollment. Is expansion making higher education more accessible to persons coming from the poorer segments of society? Is the quality of higher education suffering by the speed of this expansion? Is Brazil educating enough qualified persons to attend to the country's needs to participate in the new, knowledge-intensive and global economy? What public policies should be implemented, in order to foster the values of social equity and relevance? What are the policy implications of these developments? This...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Higher education; Human capital; Equity; Labor market; Education policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652004000100015
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