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Ecosystem trends: evidence for agreement between fishers' perceptions and scientific information ArchiMer
Rochet, Marie-joelle; Prigent, M; Bertrand, Jacques; Carpentier, Andre; Coppin, Franck; Delpech, Jean-paul; Fontenelle, G; Foucher, Eric; Mahe, Kelig; Rostiaux, Emilie; Trenkel, Verena.
The results of a survey on fishers' perceptions of recent changes in the eastern English Channel ecosystem carried out in 2006 were compared with fishery and bottom-trawl survey data. A hypothesis-testing framework was used, testing the null hypothesis that fishers' statements were true, which permitted evaluation of both agreement and disagreement. Overall good agreement between fishers' statements and scientific data was found, and both sources suggested that the fish community in the Channel is undergoing large changes, among which are decreases in some commercially important species; in addition, a number of human pressures impact the ecosystem. Fishers had an accurate perception of changes and their time-frames, but not necessarily of their causes....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Stakeholder interview; Hypothesis testing; Fisher knowledge; Ecosystem approach to fisheries management; Eastern English Channel.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-4474.pdf
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Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions Ecology and Society
Colyvan, Mark; University of Sydney; mcolyvan@usyd.edu.au; Linquist, Stefan; University of Guelph; linquist@uoguelph.ca; Grey, William; University of Queensland; wgrey@uq.edu.au; Griffiths, Paul E.; University of Sydney; paul@representinggenes.org; Odenbaugh, Jay; Lewis and Clark College; jay@lclark.edu; Possingham, Hugh P; University of Queensland; h.possingham@uq.edu.au.
Philosophy of ecology has been slow to become established as an area of philosophical interest, but it is now receiving considerable attention. This area holds great promise for the advancement of both ecology and the philosophy of science. Insights from the philosophy of science can advance ecology in a number of ways. For example, philosophy can assist with the development of improved models of ecological hypothesis testing and theory choice. Philosophy can also help ecologists understand the role and limitations of mathematical models in ecology. On the other side, philosophy of science will be advanced by having ecological case studies as part of the stock of examples. Ecological case studies can shed light on old philosophical topics as well as raise...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Biodiversity; Community ecology; Decision theory; Environmental ethics; Hypothesis testing; Philosophy of ecology; Population models.
Ano: 2009
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Problem Solving and Hypothesis Testing Using Economic Experiments AgEcon
Hudson, Darren.
The roots and uses of economic experiments in problem solving and hypothesis testing are explored in the present article. The literature suggests that the primary advantage of economics experiments is the ability to use controlled stimuli to test economic hypotheses. Other literature also suggests that experiments are useful in problem solving settings. The advantages and disadvantages of experiments are discussed.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Experiments; Problem solving; Hypothesis testing; C81; C91; C92; C93.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43209
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Proving causal relationships using observational data AgEcon
Bryant, Henry L.; Bessler, David A..
We describe a means of rejecting a null hypothesis concerning observed, but not deliberately manipulated, variables of the form H0: A -/-> B in favor of an alternative hypothesis HA: A --> B, even given the possibility of causally related unobserved variables. Rejection of such an H0 relies on the availability of two observed and appropriately related instrumental variables. While the researcher will have limited control over the confidence level in this test, simulation results suggest that type I errors occur with a probability of less than 0.15 (often substantially less) across a wide range of circumstances. The power of the test is limited if there are but few observations available and the strength of correspondence among the variables is weak....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Causality; Monte Carlo; Observational data; Hypothesis testing; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103238
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