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Der Wechsel vom konventionellen zum ökologischen Landbau: Eine investitionstheoretische Betrachtung AgEcon
Odening, Martin; Musshoff, Oliver; Utesch, Volker.
The objective of this paper is to explore the potential of the real options approach for analyzing farmers’ choice to switch from conventional to organic farming. Understanding the determinants of this decision is relevant in particular for agricultural policy makers when predicting the response of farmers to support programs. After a brief review of the existing literature on barriers to the adoption of organic farming a theoretical model is presented that allows one to incorporate two main features of the adoption decision, namely irreversibility and uncertainty of the returns. The real options model quantifies investment multiples that trigger the adoption of organic farming. Compared with neoclassical models it suggests an inertia of the respective...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Organic farming; Real options; Switching regression; Hysteresis; Farm Management.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97451
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Economic Hysteresis in Variety Selection AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Green, Gareth P..
Investing in a new perennial crop variety involves an irreversible commitment of capital and generates an uncertain return stream. As a result, the decision to adopt a new variety includes a significant real option value. Waiting for returns to rise above this real option causes a delay in adoption because of economic hysteresis. This study tests for hysteresis in the adoption of wine grape varieties using a sample of district-level data from the state of California. The empirical results show a significant hysteretic effect in wine grape investment, which might be reduced by activities that smooth earnings over time.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: California; Grapes; Hysteresis; Investment; Jump diffusion; Real options; Variety adoption; Wine; Q14; Q11; D92; C34.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37310
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Histerese no comércio internacional brasileiro: uma análise por modelos ARFIMA AgEcon
Maia, Sinezio Fernandes; Jubert, Roberto Wagner; Paixao, Marcia Cristina.
Após a abertura comercial em 1998, grandes mudanças ocorreram no comércio exterior nacional devido sucessivos choques cambiais aos quais a economia foi exposta. A literatura de referência sugere que grandes choques na taxa de câmbio induzem mudanças persistentes na relação entre a taxa de câmbio e o comércio. Este fenômeno é conhecido por histerese. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho é evidenciar a existência de histerese no comércio internacional brasileiro, com interesse particular no setor agrícola. Os resultados indicaram evidências de histerese simples na taxa de câmbio e nas importações brasileiras, e de histerese fraca no setor agrícola e nas exportações. Conclui-se que a mudança de regime cambial em 1999 e a unificação cambial em 2005...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agrícola; ARFIMA; Histerese; Quebra estrutural; Taxa de Câmbio; Agricultural. ARFIMA; Exchange rate; Hysteresis; Structural breaks; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102896
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Lung tissue mechanics in the early stages of induced paracoccidioidomycosis in rats BJMBR
Shikanai-Yasuda,M.A.; Pereira,P.M.; Yamashiro-Kanashiro,E.; Duarte,M.I.S.; Assis,C.M.; Geraldes,E.A.; Saldiva,P.H.N..
Pulmonary dysfunction represents the most important cause of death in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM). In order to investigate the functional changes of the lungs in the early stages of PBM, a model of benign disease was developed by intratracheal challenge of 12-week old isogenic Wistar rats with 1 x 106 yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Animals were studied 30 and 60 days after infection, when fully developed granulomas were demonstrable in the lungs. Measurements of airway resistance, lung elastance and tissue hysteresis were made during sinusoidal deformations (100 breaths/min, tidal volume = 2 ml) with direct measurement of alveolar pressure using the alveolar capsule technique. Infection caused a significant increase in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Experimental paracoccidioidomycosis; Pulmonary mechanics; Tissue mechanics; Alveolar pressure measurements; Hysteresis.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X1997001000006
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Public Goods, Hysteresis, and Underinvestment in Food Safety AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Nganje, William E.; Acharya, Ram N..
Despite the economic damage inflicted by a foodborne disease outbreak, firms at all points in the supply chain appear to be reluctant to invest in the necessary food safety technologies and practices. We argue that these investments are subject to both hysteretic and public good effects, and construct a theoretical model of food safety investment, calibrated to describe the 2006 E. coli outbreak in California spinach. Both effects are found to induce delays in food safety investments, but the public good effect dominates. We suggest a number of policy options that improve incentives to contribute to the public good.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Food safety; Hysteresis; Investment; Public goods; Real options; Simulation; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57627
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Reale Optionen und Landwirtschaftliche Betriebslehre – oder: Kann man mit der Optionspreistheorie arbitrieren? AgEcon
Odening, Martin; Musshoff, Oliver.
This paper discusses the real options approach to investment. Real options facilitate an analysis of investment under uncertainty explicitly taking into account irreversibility of the investment decision and flexibility with respect to the investment timing. This is achieved by exploiting the analogy between a financial option and an investment project. We pinpoint the relation to traditional methods of capital budgeting as well as the special features of this concept, namely the exclusion of arbitrage opportunities and the independence of individual risk preferences. Analytical and numerical solution procedures for option pricing are presented. An application to investments in hog finishing illustrates the main ideas of the real options approach. It turns...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Real options; Investment under uncertainty; Flexibility; Contingent claim analysis; Hysteresis; Hog finishing; Farm Management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99004
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Regional Adjustment Dynamics AgEcon
Moller, Joachim.
The aim of the paper is to develop a theoretical framework for analyzing regional adjustment processes after idiosyncratic shocks. The model builds on the macroeconomic approach with monopolistic competition on goods and labor markets. It is shown how interregional factor mobility affects wage-setting behavior and labor supply. The dynamics of this extended model are explicitly taken into account. For a special case we can derive the characteristics of the adjustment process analytically. Under certain conditions the model exhibits hysteresis, i.e. temporary shocks on the price level or the unemployment rate can have a permanent effect on production and potential labor supply. It is argued that a suitable method for investigating regional adjustment...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regional adjustments; Wage formation; Wage-price spiral; Migration; Regional unemployment; Hysteresis; Labor and Human Capital; J30.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26180
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Sorption and desorption of Suflafenacil in two soils in the state of São Paulo with different physical and chemical attributes. Repositório Alice
MATALLO, M. B.; FRANCO, D. A. S.; ALMEIDA, S. D. B.; CERDEIRA, A. L..
Resumo: Foi conduzido um estudo para avaliar a sorção e dessorção do herbicida saflufenacil em dois solos do Estado de São Paulo: um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo com textura argilosa (LVA-1) e outro com textura média (LVA-2), classificados como argiloso e franco-argiloarenoso, respectivamente, através de isotermas, utilizando o método em batelada. Os solos foram secos ao ar e peneirados em malha de 2 mm. A molécula radiomarcada com 14C foi o saflufenacil, herbicida do grupo das pirimidinadionas. A radioatividade foi determinada por espectrometria de cintilação líquida. Os ensaios foram realizados em sala climatizada (25 ± 2 ºC). Para determinação de sorção e isotermas de sorção, foram empregadas cinco concentrações do saflufenacil (5,0; 2,5; 1,0; 0,5; e 0,05...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Dessorção; Herbicida; Sorção; Sorption isotherms; Herbicides; Hysteresis; Desorption.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1003210
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Sorption isotherms of Brazil nuts. Repositório Alice
BOTELHO, F. M.; BOSCHIROLI NETO, N. J.; BOTELHO, S. de C. C.; OLIVEIRA, G. H. H. de; HAUTH, M. R..
EN-US: Knowledge of the water sorption phenomenon in Brazil nut seeds will allow proper handling of this product, especially with regard to adequate conditions for safe storage. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the sorption isotherms (desorption and adsorption) of Brazil nuts, fitting different mathematical models to the experimental data, as well as to examine the hysteresis effect. To obtain the sorption isotherms, the static method was employed at temperatures of 25, 35, 45 and 55 °C and air relative humidities varying from 10 to 80%. The psychrometric conditions of the air were acquired with the aid of acid solutions and specific saturated saline left inside desiccators with the samples. It was verified that for a given isotherm, the...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Modelagem matematica; Bertholletia Excelsa; Teor de Umidade; Bertholletia; Hysteresis; Mathematical models; Moisture meters.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1112200
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Why farmers continue to use pesticides despite environmental health and sustainability costs AgEcon
Wilson, Clevo; Tisdell, Clement A..
Use of chemical inputs such as pesticides have increased agricultural production and productivity. However, negative externalities, too, have increased. The externalities include damage to the environment, agricultural land, fisheries, fauna and flora. Another major externality has been the unintentional destruction of beneficial predators of insects which has led to a virulence of many species of agricultural pests. Mortality and morbidity among agricultural workers, especially in developing countries from exposure to pesticides, are also common. The costs from these externalities are large and affect farmers’ returns. However, despite these high costs, farmers continue to use pesticides and in increasing quantities. In this paper, we examine this...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Pesticides; Agriculture; Environment; Human health; Sustainability; Hysteresis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48363
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