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Registros recuperados: 37
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Agricultural Productivity and Anticipated Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Spatial Sample Selection Model AgEcon
Ward, Patrick S.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso.
A cereal yield response function is estimated conditional upon environmental and topographical features to detect the effects of spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence in explaining agricultural productivity across Sub-Saharan Africa. Controlling for direct and localized spillover effects, we then estimate the effect that projected changes in temperature and precipitation as a result of global climate change will have on agricultural production. We find that the estimated declines found in the climatological literature may overestimate actual declines, and factors such as spatial heterogeneity (i.e., country fixed effects) are profoundly more important to agricultural production.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural Production; Climate Change; Applied Spatial Econometrics; Sample Selection; Generalized Method of Moments Estimation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Productivity Analysis; I3; Q18; C50.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61635
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APPROACHES TO THE ESTIMATION OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR POPULATION OF UZBEKISTAN IN CONDITIONS OF MARKET LIBERALIZATION AgEcon
Berdikulov, Sirajiddin; Gulyamova, Gulnora; Trostjanskij, Dmitry.
The article appeals to the life quality measurement issue in Uzbekistan. The life quality management has become challenging task in the process of radical system transformations from the administrative paradigm to the market one. The authors describe some approaches how to compose integrated life quality indicator. Particularly attention is given to evaluation and monitoring of life quality at regional level.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Quality of life; Life quality estimation and management; Regional development; Market transformations.; Public Economics; I3.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94601
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Conflict, Food Price Shocks, and Food Insecurity: The experience of Afghan households AgEcon
D'Souza, Anna; Jolliffe, Dean.
Revised version submitted December 2012.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Afghanistan; Food security; Conflict; Nutrition; Poverty; Spatial distribution; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; D12; I3.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123323
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Coping with Drought in Rice Farming in Asia: Insights from a Cross-Country Comparative Study AgEcon
Pandey, Sushil; Bhandari, Humnath; Ding, Shijun; Prapertchob, Preeda; Sharan, Ramesh; Naik, Dibakar; Taunk, Sudhir K.; Sastri, Asras.
Drought is a major constraint affecting rice production especially in rainfed areas of Asia. Despite its importance in rice growing areas, the magnitude of economic losses arising from drought, its impact on farm households and farmers' drought coping mechanisms are poorly understood. This paper provides insights into these aspects of drought based on a cross-country comparative analysis of rainfed rice growing areas in China, India and Thailand. The economic cost of drought is found to be substantially higher in eastern India than in the other two countries. Higher probability and greater spatial covariance of drought and less diversified farming systems with rice accounting for a large r share of household income are likely to be the main reasons for...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Drought; Economic cost; Coping mechanisms; Poverty; Crop Production/Industries; D1; I3; Q1.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25553
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Deregulation of the Maize Marketing System of Swaziland and Implications for Food Security AgEcon
Mashinini, Nkosazana N.; Obi, Ajuruchukwu; van Schalkwyk, Herman D..
Recent shortfalls in the supply of maize in the Kingdom of Swaziland have exacerbated the country's growing food insecurity and led to fresh calls for full deregulation of the maize marketing system. The proponents of deregulation believe that it eliminates inefficient production and service units by transferring resources to their best alternative uses. While the theoretical foundations for that position are not questionable, no studies have to date explicitly investigated the effects of the current arrangements and the potential effects of full deregulation. This paper reports on a study that examined the welfare effects of the regulation of the country's maize industry and considered the likely impacts of full deregulation of the industry. Using a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Food Security and Poverty; D6; F13; I3; L5; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25511
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Developing Poverty Assessment Tools Based on Principal Component Analysis: Results from Bangladesh, Kazakhstan, Uganda, and Peru AgEcon
Zeller, Manfred; Houssou, Nazaire; Alcaraz V., Gabriela; Schwarze, Stefan; Johannsen, Julia.
Developing accurate, yet operational poverty assessment tools to target the poorest households remains a challenge for applied policy research. This paper aims to develop poverty assessment tools for four countries: Bangladesh, Peru, Uganda, and Kazakhstan. The research applies the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to seek the best set of variables that predict the household poverty status using easily measurable socio-economic indicators. Out of sample validations tests are performed to assess the prediction power of a tool. Finally, the PCA results are compared with those obtained from regressions models. In-sample estimation results suggest that the Quantile regression technique is the first best method in all four countries, except Kazakhstan. The PCA...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty assessment; Targeting; Principal component analysis; Bangladesh; Peru; Kazakhstan; Uganda; Food Security and Poverty; H5; Q14; I3.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25396
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Disaster Risk, Social Vulnerability and Economic Development AgEcon
Ward, Patrick S.; Shively, Gerald E..
We examine the extent to which economic development reduces both a country's disaster risk and its social vulnerability to climate-related disasters. Global climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, and various types of storms. Moreover, the effects of these extreme weather events are expected to be borne disproportionately in areas of the world already challenged by underdevelopment. We find that the ability of economic development to reduce disaster risk depends on a country's income level; additional income becomes less effective in reducing disaster risk as countries become wealthier. We find that, conditional on a disaster occurring, higher incomes generally reduce a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Natural disasters; Climate change; Economic development; Vulnerability; International Development; Political Economy; I3; Q5; O2.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102984
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Do Family Caps Reduce Out-of-Wedlock Births? Evidence from Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, New Jersey and Virginia AgEcon
Dyer, Wendy Tanisha; Fairlie, Robert W..
Using Current Population Survey (CPS) data from 1989 to 1999, we examine the impact of family cap policies, which deny incremental welfare benefits, on out-of-wedlock birth rates. We use the first five states that were granted waivers from the Department of Health and Human Services to implement family caps as “natural experiments.” Specifically, we compare trends in out-ofwedlock birth rates in Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, New Jersey and Virginia to trends in states that did not implement family caps or any other waivers prior to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). We employ several techniques to increase the credibility of results from our “natural experiment,” such as the inclusion of multiple comparison groups,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Welfare; Family caps; Fertility; Labor and Human Capital; I3; J1.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28431
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Economics of Biofortification AgEcon
Qaim, Matin; Stein, Alexander J.; Meenakshi, J.V..
Micronutrient malnutrition affects billions of people world-wide, causing serious health problems. Different micronutrient interventions are currently being used, but their overall coverage is relatively limited. Biofortification – that is, breeding staple food crops for higher micronutrient contents – has been proposed as a new agriculture-based approach. Yet, as biofortified crops are still under development, relatively little is known about their economic impacts and wider ramifications. In this article, the main factors that will influence their future success are discussed, and a methodology for economic impact assessment is presented, combining agricultural, nutrition, and health aspects. Ex ante studies from India and other developing countries...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Micronutrient malnutrition; Public health; Biofortification; Agricultural technology; Impact analysis; Developing countries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; I1; I3; O1; O3; Q1.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25584
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Food Security and Wheat Prices in Afghanistan: A Distribution-sensitive Analysis of Household-level Impacts AgEcon
D'Souza, Anna; Jolliffe, Dean.
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/29/11.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Afghanistan; Food prices; Wheat; Food security; Nutrition; Poverty; Quantile regression; Influence functions; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; D12; I3.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103443
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Food Security in Afghanistan: Household-level Evidence from the 2007-08 Food Price Crisis AgEcon
D'Souza, Anna; Jolliffe, Dean.
Replaced with revised version of paper 10/20/10.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food security; High food prices; Nutrition; Poverty; Afghanistan; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; D12; I3.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61139
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How Accurate is Participatory Wealth Ranking (PWR) in Targeting the Poor? A Case Study from Bangladesh AgEcon
Zeller, Manfred; Feulefack, Joseph; Neef, Andreas.
PWR is a participatory poverty assessment method that uses the ratings of local reference groups concerning the relative poverty status of households in their community. This paper assesses the accuracy of PWR in predicting absolute (income) poverty, and compares PWR with three other poverty assessment methods. Using a village census in 8 villages located in three of the six divisions of Bangladesh, 1660 households have been scored using the PWR method. A randomly selected subsample of 320 households was interviewed with a questionnaire employing the Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) method. The data allow the identification of households that have per-capita expenditures below the international poverty line of 1 dollar a day. Our results show that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Participatory wealth ranking; Poverty targeting; Bangladesh; LSM; Food Security and Poverty; I3; C8.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25237
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Informal Insurance in the Presence of Poverty Traps: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia AgEcon
Santos, Paulo; Barrett, Christopher B..
Fieldwork for this paper was conducted under the Pastoral Risk Management (PARIMA) project of the Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program (GL CRSP), funded by the Office of Agriculture and Food Security, Global Bureau, USAID, under grant number DAN-1328-G-00-0046-00, and analysis was underwritten by the USAID SAGA cooperative agreement, grant number HFM-A-00-01-00132-00. Financial support was also provided by the Social Science Research Council's Program in Applied Economics on Risk and Development (through a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation), The Pew Charitable Trusts (through the Christian Scholars Program of the University of Notre Dame), the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portugal), and the Graduate...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk; Informal insurance; Social networks; Poverty traps; Ethiopia; Risk and Uncertainty; Z13; I3; O13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25487
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Land Inequality and Economic Growth: A Dynamic Panel Data Approach AgEcon
Fort, Ricardo; Ruben, Ruerd.
The growing body of literature devoted to study the impact of inequality on economic growth have centred its attention in the income distribution effect, even though the theoretical relationships are more related to assets distributions than to income distribution. While some recent studies have tried to overcome this limitation by introducing indicators of this type, they found a new constraint when dealing only with time-invariant measurements for this explanatory variable. This article provides a theoretical discussion and some novel empirical tests to better understand the relationships between assets distribution and economic growth. We assembled a new panel database that includes observations for more than 30 countries over the last three decades....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land inequality; Economic growth; Investments; System GMM estimation; International Development; Land Economics/Use; Q15; C23; I3.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25582
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Malaria and National Income: Examining a Two Way Causal Relationship AgEcon
Datta, Saurabh; Reimer, Jeffrey J..
Simple plots of data show that malaria has a negative correlation with national income per capita, whether looking across countries at a point in time, or looking at a single country over time. Some countries have been able to move from an equilibrium characterized by low income and high malaria, to a new equilibrium with higher income and lower rates of malaria. This study develops and estimates a simultaneous equations model to explain these changes. We distinguish three potential causal chains: (a) the ability for decreases in malaria to increase income, (b) the ability for increases in income to reduce malaria (reverse causality), and (c) external factors that may lead to both higher income and lower malaria (incidental association). We find that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Antipoverty; GDP; Health; Economic growth; Malaria; Simultaneous equations; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; I1; I3; O1; O2.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61179
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Market Access and Rural Poverty in Tanzania AgEcon
Minot, Nicholas.
Economic reforms in Tanzania have resulted in low inflation and solid economic growth, but many observers question whether the standard of living of ordinary Tanzanians has improved. Furthermore, there is a strong suspicion that the benefits have been concentrated among the urban population and among rural households with good market access, leaving remote rural households behind. In this paper, we demonstrate a new approach to measuring poverty trends over time. First, the relationship between poverty and household characteristics is estimated using household budget survey data. Second, this relationship is applied to the same characteristics in Demographic and Health Surveys, four of which have been carried out in Tanzania. The results suggest that the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty; Market access; Tanzania; Economic reforms; Food Security and Poverty; C0; I3; O1; Q13; R0.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25603
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Measuring the impact of trade policy reform in Ireland: A disaggregated analysis of household impacts AgEcon
Miller, Ana Corina; Matthews, Alan; Boysen, Ole; Donnellan, Trevor; O'Donoghue, Cathal.
The purpose of this paper is to assess the impacts of further trade liberalisation on the agricultural sector in Ireland. In addition to evaluating the aggregate impacts on agricultural production as well as the spill-over effect of this on the non-agricultural sector and for overall Irish GDP, we evaluate the effects for different types of households. In order to capture economy-wide impacts of the policy reform, a CGE model was formulated and implemented using a social accounting matrix constructed for Ireland for the year 2005. Household effects are captured using representative households. The simulation results suggest a positive impact on the Irish economy as well as on the representative households. Many agricultural sectors contract in the process...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade policy; CAP reform; CGE model; Macro and welfare effects; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; D58; I3.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99598
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Operational Models for Improving the Targeting Efficiency of Agricultural and Development Policies: A systematic comparison of different estimation methods using out-of-sample tests AgEcon
Houssou, Nazaire; Zeller, Manfred.
Accurate targeting is key for the success of any development policy. While a number of factors might explain low targeting efficiency such as governance failure, political interference or lack of political will, this paper focuses on improving indicator-based models that identify poor households and smallholder farmers more accurately. Using stepwise regressions along with out-of-sample validation tests and receiver operating characteristic curves, this paper develops proxy means tests models for rural and urban Malawi. The models developed have proved their validity in an independent sample and therefore, can be used to target a wide range of development policies to the poor. This makes the models a potentially interesting policy tool for the country.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Malawi; Poverty targeting; Predictions; Proxy means tests; Out-of-sample tests; ROC curve; Bootstrap; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Political Economy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C01; C13; C51; C52; I3; I32; Q14.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51454
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Operational Poverty Targeting by Means of Proxy Indicators - The Example of Peru AgEcon
Johannsen, Julia; Zeller, Manfred.
The measurement of per capita daily expenditures which are compared with a monetary poverty line is the most widely used approach regarding poverty assessment. It is, however, based on the implementation of time and cost-intensive household surveys and, therefore, not an operational method for targeting poor households with development services. The paper shows how to identify an alternative poverty assessment tool for Peru. It consists of a maximum of 15 powerful predictors of per-capita household expenditures selected out of a wide range of indicators from different poverty dimensions such as education, assets and housing characteristics. By applying the maximizing-R-squared regression technique to identify the best 5 to 15 predictors, we avoid an...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty indicators; Targeting; Expenditure predictions; Percent point function; Peru; Food Security and Poverty; I3; C8.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25492
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Philippine Rice and Rural Poverty: An Impact Analysis of Market Reform Using CGE AgEcon
Cororaton, Caesar B..
This paper looks at how Philippine trade reform which consists of tariff reduction and elimination of quantitative restrictions (QR) on rice imports will affect poverty within two world trade scenarios: Doha and free world trade. The impact of Doha is very small and generates biased effects against agriculture. The impact of Philippine trade reform within the Doha agenda magnifies this biased effect, making rural households worse-off compared to urban households. However, eliminating rice QR generates a set of effects where consumer price reduction dominates nominal income decline. Thus, real income improves and poverty declines across household groups, but the net effects are lower in rural than in urban households. The impact of a free world trade...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rice; Impact analysis; Agriculture; Poverty; Computable general equilibrium CGE; Trade reform; Doha agreement; Free trade; Rural households; Urban households; Consumer prices; Philippines; Food Security and Poverty; Marketing; F1; I3; N5; O5; Q0; Q1.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58578
Registros recuperados: 37
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