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Are Italian farming households actually poorer than other non agricultural households? An empirical analysis. AgEcon
Rocchi, Benedetto; Stefani, Gianluca; Romano, Donato; Landi, Chiara.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Income distribution; Agricultural households; Farm Problem; Italy; Consumer/Household Economics; Q12; I32.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124128
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Are poor, remote areas left behind in agricultural development: the case of Tanzania AgEcon
Minot, Nicholas.
In Tanzania, as in many other developing countries, the conventional wisdom is that economic reforms may have stimulated economic growth, but that the benefits of this growth have been uneven, favoring urban households and farmers with good market access. This idea, although quite plausible, has rarely been tested empirically. In this paper, we develop a new approach to measuring trends in poverty and apply it to Tanzania in order to explore the distributional aspects of economic growth and the relationship between rural poverty and market access. We find that, between 1991 and 2003, a period of extensive economic reforms, the overall rate of poverty fell about 9 percentage points. The degree of poverty reduction was similar between rural and urban areas,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Tanzania; Poverty; Market access; Agricultural development; Rural areas; Economic reform; Measurement; Rural poverty; International Development; I32; O18; O55; Q13; R11.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59829
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Are The Poverty Effects of Trade Policies Invisible? AgEcon
Verma, Monika; Valenzuela, Ernesto; Hertel, Thomas W..
With the advent of the WTO’s Doha Development Agenda, as well as the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce poverty by 50 percent by 2015, poverty impacts of trade reforms have attracted increasing attention. This has been particularly true of agricultural trade reform due to the importance of food in the diets of the poor, relatively higher protection in agriculture, as well as the heavy concentration of global poverty in rural areas where agriculture is the main source of income. Yet some in this debate have argued that, given the extreme volatility in agricultural commodity markets, the additional price and poverty impacts due to trade liberalization might well be undetectable. This paper formally tests this “invisibility hypothesis” via...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade policy reform; Agricultural trade; Computable general equilibrium; Developing countries; Poverty headcount; Volatility; Stochastic simulation; Non-parametric hypothesis testing; Financial Economics; Risk and Uncertainty; C68; F17; I32; Q17; R20.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61793
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Being Poor, Feeling Poorer: Combining Objective and Subjective Measures of Welfare in Albania AgEcon
Carletto, Calogero; Zezza, Alberto.
As shown empirically for many transition economies, even small changes in assumptions on economies of size and adult equivalence scales are likely to produce significant changes in the analysis of poverty and its distribution across households and individuals. Since such exercises are then used to orient and prioritize policy actions (e.g. the targeting of scarce social assistance resources) it is important to refine our understanding of the extent to which poverty measures and the resulting profiles are sensitive to specific assumptions. In this paper we investigate how combining objective and subjective measures of welfare can provide insights that are helpful in addressing these questions, particularly with respect to the presence of economies of scale...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty; Poverty Measurement; Subjective Poverty; Equivalence Scales; Economies of Scale in Consumption; Albania.; Food Security and Poverty; I31; I32; O52; D60.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23801
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Blood for Social Status: Preliminary Evidence from Rural China AgEcon
Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Xi Chen acknowledges generous Doctoral Research Grant from the Institute for the Social Sciences at Cornell University and precious data set provided by the Development Strategy and Governance Division at IFPRI. Conference Travel Grant provided by the Department of Applied Economics and Management at Cornell is also acknowledged. We are grateful to Ravi Kanbur for invaluable comments, guidance and encouragement. This paper also benefited from helpful discussion and invaluable comments from Robert Frank, David Sahn, Marc Rockmore, and seminar participants in the Department of Economics at Cornell. Due to time limit, I have not incorporated all helpful comments and suggestions in this early draft paper. The views expressed herein and any remaining errors...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Blood Donation; Social Status; Poverty; Inequality; Relative Deprivation; Rural China; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; Production Economics; Public Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Risk and Uncertainty; I32; J22; D13; D63.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49411
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Concepts, applications, and extensions of value chain analysis to livestock systems in developing countries AgEcon
Rich, Karl M.; Baker, Derek; Negassa, Asfaw; Ross, R. Brent.
The analysis of value chains has augmented our knowledge on the complexities, inter-linkages, distributional benefits, and institutional arrangements of production and marketing channels in developing countries. However, the analysis remains relatively qualitative and case-specific, with limited ability to rank or assess the impact of alternative interventions or to analyze sufficiently the complex market dynamics and feedbacks present in livestock systems. This paper offers insights on ways to improve the analytical rigor of the value chain methodology that combines both qualitative and quantitative approaches.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Value chain; Livestock; Developing countries; Livestock Production/Industries; I32; O13; O17; O21; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51922
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Corruption, Income Inequality, and Poverty in the United States AgEcon
Dincer, Oguzhan C.; Gunalp, Burak.
In this study we analyze the effects of corruption on income inequality and poverty. Our analysis advances the existing literature in four ways. First, instead of using corruption indices assembled by various investment risk services, we use an objective measure of corruption: the number of public officials convicted in a state for crimes related to corruption. Second, we use all commonly used inequality and poverty measures including various Atkinson indexes, Gini index, standard deviation of the logarithms, relative mean deviation, coefficient of variation, and the poverty rate defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. Third, we minimize the problems which are likely to arise due to data incomparability by examining the differences in income inequality, and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corruption; Income Inequality; Poverty; D31; D73; I32.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37848
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Costly Posturing: Relative Status, Ceremonies and Early Child Development AgEcon
Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Though social spending facilitates risk‐pooling in the impoverished regions, too many resources devoted to social occasions may impose negative externalities and hinder efforts to alleviate poverty for households living close to subsistence. Conducting three waves census‐type panel survey in rural western China with well‐defined reference groups and detailed information on social occasions, gift exchanges, nutrients intake and health outcomes, we find that the squeeze effect originated from lavish ceremonies is associated with lower height‐for‐age zscore, higher probability of stunting and underweight in early child development. The lasting impact suggests that “catch up” is limited. The squeeze is stronger for the fetal period and towards the lower tail...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Relative Status; Squeeze Effect; Nutrients Intake; Stunting; Underweight; Gender; Agribusiness; D13; I32; O15.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115517
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Determinants of Poverty among U.S. Farm Households AgEcon
El-Osta, Hisham S.; Morehart, Mitchell J..
This research uses data from the 2004 Agricultural Resource Management Survey and probit regression to examine the determinants of poverty among U.S. farm households. The findings reveal, among others, the importance of a livelihood strategy that combines participation in government programs and off-farm work in lowering poverty rates. Findings also show the importance of educational attainment of the farm operator in mitigating poverty, but only when poverty is measured on a relative rather than an absolute basis. Policy recommendations are provided in the context of these findings.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Composite measure of economic well-being; Government programs; Off-farm work; Poverty; Agricultural Finance; Financial Economics; Labor and Human Capital; J23; J24; D3; I21; I32; C81.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45037
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Determinants of Youth Poverty: A Zip Code Analysis AgEcon
Misra, Kaustav; Debertin, David L..
Estimation of Gini coefficients for various age groups indicates that Kentucky youth population is at risk. The paper determines the factors affecting youth poverty, employing Zip Code data. Analysis of outcomes provides suggestions for the policymakers to limit youth poverty in Kentucky.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Youth; Poverty; Zip Code; Gini coefficient; Lorenz curve; Logit model; Food Security and Poverty; I32; I39; R11.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34899
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Does Agriculture Help Poverty and Inequality Reduction? Evidence from Vietnam AgEcon
Viet Cuong, Nguyen.
This paper measures impacts of production of crops, forestry, livestock and aquaculture on household welfare, poverty and inequality in rural Vietnam using fixed-effects regressions. Data used in this paper are from Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys 2002 and 2004. It is found that impact estimates of the production of crops and forestry on per capita income and consumption expenditure are not statistically significant. Impact estimates of the livestock production are positive and statistically significant for per capita income, but not statistically significant for per capita expenditure. However, the aquacultural production has positive and statistically significant impacts on both income and expenditure. As a result, the aquacultural production...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Farm households; Welfare; Poverty; Inequality; Vietnam; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; I32; Q12; O13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118576
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Does the Food Stamp Program Affect Food Security Status and the Composition of Food Expenditures? AgEcon
Pan, Suwen; Jensen, Helen H..
This article considers interaction among participation in the Food Stamp Program (FSP), food security status, and the composition of food expenditures. A quadratic almost ideal demand system with a bootstrapping two-step method of estimation is applied to data from the Current Population Survey–Food Security Supplement data and used to estimate the model and account for endogeneity between the FSP participation and food insecurity. The results show that FSP participation is endogenously related with food security status and significantly affects total food expenditure and food-away-from-home expenditures.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Food away from home; Food insecurity; Food stamps; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Q18; R21; I32.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45043
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Effects of Poverty on Deforestation: Distinguishing Behavior from Location AgEcon
Kerr, Suzi; Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Cavatassi, Romina; Davis, Benjamin; Lipper, Leslie; Sanchez, Arturo; Timmins, Jason.
We summarize existing theoretical claims linking poverty to rates of deforestation and then examine this linkage empirically for Costa Rica during the 20th century using an econometric approach that addresses the irreversibilities in deforestation. Our data facilitate an empirical analysis of the implications for deforestation of where the poor live. Without controlling for this, impacts of poverty per se are confounded by richer areas being different from the areas inhabited by the poor, who we expect to find on more marginal lands, for instance less profitable lands. Controlling for locations' characteristics, we find that poorer areas are cleared more rapidly. This result suggests that poverty reduction aids forest conservation.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land Use; Deforestation; Poverty; Climate Change; Development; Costa Rica.; Food Security and Poverty; I32; O13; Q51; Q54; Q56.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23792
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Estimating Poverty Over Time and Space: Construction of a Time-Variant Poverty Index for Costa Rica AgEcon
Cavatassi, Romina; Davis, Benjamin; Lipper, Leslie.
This paper presents the construction of a spatially explicit, nationally disaggregated measure of poverty over time in Costa Rica. The paper first describes the two possible methods considered for the construction of a poverty map: principal component analysis (PCA) versus small area estimation. Next, reasons for choosing PCA and a description of its application both at one point in time (1973) and over time are presented together with the resulting poverty maps. The methodology applied represents a methodological innovation in that the resulting poverty map is time variant rather than concentrated in a single moment in time. A comparison of the results obtainable using various techniques and a discussion on the relative merits of the various options...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty Mapping; Principal Component Analysis; Time-variant Poverty Index; Small-area Estimation.; Food Security and Poverty; C43; I32; C31.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23791
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Fertility and Income AgEcon
Schultz, T. Paul.
There is an inverse association between income per adult and fertility among countries, and across households this inverse association is also often observed. Many studies find fertility is lower among better educated women and is often higher among women whose families own more land and assets. What do we know about the social consequences of events and policies that change fertility, if they are independent of parent preferences for children or the economic conditions which account for much of the variation in parent lifetime fertility? These effects of exogenous fertility change on the health and welfare of children can are assessed from Kenyan household survey data by analysis of the consequences of twins, and the effect of avoiding unanticipated...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sources of fertility decline; Twins; Child health; Kenya; Labor and Human Capital; J13; I32; I12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28500
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Global Market Shocks and Poverty in Vietnam: The Case of Rice AgEcon
Coxhead, Ian A.; Linh, Vu Hoang; Tam, Le Dong.
World food prices have experienced dramatic increases in recent years. These “shocks” affect food importers and exporters alike. Vietnam is a major exporter of rice, and rice is also a key item in domestic production, employment and consumption. Accordingly, rice price shocks from the world market have general equilibrium impacts and as such, their implications for household welfare are not known ex ante. In this paper we first present a simple framework for understanding the direct and indirect welfare effects of a global market shock of this kind. Second, we quantify the transmission of the price shock from global indicator prices to domestic markets. Third, we then we use an applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to simulate the effects of domestic...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Vietnam; Rice; Poverty; Price transmission; General equilibrium; Microsimulation; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; I32; D58; Q17.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116706
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How robust are indicator based poverty assessment tools over time? Empirical evidence from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia AgEcon
van Edig, Xenia; Schwarze, Stefan; Zeller, Manfred.
Eradicating poverty is one of the most urgent concerns of development policies. Organisations aiming at reducing poverty need simple and stable tools to detect poor households. Using data from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, this study aims to test first whether two indicators sets for poverty assessment found in 2005 are still capable in predicting absolute poverty and second, if the indicator composition remains robust over time. Data from two household surveys were used: In 2005 we surveyed 264 households in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi to obtain indicators of poverty and to derive the daily per capita consumption expenditures. In total 280 indicators were sampled. Two different multivariate regression models were fit to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty assessment; Poverty indicators; Robustness over time; Indonesia; Food Security and Poverty; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; I32; R15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51674
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Identifying Asset Poverty Thresholds – New methods with an application to Pakistan and Ethiopia AgEcon
Naschold, Felix.
Understanding how households escape poverty depends on understanding how they accumulate assets over time. Therefore, identifying the degree of linearity in household asset dynamics, and specifically any potential asset poverty thresholds, is of fundamental interest to the design of poverty reduction policies. If household asset holdings converged unconditionally to a single long run equilibrium, then all poor could be expected to escape poverty over time. In contrast, if there are critical asset thresholds that trap households below the poverty line, then households would need specific assistance to escape poverty. Similarly, the presence of asset poverty thresholds would mean that short term asset shocks could lead to long term destitution, thus...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty dynamics; Semiparametric Estimation; Penalized Splines; Pakistan; Ethiopia; Consumer/Household Economics; I32; C14; O12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19115
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International food prices and poverty in Indonesia AgEcon
Warr, Peter G.; Yusuf, Arief Anshory.
This paper argues that recent increases in international food prices worsened poverty incidence in Indonesia, even though many poor farmers benefited. This conclusion is based on the application of a multi-sectoral, multi-household general equilibrium model of the Indonesian economy. The positive effect on the welfare of poor farmers was exceeded by the negative effect on poor consumers. Indonesia’s ban on rice imports since 2004 complicates this account. The import ban shielded Indonesia’s internal rice market from the temporary world price increases from 2007 to 2008, but did so at the expense of permanently increasing both rice prices and poverty incidence.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Indonesia; Food Prices; Poverty Incidence; General Equilibrium Modeling; International Development; D58; I32; F14.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59259
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Is Income Inequality Endogenous in Regional Growth? AgEcon
Hailu, Yohannes G.; Kahsai, Mulugeta S.; Gebremedhin, Tesfa G.; Jackson, Randall W..
This study focuses on testing the relationship between income inequality and growth within U.S. counties, and the channels through which such effects are observed. The study tests three hypotheses: (1) income inequality has an inverse relationship with growth; (2) regional growth adjustments are the channels through which the inequality and growth are equilibrated; and (3) income inequality is endogenous to regional growth and its adjustment. Results, based on a system of equations estimation, confirm the hypotheses that income inequality has a growth dampening effect; income inequality is endogenous to regional growth and growth adjustment; and the channels through which income inequality determines growth are regional growth adjustments, such as...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income inequality; Economic growth; Gini coefficient; Growth modeling; Population change; Per capita income; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Public Economics; I32; J15; O18; P25; R11; R23; R25; R51; R53; R58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46320
Registros recuperados: 46
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