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An Overview of the Implications of Global Change for Natural and Managed Terrestrial Ecosystems Ecology and Society
Walker, Brian; CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems; Brian.Walker@csiro.au; Steffen, Will; ; Will.Steffen@dwe.csiro.au.
Global change is the net effect of individual and interactive effects of changes in land use, atmospheric composition, biological diversity, and climate. A synthesis of the past six years' activities of the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems project of the IGBP (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme) deals with global change effects as ecosystem responses and living with global change. Ecosystem responses are considered in terms of changes in function and vegetation composition/structure. Field experiments of elevated CO2 effects on aboveground biomass show, on average, a positive effect on biomass, ranging from -20% to +80%. Some early predictions of CO2 effects (C3 vs. C4 plants, N-fixers, C:N in litter) are not generally supported, and it...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Biomes; Carbon dioxide; Climate; Dynamics; Ecosystem functioning; Global change; Impacts; Land use; Terrestrial biosphere; Vegetation changes..
Ano: 1997
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Application of Structured Decision Making to an Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Options for Sustainable Forest Management Ecology and Society
Ogden, Aynslie E; Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia; Forest Management Branch, Government of Yukon; aynslie.ogden@gov.yk.ca; Innes, John L; Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia; john.innes@ubc.ca.
A logical starting point for climate change adaptation in the forest sector is to proactively identify management practices and policies that have a higher likelihood of achieving management objectives across a wide range of potential climate futures. This should be followed by implementation of these options and monitoring their success in achieving management objectives within an adaptive management context. Here, we implement an approach to identify locally appropriate adaptation options by tapping into the experiential knowledge base of local forest practitioners while at the same time, building capacity within this community to implement the results. We engaged 30 forest practitioners who are involved with the implementation of a regional forest...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Climate change; Impacts; Structured decision making; Sustainable forest management; Vulnerability.
Ano: 2009
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Approaches to assess climate change effects on plant disease: (1) impacts of rising CO2 in Brazil. Repositório Alice
GHINI, R..
2008
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Approaches; Climate change; Effects; Plant; Impacts; CO2; Brazil.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/16169
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As cooperativas rurais brasileiras e o mercado de crédito de carbono: análise da influência dessas operações no empreendimento cooperativo. Repositório Alice
SIMÃO, G. L.; AMODEO, N. B. P..
Esta pesquisa buscou analisar os resultados econômicos e sociais gerados pela comercialização dos créditos de carbono, por parte das cooperativas rurais brasileiras. Quanto aos resultados, pode-se constatar que, na maioria das cooperativas agropecuárias pesquisadas, há participação de empresas intermediárias, que são os arrendatários dos Mecanismos de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL), os quais também repassam, às cooperativas, uma porcentagem advinda das reduções certificadas de emissões. Na maioria dos casos, também há benefícios secundários, resultantes dos MDL. Nesses projetos, em que há participação de terceiros, a principal atividade econômica da cooperativa não tem ligação direta com o mecanismo. Não se observou participação ou apoio de órgãos...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Crédito de carbono; Credit carbon; Impacts; Cooperativa; Impacto econômico; Cooperatives.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/930887
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AVALIAÇÃO DOS IMPACTOS ECONOMICOS E SOCIAIS DA ADOÇÃO DA TECNOLOGIA DE MÓDULOS MÚLTIPLOS DE BENEFICIAMENTO DA CASTANHA DE CAJU EM TRÊS COOPERATIVAS DO ESTADO DO CEARÁ. AgEcon
Araujo, Joao Cavalcante; Mattos, Adriano Lincoln Albuquerque; Pessoa, Pedro Adeodato; Marinho, Francisco Assis; Sousa, Jose Rodrigues.
A metodologia de avaliação de impactos de programas/projetos/intevenções tecnológicas baseia-se na identificação e posterior mensuração ex-post da importância de transformações de aspectos da realidade resultantes do desenvolvimento, adoção e difusão de um programa de pesquisa, programa tecnológico e/ou inovação tecnológica. A metodologia esta baseada nas diferentes possibilidades de interação das dimensões da avaliação procurando preservar suas características particulares em um mesmo marco metodológico no qual estão envolvidos direta ou indiretamente atores relacionados com o objeto da avaliação e que percebem os impactos de forma heterogênea, a partir das suas situações particulares. A análise utilizou para a avaliação de impacto econômico a mensuração...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Análise comparativa; Impactos; Mini-fábrica; Unidades de processamento; Caju; Benchmarking; Impacts; Mini-factory; Processing units; Cashews; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109198
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Avaliação dos problemas enfrentados no manejo do caramujo gigante africano Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) no Brasil Rev. Bras. Zool.
Colley,Eduardo; Fischer,Marta Luciane.
The giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Paraná, Brazil, in the 1980s. Since then, it has spread across the country, despite its known invasive status on a global scale. The main objective of this study was to assess the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail. To accomplish that, we gathered and analyzed information available on the internet, scientific databases, field studies, as well as interviews and consultations with official agencies, NGOs, museums, the scientific community and people that coexist with the species. Despite the fact that extensive information has been generated regarding A. fulica (1,340 articles, 65 summaries in national annals, 40,700 pages on the internet), essential to promote...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biological invasions; Control; Economic; Environmental; Impacts; Invasive exotic species; Health.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-46702009000400012
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Az agrárkutatás-fejlesztés GDP-re gyakorolt hatása az EU országaiban AgEcon
Szucs, Istvan; Mohamed, Zsuzsanna; Takacs, Szabolcs.
A függvényszámításaink alapján a következő összegző jellegű megállapításokat tesszük: • A C-D típusú függvények jól alkalmazhatók az általunk vizsgált termelési tényezők hatásának megközelítő mérésére. • 2000-ben a mezőgazdasági eszközállomány, 2007-ben pedig a mezőgazdasági munkaerő játszott nagyobb szerepet az agrár GDP előállításában. Ebben főleg annak hatása érződik, hogy közben jelentősen javult az élőmunka technikai fejlettsége, a munkaerőben nagyobb tudásanyag halmozódott fel, a termelési tényezők között felértéke¬lődött a szerepe. • Az agrár K+F szerepe a GDP képződésében 2000-ben 11%, 2007-ben 14% körüli, tehát a fejlesztési törekvések lényegesek az agrárgazdaság fejlődése szempontjából. A módosított termelési függvények segítségével kimutattuk...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Kutatás + fejlesztés; Agrárgazdaság; GDP; Hatások; Research and development; Agro-economy; GDP; Impacts; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99114
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Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies In Italy. An Economic Assessment AgEcon
Carraro, Carlo; Sgobbi, Alessandra.
In this paper, the economic value of the impacts of climate change is assessed for different Italian economic sectors and regions. Sectoral and regional impacts are then aggregated to provide a macroeconomic estimate of variations in GDP induced by climate change in the next decades. Autonomous adaptation induced by changes in relative prices and in stocks of natural and economic resources is fully taken into account. The model also considers international trade effects. Results show that in Italy aggregate GDP losses induced by climate change are likely to be small. However, some economic sectors (e.g. tourism) and the alpine regions will suffer significant economic damages.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Impacts; Climate Change; Adaptation; GDP Losses; Tourism; Environmental Economics and Policy; Political Economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; Q43; Q5; R13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6373
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Consequences of oil spills: a review and framework for informing planning Ecology and Society
Chang, Stephanie E.; University of British Columbia; stephanie.chang@ubc.ca; Stone, Jeremy; University of British Columbia; jeremy@recoveryandrelief.org; Demes, Kyle; University of British Columbia; Simon Fraser University; kyle.demes@gmail.com; Piscitelli, Marina; University of British Columbia; piscitellim@gmail.com.
As oil transportation worldwide continues to increase, many communities are at risk of oil spill disasters and must anticipate and prepare for them. Factors that influence oil spill consequences are myriad and range from the biophysical to the social. We provide a summary literature review and overview framework to help communities systematically consider the factors and linkages that would influence consequences of a potential oil spill. The focus is on spills from oil tanker accidents. Drawing primarily on empirical studies of previous oil spill disasters, we focused on several main domains of interest: the oil spill itself, disaster management, the physical marine environment, marine biology, human health, economy, and policy. Key variables that...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Framework; Impacts; Oil spills; Vancouver.
Ano: 2014
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Constraints and Priorities for Conducting Experimental Exposures of Marine Organisms to Microplastics ArchiMer
Paul-pont, Ika; Tallec, Kevin; Gonzalez-fernandez, Carmen; Lambert, Christophe; Vincent, Dorothee; Mazurais, David; Zambonino-infante, Jose-luis; Brotons, Guillaume; Lagarde, Fabienne; Fabioux, Caroline; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud.
Marine plastic pollution is a major environmental issue. Given their ubiquitous nature and small dimensions, ingestion of microplastic (MP) and nanoplastic (NP) particles and their subsequent impact on marine life are a growing concern worldwide. Transfers along the trophic chain, including possible translocation, for which the hazards are less understood, are also a major preoccupation. Effects of MP ingestion have been studied on animals through laboratory exposure, showing impacts on feeding activity, reserve depletion and inflammatory responses, with consequences for fitness, notably reproduction. However, most experimental studies have used doses of manufactured virgin microspheres that may not be environmentally realistic. As for most...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microplastics; Nanoplastics; Experimental exposure; Impacts; Marine organisms; Physiology.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00449/56088/57621.pdf
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Determinants of African farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change: Multinomial choice analysis AgEcon
Hassan, Rashid M.; Nhemachena, Charles.
This study analyzed determinants of farm-level climate adaptation measures in Africa using a multinomial choice model fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey of over 8000 farms from 11 African countries. The results indicate that specialized crop cultivation (mono-cropping) is the agricultural practice most vulnerable to climate change in Africa. Warming, especially in summer, poses the highest risk. It encourages irrigation, multiple cropping and integration of livestock. Increased precipitation reduces the probability of irrigation and will benefit most African farms, especially in drier areas. Better access to markets, extension and credit services, technology and farm assets (labor, land and capital) are critical for helping African farmers adapt...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Climate change; Impacts; Adaptation; Agriculture; Africa; Farm Management; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56969
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Estimating Ricardian Models With Panel Data AgEcon
Massetti, Emanuele; Mendelsohn, Robert.
Many nonmarket valuation models, such as the Ricardian model, have been estimated using cross sectional methods with a single year of data. Although multiple years of data should increase the robustness of such methods, repeated cross sections suggest the results are not stable. We argue that repeated cross sections do not properly specify the model. Panel methods that correctly specify the Ricardian model are stable over time. The results suggest that many cross sectional methods including hedonic studies and travel cost studies could be enhanced using panel data.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate Change; Impacts; Agriculture; Hedonic Models; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q1; Q12; Q51; Q54.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115727
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Expansión poblacional de una especie introducida en la Argentina: la ardilla de vientre rojo Callosciurus erythraeus Mastozool. neotrop.
Guichón,M. Laura; Bello,Marcelo; Fasola,Laura.
Biological invasions are one of the major threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and they provoke economic losses to productive systems. A wild population of the Red-Bellied Squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus, native to South-east Asia, has established in the province a Buenos Aires (Argentina) since 1973. The objective of this study is to assess the spatial distribution of the Red-Bellied Squirrel and describe the opinion of local inhabitants regarding the presence of this exotic species. We conducted 312 interviews in the district of Luján (original release site of this species) and other neighbouring districts, between August 2003 and March 2004. The area of the range distribution of squirrels was calculated using the minimum convex polygon...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biological invasions; Exotic squirrels; Impacts; Spatial distribution.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0327-93832005000200006
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Impact of climatic and anthropogenic changes on living resources in the Bay of Biscaye ArchiMer
Goulletquer, Philippe.
Fisheries and aquaculture are of major importance to the coastal communities throughout the Bay of Biscaye. Almost half of French fishermen rely on catches from the Bay which achieve and estimated first sale value of more than €525m annually. Moreover, emblematic species such as eels have an additional economic as weil as social value for coastal communities. Similarly, the main French shellfish rearing areas are located within the Bay of Biscaye. They contribute predominantly to the yearly spat (mussel & oyster) recruitment, used to sustain the entire French shellfish industry. These activities have a direct impact on ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. Meanwhile, drastic environmental changes have been reported over the last 30 years, including a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Solea solea; Living resources; Ecosystem; Biodiversity; Impacts; Climate change.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/acte-3488.pdf
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Impacto del programa de servicios ambientales hidrológicos en tres ejidos de Texcoco, México. Colegio de Postgraduados
Ruíz Jiménez, Mónica.
El objetivo de la presente investigación fue identificar el impacto del Programa de Pago por Servicios Ambientales Hidrológicos (PSAH) desde la percepción de los propios beneficiarios del programa en tres ejidos forestales del municipio de Texcoco que recibieron apoyos de la Comisión Nacional Forestal (CONAFOR) del año 2005 al 2010. El estudio también incluyó una encuesta entre la población de Texcoco para identificar la disposición a pagar (DAP) a los dueños de los bosques a fin de que sigan conservándolos y proveyendo de los servicios ambientales hidrológicos. Los resultados indican que los beneficiarios no perciben impactos positivos directos en su bienestar social y económico porque los recursos recibidos del PSAH se destinaron a obras de conservación...
Palavras-chave: Servicios ambientales; Bosque; Conservación pasiva; Ejidos forestales; Impactos; Ecosystem services; Forests; Passive conservation; Forest ejidos; Impacts; Desarrollo Rural; Maestría.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/2174
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Impacts of AKST on development and sustainability goals. Repositório Alice
CARON, P.; CRAUFURD, P.; MARTIN, A.; MCDONALD, A.; ABEDINI, W.; AFIFF, S.; BAKURIN, N.; BASS, S.; HILBECK, A.; JANSEN, T.; LHALOUI, S.; LOCK, K.; PRIMAVESI, O.; SENGOOBA, T..
Assessment and analysis of AKST impacts; Agriculture productivity, production factors and consumption; impacts of akst on sustainability, through integrated technologies and the delivery of ecosystem services and public goods; Impacts of akst on livehoods, capacoty strenthening and empowerment; relationshipsbetween akst, coordination and regulatory processes among multipl3e stakeholders.
Tipo: Capítulo em livro científico (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Goals; Development sustainability; Impacts; AKST.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/256054
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Individual- and community-level impacts of volunteer environmental monitoring: a synthesis of peer-reviewed literature Ecology and Society
Stepenuck, Kristine F; University of Wisconsin-Extension; Nelson Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources; kris.stepenuck@uvm.edu; Green, Linda T; URI Watershed Watch; University of Rhode Island-Cooperative Extension; lgreen@uri.edu.
Citizens have long contributed to scientific research about the environment through volunteer environmental monitoring programs. Their participation has also resulted in outcomes for themselves, their communities, and the environment. This research synthesizes 35 peer-reviewed journal articles that reported such outcomes through 2012. This collection of articles was derived from a pool of 436 peer-reviewed journal articles about participatory environmental monitoring. Reported outcomes for participants and communities ranged from increasing personal knowledge and community awareness to changing attitudes and behaviors, building social capital, and ultimately, influencing change in natural resource management and policies. Mixed results were reported in...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Citizen science; Impacts; Natural resources; Outcomes; Public participation in scientific research; Volunteer monitoring.
Ano: 2015
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Knowing for controlling: ecological effects of invasive vertebrates in Tierra del Fuego RChHN
SILVA,CLAUDIA A; SAAVEDRA,BÁRBARA.
The Tierra del Fuego (TDF) archipelago is recognized as part o the last places on Earth that may still be considered wild. However, this condition may be threatened by the large number of invasive species present on the archipelago. These species can have significant effects on the ecology of the invaded ecosystems, at the genetic as well as at population, community and ecosystem levels. The aim of this study is to, by a bibliographic review, systematize existing information on the ecological impacts these species would be having on the TDF archipelago and detect information gaps in order to orient future research and effective management programs on these species. We restricted our review to vertebrate, non-marine invaders. We determined which species...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Impacts; Introduced; Exotic; Chile; Argentina.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2008000100010
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Measuring Household Resilience to Floods: a Case Study in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta Ecology and Society
Nguyen, Kien V; An Giang University, Vietnam; Australian Demographic and Social Research Institute, Australian National University; nv.kien@anu.edu.au; James, Helen; Australian Demographic and Social Research Institute, Australian National University; waldenent@hotmail.com.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Impacts; Floods; Mekong River Delta; Resilience; Vulnerability; Well-being.
Ano: 2013
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Natural and human impacts on invertebrate communities in Brazilian caves BJB
FERREIRA,R. L.; HORTA,L. C. S..
Species richness, abundance, distribution and similairity between cave invertebrate communities were compared among seven caves located in the Peruaçu River valley, north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Such comparisons aimed to determinate the degree of biological complexity in the sampled caves, calculated by the "Index of Biological Complexity in Caves", presented in this manuscript. The presence of potencial or real impacts on the cave fauna was also investigated. A total of 1,468 individuals belonging to 57 families of: Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Araneida, Opilionida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Geophilomorpha, Scutigeromorpha, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Dictyoptera, Ephemeroptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Caves; Communities; Impacts; Invertebrates; Peruaçu River.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-71082001000100003
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