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Registros recuperados: 47
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Agriculture and Income Distribution: Insights from a SAM of the Italian Economy AgEcon
Rocchi, Benedetto; Romano, Donato; Stefani, Gianluca.
The paper presents the results of the first SAM analysis of the agricultural sector in Italy. A SAM of the Italian economy has been properly modified in order to focus the analysis on agriculture. Two type of analysis have been carried out: (i) a multiplier analysis, and (ii) an assessment of the distributive impacts of different agricultural policies. This paper proposes also a new method for disaggregating the institutional sectors and production factors in order to analyze income distribution within the economy, with special emphasis on the agricultural sector. Main results are: (i) "fully" decoupled income supporting schemes (transfers to agricultural households) are the most equitable interventions and determine a perfect targeting of the distributive...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Social accounting matrix; Agriculture; Income distribution; Italy; Labor and Human Capital; R13; R15; Q18; E25.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24919
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An ex-ante analysis of distributional effects of the CAP on western German farm incomes AgEcon
Deppermann, Andre; Grethe, Harald; Offermann, Frank.
This study is concerned with measuring impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on farm income distribution of western Germany. Not only the sheer contribution of market price support and direct payments as a proportion of income is taken into account, but also the impact of support on production incentives. For this purpose, we apply a modelling system consisting of a partial equilibrium model and a programming model. Based on a comparison of Gini coefficients and a decomposition of overall inequality effects we conclude that liberalization of the agricultural sector leads to a more unequal distribution of family farm income in relative terms, whereas a liberalized market provides a more equal situation in absolute terms.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income distribution; CAP; Farm Group Model; Equilibrium Model; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q11; Q12; Q18; C54; C6; D31.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99428
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ANÁLISE DAS MEDIDAS DE RENDA, DISTRIBUIÇÃO E POBREZA DOS MUNICÍPIOS DA ÁREA DE INFLUÊNCIA DA BARRAGEM CASTANHÃO CEARÁ AgEcon
Campos, Roberio Telmo; Campos, Kilmer Coelho.
Objetiva-se realizar o macrodiagnóstico econômico-social dos municípios que compõem a área de influência do reservatório da barragem Castanhão no Estado do Ceará. Utilizam-se dados secundários e o método descritivo para análise e discussão dos resultados, após cálculos de freqüências, tabelas e outras informações estatísticas selecionadas. Os resultados mostram que, em termos gerais, os municípios apresentaram rendas per capita muito baixas; a desigualdade de renda piorou para todos os municípios da amostra; no período de 1991 a 2002 houve melhora do IDH para todos os municípios do estudo; a percentagem de indigentes, a percentagem de pobres e as percentagens de crianças indigentes e pobres reduziram-se durante o período de 1991 a 2000; e, há um elevado...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Renda; Distribuição de renda; Pobreza; Barragem Castanhão; Income; Income distribution; Poverty; Castanhão dam; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102219
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Are Italian farming households actually poorer than other non agricultural households? An empirical analysis. AgEcon
Rocchi, Benedetto; Stefani, Gianluca; Romano, Donato; Landi, Chiara.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Income distribution; Agricultural households; Farm Problem; Italy; Consumer/Household Economics; Q12; I32.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124128
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Asian-driven Resource Booms in Africa: Rethinking the Impacts on Development AgEcon
Breisinger, Clemens; Thurlow, James.
Today’s resource boom in Africa, driven by Asian economic growth, offers new opportunities for resource-rich African countries. Contrary to the experience of previous booms, however, most mining profits now accrue to foreign companies, leaving little room for governments to use revenues for pro-poor investments or to mitigate adverse distributional impacts. Taking Zambia as a case study, this paper shows that despite privatization, Dutch disease remains a valid concern and may hamper economic diversification, worsen income distribution, and undermine poverty reduction strategies. Mining royalties must, therefore, be increased and used to finance growth-inducing investments that encourage pro-poor economic diversification, else many African countries will...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Dutch disease; Resource booms; Privatization; Income distribution; Africa; Zambia; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42351
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Conditional FDH efficiency to assess performance factors for brazilian agriculture. Repositório Alice
SOUZA, G. da S. e; GOMES, E. G.; ALVES, E. R. de A..
In this article we assess the effect of market imperfections and income inequality on rural production efficiency. The analysis is carried out using the notion of stochastic conditional efficiency computed in terms of free disposal hull (FDH) efficiencymeasurements. Free disposal hull and conditional FDH are output oriented with variable returns to scale. They are evaluated for rural production at the county level, considering the rank of rural gross income as the output and the ranks of land expenses, labor expenses, and expenses on other technological factors as inputs. The conditional frontier is dependent on income inequality and other indicators related to market imperfections. The econometric approach is based on fractional regression models and the...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Mercado produtor; Distribuição de renda; Produção agrícola; Income distribution; Markets; Agriculture.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/alice/handle/doc/1075218
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Distributional effects of direct payments in Switzerland AgEcon
El Benni, Nadja; Mann, Stefan; Lehmann, Bernard.
The switch from market-support to direct payments in Switzerland had impacts on the income distribution among farmers. In this paper, the distributional effect of the switch as a whole and of the different kinds of direct payments are elaborated through a presentation of different decomposed Gini coefficients. Although the income distribution in Swiss Agriculture is still more equal than in most other countries, the Gini coefficient has risen from 0.27 in 1990 to 0.38 in 2009 and is by now strongly dependent on the composition of direct payments. Off-farm income and direct payments decrease, while market income increases income inequality.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income distribution; Direct payments; Gini decomposition; Agricultural policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q00; Q18; Q28..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99368
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Distributional Effects of the CAP on Western German Farm Incomes and Regional Farm Income Disparity AgEcon
Deppermann, Andre; Grethe, Harald; Offermann, Frank.
This study is concerned with measuring impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on farm income distribution of western Germany. Not only the sheer contribution of market price support and direct payments as a proportion of income is taken into account, but also the impact of support on production incentives. For this purpose, we apply a modelling system consisting of a partial equilibrium model and a programming model. Based on a comparison of Gini coefficients and a decomposition of overall inequality effects we conclude that liberalization of the agricultural sector leads to a more unequal distribution of family farm income in relative terms, whereas a liberalized market provides a more equal situation in absolute terms. Furthermore, we consider...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income distribution; CAP; Farm Group Model; Equilibrium Model; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114442
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Distributional Welfare Impacts of Public Spending: The Case of Urban versus National Parks AgEcon
Feinerman, Eli; Fleischer, Aliza; Simhon, Avi.
This study examines the optimal allocation of funds between national and urban parks. Since travel costs to national parks are significantly higher than to urban parks, poor households tend to visit the latter more frequently, whereas rich households favor the former. Therefore, allocating public funds to improving the quality of national parks at the expense of urban parks disproportionately benefits high income households. By developing a theoretical model and implementing it using Israeli data, findings indicate all households, except for the richest decile, prefer that the park authority divert a larger proportion of its budget from national to urban parks.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Budget allocation; Income distribution; National parks; Urban parks; Public Economics.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31105
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Does Participation in the Conservation Reserve Program and/or Off-Farm Work Affect the Level and Distribution of Farm Household Income? AgEcon
Chang, Hung-Hao; Boisvert, Richard N..
Since both release resources from agricultural production, it is not surprising that decisions to work off the farm and to participate in the U. S. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) are correlated. By incorporating these decisions into a heteroskedastic specification of a farm household income function, we identify their effects on mean income, as well as on the variability in income for groups of farm households participating in combinations of these activities. Our results indicate participation in CRP and off-farm work by the operator and the spouse increase farm household income, but these choices also decrease the variability in household income among participant households relative to that of other farm households with otherwise similar...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Conservation Reserve Program; Farm household income; Income distribution; Off-farm work; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57035
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Economic Benefits and Drawbacks of Cities and their Growth AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
This article provides an overview of beneficial sharing mechanisms that stimulate the growth of cities and negative sharing mechanisms and spillovers which retard their growth. The economic benefits and drawbacks of a city location are considered for businesses, employees and consumers. It is suggested that the economic benefits of agglomeration arise not so much from the type of economic goods available in a city location (such as common property or local public goods) but from the enhanced operation of processes of economic exchange made possible by the growth of cities. Two theoretical implications of the growth of cities are considered: (1) the possibility that the growth of a city results in growing inequality of income and wealth within the city and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agglomeration economies; China; City-sizes; Common property; Economic growth; Globalization; Income distribution; Open-access resources; Quasi-public goods; Spillovers.; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90615
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Economic Benefits and Drawbacks of Cities and their Growth Implications AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
Recent trends in the growth of cities particularly in developing countries (and especially in India and China) are identified. Beneficial and negative sharing mechanisms influencing the growth of cities are examined. Economic benefits of agglomeration arise not so much from the type of economic goods available in a city location (such as common property or local public goods) but from the enhanced operation of processes of economic exchange. Two theoretical implications of the growth of cities are considered, namely: (1) city growth results in growing inequality of income and wealth within the city and (2) a city will expand beyond its optimal size. Nevertheless, the growth of cities is linked with increased levels of per capita income nationally....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agglomeration economies; China; City-sizes; Common property; Economic growth; Globalization; Income distribution; India; Open-access resources; Quasi-public goods; Spillovers; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90626
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Efeitos redistributivos de transferência de renda e redução tributária nos setores agropecuário e agroindustrial AgEcon
Santos, Vladimir Faria dos; Vieira, Wilson da Cruz; Reis, Bricio dos Santos.
This work analyzes the effects of alternative policies on income redistribution in the Brazilian economy. It was used an applied general equilibrium model and the following simulations were implemented: direct income transfer and tax reduction on agriculture and agro-industry sectors. The results indicated that direct income transfer is a better policy to reduce income inequality than tax reduction on specific sectors such as agriculture and agro-industry.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Income distribution; Taxation; General equilibrium; Brazil; Political Economy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54136
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Effects of contracts and work relationships on salaries and income distribution of workers in the Chilean agricultural sector, 1996 and 2006 Ciencia e Investigación Agraria
Campos,Jorge; Foster,William.
During the past thirty years the Chilean economy generally and agriculture specifically have grown considerably, raising both per capita GDP and observed real wages of salaried workers. There has been, however, a concern about the country's persistent unequal distribution of income. Among the possible factors associated with income inequality is the relatively infrequent use of contracts in seasonal and occasional work, both strongly present in agriculture. Based on Chilean household surveys (CASEN) for 1996 and 2006, impacts of contracts and work relationships (permanent, seasonal, etc.) on salaries, and their possible contributions to inequality, were measured, accounting for schooling, ethnicity, work experience, geographic zones, and other variables...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Labor; Gender; Income distribution; Inequality; Work contract; Work relationship.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-16202012000100001
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Effects of rural non-farm employment on economic vulnerability and income distribution of small farms in Croatia AgEcon
Mollers, Judith; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
Replaced with revised version of paper 10/06/09.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural non-farm employment; Rural poverty; Croatia; Income distribution; Agribusiness; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Q12; P25; O15; O18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52863
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El ingreso en las unidades de producción rural en 2004 Colegio de Postgraduados
Gaucín Piedra, Salvador Darío.
Es muy variable la importancia de la actividad agropecuaria como generadora de ingresos en el sector rural, complementada por diversas fuentes. En el presente trabajo, se identifica y analiza la composición y distribución del ingreso bruto en 2004 para una muestra de 1,600 unidades de producción rural, por estrato de productores, región en que se ubican, grado de marginación de la localidad y condición de pobreza. Para el total de la muestra, 69% de los ingresos fueron agropecuarios, 21.6% no agropecuarios ganados (autoempleo y salarios no agropecuarios) y 9.4% no agropecuarios no ganados (remesas y apoyos gubernamentales). Para los estratos de mayores ingresos, así como para las unidades de producción ubicadas en el norte del país, en zonas de baja y muy...
Tipo: Tesis Palavras-chave: Ingreso; Unidad de producción rural; Distribución del ingreso; Maestría; Economía; Farm income; Rural households; Income distribution.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1677
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Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Rural Education on Income Distribution of Rural Labor Force - A Case of Yongchuan District, Chongqing AgEcon
Zhu, Jian-yong.
Taking rural labor force in Yongchuan District as the investigation object and based on the data information collected from the 1000 questionnaires in Yongchuan District from July to September 2009,Mencerian Rate of Return is used to discuss the effects of rural education on income distribution of rural labor force through correlation analysis ,regression analysis ,and estimated value analysis. Result shows that the annual income of investigation object has significant linear positive correlation with education degree at 0.01 level, and has significant negative correlation with working age at 0.05 level. There are positive correlation between education degree and working age at both 0.01 and 0.05 levels. According to the personal income of labor forces...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: County level; China; Income distribution; Labor force; Rural education; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93408
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Equidade previdenciária na área rural do Brasil: 1988 a 2008 AgEcon
Almeida-Gabriel, Flavio Braga; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto; Souza, Solange de Cassia Inforzato de.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of income concentration in the Brazilian rural area after the promulgation of the 1988 legislation and laws that followed under the security of the rural worker (Law 8212/91 and Law 8213/91). The methodological procedures involved the review of legislation, the verification of participation and the extent of concentration of pensions in rural income distribution after exposure of Law 8213/91 and debate in the literature. It uses the decomposition of the Gini index to measure income distribution, based on microdata from PNAD 1988 to 2008. The survey results have revealed that there was a reduction in the income concentration, from 0.559 in 1988 to 0.498 in 2008, partly explained by changes in the rural labor...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rural social welfare; Income distribution; Gini index; Agribusiness; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114180
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Estimating Income Mobility in Colombia Using Maximum Entropy Econometrics AgEcon
Morley, Samuel A.; Robinson, Sherman; Harris, Rebecca Lee.
Caption title. "May 1998." Includes bibliographical references (p. 19).
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Income distribution; Econometric models; Colombia; Maximum entropy econometrics; Income mobility; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97546
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Food Security Assessment: Why Countries Are at Risk AgEcon
Shapouri, Shahla; Rosen, Stacey L..
Food insecurity in many low-income, developing countries is projected to intensify unless steps are taken to reverse the performance trend of key contributing factors: agricultural productivity, foreign exchange earnings, and population growth. For the poorest countries, an increase in agricultural productivity is the key to improving food security. In these countries, imports play a small role in the domestic food supply because of limited foreign exchange availability. This study evaluates availability and distribution of food and analyzes their trends through 2008 by projecting food gaps to maintain per capita consumption, meet nutritional needs, and fulfill requirements stemming from unequal food distribution.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Developing countries; Productivity; Foreign exchange availability; Import capacity; Income distribution; Population growth; Nutritional requirements; Per capita consumption; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33614
Registros recuperados: 47
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