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Registros recuperados: 17
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Assessing the Distributional Impacts of Transferable Pollution Permits: The Case of Phosphorus Pollution Management at a River Basin Scale AgEcon
Kampas, Athanasios; Mamalis, Spyridon.
Although the initial allocation of pollution permits is neutral in terms of efficiency, it does have a significant impact on distributive equity. In this paper, we examine the two main categories of permit allocation rules, the distributive and the reductive, for controlling phosphorus pollution in a small catchment in South West England. Based on the premise that the regulatory choice compromises efficiency and equity, the main result of this paper is that an allocation of permits in proportion to the intensity of environmental preferences is a “win-win” choice. The reason is that it simultaneously achieves two goals. First, it is efficient (or cost-effective) since a permit system achieves a prespecified target at a minimum abatement cost, while second,...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Pollution permits; Phosphorus; Nutrient management; Export coefficient model; Water quality; Distributive justice; Income inequality; Atkinson Index; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44115
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China's New Rural Income Support Policy: Impact on Grain Production and Rural Income Inequality AgEcon
Heerink, Nico; Kuiper, Marijke H.; Xiaoping, Shi.
The impact of China's new rural income support policy and recent price trends on grain production and rural income inequality is assessed for two villages with different degrees of market access in Northeast Jiangxi Province. Two village-level general equilibrium models are used to analyze household decision making and interactions between households within these villages. Parameter estimation and model calibration is based on data collected during an extensive survey held in these villages in the year 2000. The household classification used in these models allows us to draw conclusions that are relevant for many other villages and regions in China. Simulation results show that the income support policy does not reach its goal of promoting grain...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income policy; Grain production; Income inequality; Villages; CGE model; China; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; O20; Q12; R15.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25625
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Cost-Benefit Analysis of Economic Globalization AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
Argues that it is unrealistic to expect the net benefit of economic globalization to be represented by a single monetary figure because its consequences are diverse and several of its consequences are uncertain. The benefits of economic globalization are accessed in terms of its possible impact on the level of global production and exchange of commodities. Both static and dynamic analysis are considered and particular attention is given to economies of scale and to technological change. Possible beneficial impacts of economic globalization on product variety are considered. The economic consequences of International mobility of factors of production (such as labour and capital) are assessed. In addition, the impacts of globalization on conditions of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic globalization; Economies of scale; Labour mobility; Income inequality; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90614
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Democracy, Property Rights, Income Equality, and Corruption AgEcon
Dong, Bin; Torgler, Benno.
This paper presents theoretical and empirical evidence on the nexus between corruption and democracy. We establish a political economy model where the effect of democracy on corruption is conditional on income distribution and property rights protection. Our empirical analysis with cross-national panel data provides evidence that is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the effect of democratization on corruption depends on the protection of property rights and income equality which shows that corruption is a nonlinear function of these variables. The results indicate that democracy will work better as a control of corruption if the property rights system works and there is a low level of income inequality. On the other hand if property...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corruption; Democracy; Income inequality; Property rights; Political Economy; D73; H11; P16.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99685
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Democratic Institutions and Environmental Quality: Effects and Transmission Channels AgEcon
Romuald, Kinda Somlanare.
This paper aims at analysing the effect of democratic institutions on environmental quality (carbon dioxide per capita, sulfure dioxide per capita) and at identifying potential channel transmissions. We use panel data from 1960 to 2008 in 122 developing and developed countries and modern econometric methods. The results are as follows: Firstly, we show that democratic institutions have opposite effects on environment quality: a positive direct effect on environment quality and a negative indirect effect through investments and income inequality. Indeed, democratic institutions attract investments that hurt environment quality. Moreover, as democratic institutions reduce income inequality, they also damage environment. Secondly, we find that the direct...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Democratic institutions; Air pollution; Panel data; Income inequality; Investments; Environmental Economics and Policy; O43; Q53; C23; D31; E22.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120396
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Determinantes de la desigualdad del ingreso de Chile, un análisis comparativo para el sector rural AgEcon
Melo, Oscar; Donoso, Guillermo; Abarzua, Nicolas.
Published by Asociación de Economistas Agrarios de Chile
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Generalized entropy class inequality indexes; Gini Index; Income inequality; Income inequality decomposition; Rural areas; Consumer/Household Economics; Public Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/104411
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Equity Within and Between Nations AgEcon
Kanbur, Ravi; Spence, A. Michael.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Income inequality; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55932
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Globalization, Social Welfare and Labor Market Inequalities AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A.; Svizzero, Serge.
Income inequality has increased sharply in higher income countries. Theories attributing this to bifurcation of labor markets are examined. Some theorists attribute this bifurcation primarily to technical change with influence from globalization. Others take an opposite viewpoint. A contrasting view presented here is that globalization is strongly linked with technological change more significantly even if globalization increases economic efficiency and growth in high-income countries, it can raise income inequality and reduce social welfare. International fiscal competitiveness may, it is argued, contribute to income inequality and make all nations worse off. Trends in public social expenditure and in taxation receipts in higher income countries,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fiscal competition; Globalization; Income inequality; Labor markets; Public economics; Labor and Human Capital; Public Economics; J00; F00; L00.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90525
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Globalization, Social Welfare, Labor Markets and Fiscal Competition AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A.; Svizzero, Serge.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Inequalities in labor markets; Globalisation; Social welfare; Income inequality; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90503
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Impact of Economic Growth on Income Inequality: A Regional Perspective AgEcon
Majumdar, Shibalee; Partridge, Mark D..
Impact of Economic Growth on Income Inequality: A Regional Perspective Shibalee Majumdar and Mark Partridge Egalitarianism refers to the doctrine of the equality of mankind and the desirability of political, economic and social equality. In this paper, we are going to refer to the concept of economic equality. Theory shows that income inequality is a condition that prevails along with economic growth. According to the utilitarian view, income inequality must exist along with economic growth in order to maximize social welfare. This is in sharp contrast to the egalitarian view according to which, all members of the society should have equal access to all economic resources in terms of economic power, wealth and...
Tipo: Preprint Palavras-chave: Regional development; Income inequality; Spatial relation; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49270
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Is Income Inequality Endogenous in Regional Growth? AgEcon
Hailu, Yohannes G.; Kahsai, Mulugeta S.; Gebremedhin, Tesfa G.; Jackson, Randall W..
This study focuses on testing the relationship between income inequality and growth within U.S. counties, and the channels through which such effects are observed. The study tests three hypotheses: (1) income inequality has an inverse relationship with growth; (2) regional growth adjustments are the channels through which the inequality and growth are equilibrated; and (3) income inequality is endogenous to regional growth and its adjustment. Results, based on a system of equations estimation, confirm the hypotheses that income inequality has a growth dampening effect; income inequality is endogenous to regional growth and growth adjustment; and the channels through which income inequality determines growth are regional growth adjustments, such as...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Income inequality; Economic growth; Gini coefficient; Growth modeling; Population change; Per capita income; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Public Economics; I32; J15; O18; P25; R11; R23; R25; R51; R53; R58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46320
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Land Reform and Farm-Household Income Inequality: The Case of Georgia AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal.
The income inequality implications of land reform are examined for the case of Georgia using regression-based inequality decomposition techniques. An egalitarian land redistribution is likely to equalize per-capita income among farm households, implying that continuing the land reform process in Georgia is likely to benefit poorer households, relatively speaking. However, land fragmentation was found to be disequalizing, and therefore land market developments that enable plot consolidation are not less important for inequality than the land redistribution itself. Both landholdings and farm assets have favorable inequality implications not only through farm income but also through non-farm income, implying that these productive assets increase the economic...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Income inequality; Land reform; Inequality decomposition; Agricultural Finance; Consumer/Household Economics; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54159
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Les Maitres du Monde: The G-7's Path to Prominence, 1885-1994 AgEcon
Theil, Henri; Moss, Charles B..
Purchasing power parity-based data for gross domestic products are used to assess the affluence of the G-7 countries in the period 1885-1994. A simple Cobb-Douglas model is developed for the eligibility to this Group of Seven.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Eligibility coefficient; Income inequality; Purchasing power parity.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43296
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Rural Income Generating Activities in Developing Countries: Re-assessing the Evidence AgEcon
Carletto, Gero; Covarrubias, Katia; Davis, Benjamin; Krausova, Marika; Stamoulis, Kostas G.; Winters, Paul C.; Zezza, Alberto.
This paper contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of developing country rural labour markets by re-evaluating the available evidence on the levels and composition of income sources adopted by rural households in order to understand the relationship between the various economic activities taking place in rural areas and their implications for economic growth and poverty reduction. This is achieved in two parts: First, the paper introduces the Rural Income Generating Activities (RIGA) database, a newly constructed FAO repository of household survey data, income measures and cross-country comparable indicators. Second, using the RIGA database, the paper undertakes a descriptive analysis of the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors of the rural...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rural economy; Non-farm activities; Income inequality; Income diversification; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; O12; O18; R23.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/112596
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The Determinants of the Very Highest Income Shares: The Case of France AgEcon
DiPietro, William R.; Anoruo, Emmanuel; Sawhney, Bansi.
Since the highest income groups have tremendous influence over economic policy by virtue of money, position, and connection, it is important to identify the interest of these groups with regard to economic conditions. Recently, annual time series data on the shares of the very highest income groups have become available for the French economy. Using this new high-income share data for France, this paper examines the potential relationship between the income shares of the very highest income groups and four macroeconomic variables including the inflation rate, the interest rate, the unemployment rate, and the extent of trade. To be specific, this paper investigates the extent to which the four macroeconomic variables affect the highest income shares. The...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Income inequality; Interest rate; Unemployment rate; France; Fully modified OLS; International Development; A10.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50275
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Unequal Gains of Nations from Economic Globalisation AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A.; Svizzero, Serge; Laselle, Laurence.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Globalisation; Labour markets; Income inequality; Inequality of nations; Labour mobility; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90516
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Would Freeing Up World Trade Reduce Poverty and Inequality? The Vexed Role of Agricultural Distortions AgEcon
Anderson, Kym; Cockburn, John; Martin, William J..
Trade policy reforms in recent decades have sharply reduced the distortions that were harming agriculture in developing countries, yet global trade in farm products continues to be far more distorted than trade in nonfarm goods. Those distortions reduce some forms of poverty and inequality but worsen others, so the net effects are unclear without empirical modeling. This paper summarizes a series of new economy-wide global and national empirical studies that focus on the net effects of the remaining distortions to world merchandise trade on poverty and inequality globally and in various developing countries. The global LINKAGE model results suggest that removing those remaining distortions would reduce international inequality, largely by boosting net farm...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty; Income inequality; Price distortions; Farm trade policy; International Development.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58880
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