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Registros recuperados: 30
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AN OPTION PERSPECTIVE ON GENERATING AND MAINTAINING PLANT VARIETY RIGHTS IN CHINA AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Pardey, Philip G.; Qian, Keming; Zhang, Yi.
Notwithstanding the ambiguous research and productivity promoting effects of plant variety protections (PVPs), even in developed countries, many developing countries have adopted PVPs in the past few years, in part to comply with their Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) obligations. Seeking and maintaining PVPs reserves options to an expected revenue stream from the future sale of protected varieties, the value of which varies for a host of reasons. In this paper we empirically examine the pattern of plant variety protection applications in China since its PVP laws were first introduced in 1997. We place those PVP rights in the context of China's present and likely future seed markets to identify the economic incentives and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Crop improvement; Option value; Seed markets; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/13779
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Biotech--Who Wins? Economic Benefits and Costs of Biotechnology Innovations in Agriculture AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the largest shares of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward GMOs and the issue of labelling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations; a number of related regulation and public policy issues are discussed. Emerging output-trait GMOs are...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Identity preservation; Intellectual property rights; R&D; Transgenic crops; Welfare evaluation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23862
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CONCENTRATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL INPUT INDUSTRIES AgEcon
King, John L..
Consolidation in the agricultural biotechnology industry can both enhance and dampen market competition. This report examines the causes and consequences of industry consolidation and its effect on market efficiency. In some cases, concentration realizes economies of scale, which can improve market efficiency by driving down production costs. The protection of intellectual property rights is integral to the agricultural biotechnology marketplace, stimulating research and development, investment, and the development of substitute markets. However, excessively broad intellectual property rights can hinder the market for innovation. Recent data on mergers, acquisitions, and strategic collaborations in the agricultural biotechnology industry, as well as the...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Industry concentration; Consolidation; Biotechnology; Market efficiency; Market power; Intellectual property rights; Agricultural input industries; Mergers; Acquisitions; Agribusiness; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33631
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Do Stronger Intellectual Property Rights Protection Induce More Bilateral Trade? Evidence from China's Imports AgEcon
Awokuse, Titus O.; Yin, Hong.
Most of the previous studies on the effect of IPR protection on international trade have been from the perspective of major industrialized nations. However, much of the current debate on the effects of IPR protection involves large developing countries with high threat of imitation. This study contributes to the literature by analyzing the impact of the strengthening of patent laws in China on its bilateral trade flows. We estimate the effects of patent rights protection on China’s imports at the aggregate and detailed product categories for both OECD (developed) and non-OECD (developing) countries. The empirical results suggest that increased patent rights protection stimulate China’s imports, particularly in the knowledge-intensive product categories....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Patent laws; International trade; International Relations/Trade; F13; 034.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6143
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Does Intellectual Property Protection Spur Technological Change? AgEcon
Kanwar, Sunil; Evenson, Robert E..
Of the diverse factors motivating technological change, one factor that has received increasing attention in the recent past has been the protection of intellectual property rights. Given fairly recent changes in the international policy ethos where a regime of stronger intellectual property protection has become a fait accompli for most developing countries, it is of some significance to ask whether more stringent protection of intellectual property does indeed encourage innovation. And this is the question which this paper examines, utilising cross-country panel data on R&D investment, patent protection and other country-specific characteristics spanning the period 1981-1990. The evidence unambiguously indicates the significance of intellectual...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Technological change; Economic growth; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O34; O31.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28432
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Economic Benefits and Costs of Biotechnology Innovations in Agriculture AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the larger share of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the issues of labeling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations, and a number of related regulation and public policy issues are discussed....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Genetically modified organisms; Identity preservation; Intellectual property rights; R&D; Transgenic crops; Welfare evaluation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18413
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Economics, Ecology and GMOs: Sustainability, Precaution and Related Issues AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
Ecological, evolutionary and economic issues involved in introducing genetically modified organisms (GMOs), mainly in agriculture, are discussed. The ecological and evolutionary impacts identified hamper (economic) valuation of GMOs and their biosafety regulation and creates difficulties for planning for sustainable development. Assessment of the desirability of releasing GMOs is difficult because of lack of communal agreement about the risks involved, about how much precaution should be exercised given collective risks, and disagreement on the appropriate social criterion to apply. Changes in legal liability are not always economic and cannot eliminate the social conflict generated by GMOs. The economics of developing and marketing GMOs is explored,...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity; Biosafety; Genetically modified organisms; GMOs; Intellectual property rights; Market structure; Sustainable development; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122726
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GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROP INNOVATIONS AND PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION: TRADE AND WELFARE EFFECTS IN THE SOYBEAN COMPLEX AgEcon
Sobolevsky, Andrei; Moschini, GianCarlo; Lapan, Harvey E..
We develop a new partial equilibrium, four-region world trade model for the soybean complex comprising soybeans, soybean oil, and soybean meal. In the model, some consumers view genetically modified Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans and products as weakly inferior to conventional ones; the RR seed is patented and sold worldwide by a U.S. firm; and producers employ a costly segregation technology to separate conventional and biotech products in the supply chain. The calibrated model is solved for equilibrium prices, quantities, production patterns, trade flows, and welfare changes under different assumptions regarding regional government's production and trade policies, differentiated consumer tastes, and several other demand and supply parameters. Incomplete...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Differentiated demand; Food labeling; Genetically modified products; Identity preservation; Innovations; Intellectual property rights; International trade; Loan deficiency payments; Market failure; Monopoly; Roundup Ready soybeans; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18348
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Genetically Modified Crops: Risks and Promise Ecology and Society
Conway, Gordon; The Rockefeller Foundation; president@rockfound.org.
GM foods have the potential to provide significant benefits for developing countries. Over 800 million people are chronically undernourished, and 180 million children are severely underweight for their age. By 2020, there will be an extra two billion mouths to feed. Ecological approaches that underpin sustainable agriculture (e.g., integrated pest management) and participatory approaches that strengthen farmers' own experimentation and decision making are key. Biotechnology will be an essential partner, if yield ceilings are to be raised, if crops are to be grown without excessive reliance on pesticides, and if farmers on less favored lands are to be provided with crops that are resistant to drought and salinity, and that can use nitrogen and other...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.); Food security; Genetically modified rice; GM foods; Intellectual property rights; Marker-aided selection; Monsanto; Participatory approaches; Plant biotechnology; Plant variety protection; Terminator technology; Vitamin A deficiency.
Ano: 2000
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GOVERNMENT PATENTING AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AgEcon
Heisey, Paul W.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; King, John L..
Intellectual property rights such as patents protect new inventions from imitation and competition. Patents' major objective is to provide incentives for invention, sacrificing short-term market efficiency for long-term economic gains. Although patents are primarily granted to private firms, policy changes over the last 25 years have resulted in greater use of patenting by the public sector. This study examines government patenting behavior by analyzing case studies of patenting and licensing by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. ARS uses patenting and licensing as a means of technology transfer in cases in which a technology requires additional development by a private sector partner to yield a marketable...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Patents; Licenses; Intellectual property rights; Technology transfer; Agricultural Research Service; Agricultural research and development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33597
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Impact of Foreign Intellectual Property Rights Protection on U.S. Exports and FDI AgEcon
Gu, Weishi.
This version of the paper is subject to changes.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Export; FDI; Technology transfer; Intellectual property rights; GMM; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C33; F21; F23; F14; O34; K33.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49414
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India's Reform of External Sector Policies and Future Multilateral Trade Negotiations AgEcon
Srinivasan, T.N..
I evaluate India's transition from an inward-oriented development strategy to greater participation in the world economy. While tariff rates have decreased significantly over the past decade, India is still one of the more autarkic countries. Despite improvement over the past in export performance, India continues to lag behind its South- and East Asian neighbors. Second, official debt flows have been largely replaced by foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment in the 1990s. India's ability to attract FDI would be greatly enhanced by further reforms. I argue that India's participation in a future round of multilateral trade negotiations would benefit India. I outline the further reforms most needed: reform of labour and bankruptcy laws,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: India; Antidumping; Developing countries; Economic reform; Export performance; Foreign direct investment; Intellectual property rights; Multilateral trade negotiations; Quantitative restrictions; Real exchange rate; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; F15; F21; F35; H54; K31; O34; O38; O53; P11.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28428
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Intellectual Property Rights and Crop-Improving R&D under Adaptive Destruction AgEcon
Yerokhin, Oleg; Moschini, GianCarlo.
This paper studies how the strength of intellectual property rights (IPRs) affects investments in biological innovations when the value of an innovation is stochastically reduced to zero because of the evolution of pest resistance. We frame the problem as a research and development (R&D) investment game in a duopoly model of sequential innovation. We characterize the incentives to invest in R&D under two competing IPR regimes, which differ in their treatment of the follow-on innovations that become necessary because of pest adaptation. Depending on the magnitude of the R&D cost, ex ante firms might prefer an intellectual property regime with or without a "research exemption" provision. The study of the welfare function that also accounts for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biological resistance; Intellectual property rights; Markov perfect equilibrium; Patents; Research exemption; R&D; Sequential innovation; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10008
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Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in Developing Countries: Evidence from Panel Data AgEcon
Leger, Andreanne.
The determinants of innovation and the role of intellectual property rights in different countries are not well understood. This paper estimates the determinants of innovation using a new panel dataset. It compares different panel estimation methods appropriate for finite size samples. Past R&D investments have a positive and significant impact on current innovation, while openness to trade has a negative and significant impact on innovation in developing countries and population size has a negative and significant impact on innovation in industrialized countries. Intellectual property protection is not significant for any of the groups. We discuss econometric issues and the policy implication of these results.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Innovation; Intellectual property rights; Developing countries; Dynamic panel; General method of moments; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O30; O34; C23.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25328
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Intellectual Property Rights and South-North Formation of Global Innovation Networks AgEcon
Comune, Maria; Naghavi, Alireza; Prarolo, Giovanni.
Current version uploaded April 2013.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Information Communication Technology (ICT); Innovation; Foreign patenting; R&D linkages; Southern innovation; International Relations/Trade; F2; O1; O3.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115816
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Intellectual Property Rights and Their Impacts in Developing Countries: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Breeding in Mexico AgEcon
Leger, Andreanne.
There is little empirical evidence concerning the effects of intellectual property rights (IPR) on a technologically advanced developing country. Complete enumeration of the Mexican maize breeding industry showed that, contrary to the hypothesis that IPR would provide, in a technologically advanced developing country, incentives for R&D and innovation, IPR play no role for the industry in general, but that they are important for certain breeders' categories. The paper presents the theory on IPR and a short background on the Mexican maize breeding industry. The analysis of the interviews with maize breeders leads to the conclusion that the theory on IPR should be revised and take into account the characteristics of developing countries critical for the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Developing Country; Empirical Evidence; Transaction costs; Mexico; Maize; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O34; Q16; O31; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18835
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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND TRADE: ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS, MEDICINALS AND BOTANICALS, AND PHARMACEUTICALS AgEcon
Smith, Pamela J..
We examine the impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs) on US exports of biological, medicinal, botanical, and pharmaceutical products. We find that: (1) strong IPRs enhance monopoly power of US exports in countries with weak imitative abilities; and (2) strong IPRs expand markets for US exports in countries with strong imitative abilities.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Exports; Biotechnologies; Medicinals; Botanicals; Pharmaceuticals; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; F10; F13; Q16; Q17; K55; O34.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21525
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Intellectual Property Rights, Migration, and Diaspora AgEcon
Naghavi, Alireza; Strozzi, Chiara.
In this paper we study theoretically and empirically the role of the interaction between skilled migration and intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection in determining innovation in developing countries (South). We show that although emigration from the South may directly result in the well-known concept of brain drain, it also causes a brain gain effect, the extent of which depends on the level of IPRs protection in the sending country. We argue this to come from a diaspora channel through which the knowledge acquired by emigrants abroad can flow back to the South and enhance the skills of the remaining workers there. By increasing the size of the innovation sector and the skill-intensity of emigration, IPRs protection makes it more likely for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Migration; Technology transfer; Brain gain; Diaspora; Labor and Human Capital; O34; F22; O33; J24; J61.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115817
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Los derechos de propiedad intelectual y el maíz criollo mexicano: el caso de la gestión del conocimiento en la comunidad de Yaxcabá, Yucatán, México Colegio de Postgraduados
Bárcenas Argüello, Rosa Josefina.
La situación de los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual y su relación con el Conocimiento Tradicional en México es un tema complicado, ya que el consenso generalizado es que el conocimiento tradicional no posee las características del conocimiento formal tales como la sistematización, experimentación, comprobación y registro escrito. En este documento, con un estudio de caso, se muestra que el Conocimiento Tradicional se integra por procesos que generan productos, productos diferenciados, y subproductos. El sujeto de estudio es el maíz criollo cultivado bajo el sistema de milpa roza-tumba- quema en Yaxcabá, Yucatán, México. Con recorridos de campo, entrevistas con guía semiestructurada, y observación participante, se identificó que en la...
Tipo: Tesis Palavras-chave: Conocimientos tradicionales; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Maíz criollo; Milpa en roza-tumba-quema; Productos diferenciados; Maestría; Desarrollo Rural; Traditional knowledges; Intellectual property rights; Mative corn; Milpa in roza- knock down- burn; Distinction products.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/1299
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Organizational-legal aspects of scientific-technical and innovative development of Uzbekistan in globalization era AgEcon
Alimov, Avaz; Vapaeva, Guzal.
Efficient protection of intellectual property provides not only commercialization of objects, but also activization of innovative activity as a whole, stimulation of national and international investments into economy. The paper describes features of legal protection institutions in Uzbekistan.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Science and innovative activity; Legal issues; International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O34.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94531
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