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Registros recuperados: 9
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Agricultural Change and Population Growth: District-Level Evidence From India AgEcon
Witcover, Julie; Vosti, Stephen A.; Lipton, Michael.
Green Revolution technologies were developed and promoted in the 1960s in response to alarm about impending famine in Asia. By boosting food supplies and fostering development, the technologies were expected to create "breathing space" for completing demographic transitions there. This paper uses District-level data from rural India on agricultural transformation (from 1961 to 1981) and on changes in human fertility (from 1971 to 1981) to examine whether they did so. In a reduced form model, female literacy and marriage rates emerged as strong fertility change determinants; effects varied by age cohort. Growth in real wages in rural areas, in part brought about by HYV technologies, accelerated fertility declines. With real wage growth effects of Green...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Development; Q16; J1; Q18; D1; O3.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25443
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Do Family Caps Reduce Out-of-Wedlock Births? Evidence from Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, New Jersey and Virginia AgEcon
Dyer, Wendy Tanisha; Fairlie, Robert W..
Using Current Population Survey (CPS) data from 1989 to 1999, we examine the impact of family cap policies, which deny incremental welfare benefits, on out-of-wedlock birth rates. We use the first five states that were granted waivers from the Department of Health and Human Services to implement family caps as “natural experiments.” Specifically, we compare trends in out-ofwedlock birth rates in Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, New Jersey and Virginia to trends in states that did not implement family caps or any other waivers prior to the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). We employ several techniques to increase the credibility of results from our “natural experiment,” such as the inclusion of multiple comparison groups,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Welfare; Family caps; Fertility; Labor and Human Capital; I3; J1.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28431
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Factors Influencing the Body Mass Index of Adults in Canada AgEcon
Cranfield, John A.L..
This paper explores socio-demographic, economic and behaviour factors influencing body mass index (BMI) amongst 20 to 64 year old adults in Canada. BMI scores in Canada have increased, with gains stemming from disproportionate increases in female BMI. Econometric results indicate higher BMI scores for males, those born in Canada, those in food insecure homes and whites. Age-gender interactions suggest different patterns of BMI adjustment over the life of males and females; a pronounced inverse quadratic relationship between with age and male BMI is noted, while female BMI increases with age. Education, used as a gauge of inequality, is inversely related to BMI, while income has a muted effect. BMI is inversely related to level of physical activity, an...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Obesity; BMI; Canada; Socio-demographic; Economic; Adults; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; I10; J1.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6837
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Fatter Attraction: Marital Status and the Relationship between BMI and Labor Supply AgEcon
Oreffice, Sonia; Quintana-Domeque, Climent.
We empirically analyze the labor supply choices of married men and women according to their body size (BMI), using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics on anthropometric characteristics of both spouses, and unmarried men and women as comparison group. Heavier husbands are found to work significantly more hours and earn more labor income, controlling for both spouses’ demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Conversely, no such effect is found for either unmarried individuals or for married women. We suggest a marriage market mechanism through which male BMI and earnings are positively related. Heavier married men compensate for their negative physical trait by providing their wives with more disposable income, working more hours and earning...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Body Size; Labor Supply; Earnings; Marriage; Labor and Human Capital; D1; I1; J1; J22.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56209
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Fertility in South Dublin a Century Ago: A First Look AgEcon
Guinnane, Timothy W.; Moehling, Carolyn M.; Grada, Cormac O.
Ireland's relatively late and feeble fertility transition remains poorly-understood. The leading explanations stress the role of Catholicism and a conservative social ethos. This paper reports the first results from a project that uses new samples from the 1911 census of Ireland to study fertility in Dublin and Belfast. Our larger project aims to use the extensive literature on the fertility transition elsewhere in Europe to refine and test leading hypotheses in their Irish context. The present paper uses a sample from the Dublin suburb of Pembroke to take a first look at the questions, data, and methods. This sample is much larger than those used in previous studies of Irish fertility, and is the first from an urban area. We find considerable support for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Ireland; Fertility; Demography; Labor and Human Capital; J1; N3.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28434
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HIV/AIDS and Adolescent's School-Work Choices in Malawi AgEcon
Nankhuni, Flora J..
Malawi is facing a severe HIV/AIDS Pandemic. With an estimated prevalence rate of 14.2%, it ranks eight in the world. About 900,000 Malawians were infected by 2003 and there were110,000 new infections and 87,000 deaths due to HIV/AIDS in 2003. The disease has poten tially devastating impacts. For example, 'taking children out of school' is mentioned as one of the coping mechanisms (Garbus 2003) but evidence is mixed. Doctor (2004) found no statistically significant difference between enrollment of orphans and non-orphans and mentioned an effective extended family structure as explanation. However, HIV/AIDS, poverty, macroeconomic policies, and food shortages are reported to render informal safety networks of the extended family systems irrelevant (Garbus...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Demographic Economics; Time Allocation; Malawi; Labor and Human Capital; 01; J1; J2; Human Capital; 05.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25540
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Human Capital Investment and the Gender Division of Labor in a Brawn-Based Economy AgEcon
Pitt, Mark M.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Hassan, Md. Nazmul.
We use a model of human capital investment and activity choice to explain facts describing gender differentials in the levels and returns to human capital investments. These include the higher return to and level of schooling, the small effect of healthiness on wages, and the large effect of healthiness on schooling for females relative to males. The model incorporates gender differences in the level and responsiveness of brawn to nutrition in a Roy-economy setting in which activities reward skill and brawn differentially. Empirical evidence from rural Bangladesh provides support for the model and the importance of the distribution of brawn.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Brawn; Health; Schooling; Gender; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; O1; J1; J2.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93916
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The Fertility Transition in Bavaria AgEcon
Brown, John C.; Guinnane, Timothy W..
The decline of human fertility that occurred in Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, and elsewhere in the twentieth century, remains a topic of debate largely because there is no accepted explanation for the event. Disagreement persists in part because researchers have rarely used the detailed quantitative information necessary to form adequate tests of alternative theories. This paper uses district-level data from Bavaria to study the correlates of the decline of fertility in that German kingdom in the nineteenth century. Bavaria’s fertility transition was later and less dramatic than in other parts of Germany. The European Fertility Project, the most influential study of the European fertility transition, used very large units of analysis...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertility transition; Migration; Germany; Labor and Human Capital; N3; J1.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28508
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The Long-Term Impacts of Orphanhood on Education Attainment and Land Inheritance among Adults in Rural Kenya AgEcon
Yamano, Takashi.
The long-term economic impacts of the AIDS epidemic on orphans have been major concerns in countries hit by the epidemic. Responding to these concerns, previous studies have investigated the schooling of orphans. Yet, few studies have investigated the impacts of orphan status into adulthood. Therefore, this paper examines the education attainment and land inheritance of former orphans, who have lost at least one parent before reaching 15, by using a survey of 889 households in Kenya in 2004. In the survey, we have asked the ages of household members when they lost their parents, if they have suffered such a loss, and identified former orphans. Among individuals who started schooling before the Free Education Program introduced in 1974, we find about a one...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Orphans; Land Inheritance; Schooling; Kenya; Labor and Human Capital; I0; I3; J1; O1; Q15.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25263
Registros recuperados: 9
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